Contents 1 Description 2 Lifecycle 3 Ecology 4 Taxonomy 4.1 Etymology 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Description[edit] Leptodora kindtii is an unusually large cladoceran, at up to 18 mm long. They are mostly 0.2–6.0 mm (0.01–0.24 in) long, with the exception of Leptodora, which can be up to 18 mm (0.71 in) long.[1] The body is not obviously segmented and bears a folded carapace which covers the thorax and abdomen.[2] The head is angled downwards, and may be separated from the rest of the body by a "cervical sinus" or notch.[2] It bears a single black compound eye, located on the animal's midline, in all but two genera, and often, a single ocellus is present.[3] The head also bears two pairs of antennae – the first antennae are small, unsegmented appendages, while the second antennae are large, segmented, and branched, with powerful muscles.[2] The first antennae bear olfactory setae, while the second are used for swimming by most species.[3] The pattern of setae on the second antennae is useful for identification.[2] The part of the head which projects in front of the first antennae is known as the rostrum or "beak".[2] The mouthparts are small, and consist of an unpaired labrum, a pair of mandibles, a pair of maxillae, and an unpaired labium.[2] They are used to eat "organic detritus of all kinds" and bacteria.[2] The thorax bears five or six pairs of lobed, leaf-like appendages, each with numerous hairs or setae.[2] Carbon dioxide is lost, and oxygen taken up, through the body surface.[2]

Lifecycle[edit] With the exception of a few purely asexual species, the lifecycle of cladocerans is dominated by asexual reproduction, with occasional periods of sexual reproduction; this is known as cyclical parthenogenesis. The system evolved in the Permian, when the Cladocera arose.[4] When conditions are favourable, reproduction occurs by parthenogenesis for several generations, producing only female clones. As the conditions deteriorate, males are produced, and sexual reproduction occurs. This results in the production of long-lasting dormant eggs. These ephippial eggs can be transported over land by wind, and hatch when they reach favourable conditions, allowing many species to have very wide – even cosmopolitan – distributions.[2]

Ecology[edit] Evadne spinifera, one of very few marine cladoceran species Most cladoceran species live in fresh water and other inland water bodies, with only eight species being truly oceanic.[3] The marine species are all in the family Podonidae, except for the genus Penilia.[3] Some cladocerans inhabit leaf litter.[5]

Taxonomy[edit] Daphnia magna The order Cladocera is included in the class Branchiopoda, and forms a monophyletic group, which is currently divided into four suborders. Around 620 species have been described, but many more species remain undescribed.[1] The genus Daphnia alone contains around 150 species.[4] These families are recognised:[6] Order Cladocera Latreille, 1829 Suborder Ctenopoda Sars, 1865 Holopediidae Sars, 1865 Sididae Baird, 1850 Suborder Anomopoda Stebbing, 1902 Bosminidae Baird, 1845 Chydoridae Stebbing, 1902 Daphniidae Straus, 1820 Gondwanotrichidae Van Damme et al., 2007[7][8] Macrotrichidae Norman & Brady, 1867 Suborder Onychopoda Sars, 1865 Cercopagididae Mordukhai-Boltovskoi, 1968 Podonidae Mordukhai-Boltovskoi, 1968 Polyphemidae Baird, 1845 Suborder Haplopoda Sars, 1865 Leptodoridae Lilljeborg, 1900 Etymology[edit] The word "Cladocera" derives via New Latin from the Ancient Greek κλάδος (kládos, "branch") and κέρας (kéras, "horn").[9]

See also[edit] Crustaceans portal Arthropods portal Bythotrephes longimanus (invasive species) [formerly known as Bythotrephes cederstroemi[10]] - Spiny Water Flea[11] Cercopagis pengoi (invasive species) Daphnia lumholtzi (invasive species) Moina (smallest) Zooplankton

References[edit] ^ a b L. Forró; N. M. Korovchinsky; A. A. Kotov; A. Petrusek (2008). Estelle V. Balian; Christian Lévêque; Hendrik Segers; Koen Martens, eds. "Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment" (PDF). Hydrobiologia. Developments in Hydrobiology 198. 595 (1): 177–184. doi:10.1007/s10750-007-9013-5. ISBN 978-1-4020-8259-7.  |chapter= ignored (help) doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8259-7_19 ^ a b c d e f g h i j Douglas Grant Smith; Kirstern Work (2001). "Cladoceran Branchiopoda (water fleas)". In Douglas Grant Smith. Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States: Porifera to Crustacea (4th ed.). John Wiley and Sons. pp. 453–488. ISBN 978-0-471-35837-4.  ^ a b c d Denton Belk (2007). "Branchiopoda". In Sol Felty Light; James T. Carlton. The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon (4th ed.). University of California Press. pp. 414–417. ISBN 978-0-520-23939-5.  ^ a b Ellen Decaestecker; Luc De Meester; Joachim Mergaey (2009). "Cyclical parthenogeness in Daphnia: sexual versus asexual reproduction". In Isa Schön; Koen Martens; Peter van Dijk. Lost Sex: The Evolutionary Biology of Parthenogenesis. Springer. pp. 295–316. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2770-2_15. ISBN 978-90-481-2769-6.  ^ Rubbo, Michael J., and Kiesecker (2004). "Leaf litter composition and community structure: translating regional species changes into local dynamics". Ecology. 85 (9): 2519–2525. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Joel W. Martin; George E. Davis (2001). An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea (PDF). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. pp. 1–132.  ^ K. Van Damme; R. J. Shiel; H. J. Dumont (2007). "Notothrix halsei gen. n., sp. n., representative of a new family of freshwater cladocerans (Branchiopoda, Anomopoda) from SW Australia, with a discussion of ancestral traits and a preliminary molecular phylogeny of the order". Zoologica Scripta. 36 (5): 465–487. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2007.00292.x.  ^ K. Van Damme; R. J. Shiel; H. J. Dumont (2007). "Gondwanotrichidae nom. nov. pro Nototrichidae Van Damme, Shiel & Dumont, 2007". Zoologica Scripta. 36 (5): 623. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2007.00304.x.  ^ "Cladoceran". Webster's II New College Dictionary (3rd ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2005. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-618-39601-6.  ^ USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species: Bythotrephes longimanus ^ (April 16, 2013) NorthAmericanFishing - "Silent Invaders" Spiny Water Flea PT 1 2013

External links[edit] Cladocera – Guide to the Marine Zooplankton of South Eastern Australia Media related to Cladocera at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Cladocera at Wikispecies Taxon identifiers Wd: Q391240 ADW: Cladocera BugGuide: 350302 EoL: 2599221 Fauna Europaea: 13259 Fossilworks: 277029 iNaturalist: 199509 ITIS: 83832 NCBI: 6665 WoRMS: 1076 v t e Families of class Branchiopoda Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Anostraca Artemiidae Branchinectidae Branchipodidae Chirocephalidae Parartemiidae Streptocephalidae Tanymastigidae Thamnocephalidae Notostraca Triopsidae Triops Lepidurus Laevicaudata Lynceidae Spinicaudata Cyzicidae Leptestheriidae Limnadiidae Cyclestherida Cyclestheriidae Cladocera Ctenopoda Holopediidae Pseudopenilidae Sididae Anomopoda Bosminidae Chydoridae Daphniidae Ilyocryptidae Macrotrichidae Moinidae Onychopoda Cercopagididae Podonidae Polyphemidae Haplopoda Leptodoridae Retrieved from "" Categories: CladoceraFreshwater crustaceansCrustacean ordersInvasive animal species in North AmericaHidden categories: CS1 errors: chapter ignoredCS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listArticles with 'species' microformatsArticles containing Greek-language text

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Daphnia PulexTaxonomy (biology)AnimalArthropodCrustaceanBranchiopodaPhyllopodaPierre André LatreilleAnomopodaCtenopodaOnychopodaLeptodoraOrder (biology)CrustaceanUndescribed SpeciesCompound EyeParthenogenesisAsexual ReproductionSexual ReproductionEnlargeLeptodora KindtiiLeptodoraCarapaceThoraxAbdomenOcellusAntenna (biology)SetaRostrum (anatomy)Arthropod MouthpartsBacteriaCarbon DioxideOxygenBiological Life CyclePermianCloningEgg (biology)EphippialCosmopolitan DistributionRange (biology)EnlargeFresh WaterNeritic ZoneEnlargeDaphnia MagnaBranchiopodaMonophylySubordersSpeciesUndescribed SpeciesDaphniaCtenopodaAnomopodaDaphniidaeGondwanothrixOnychopodaPolyphemidaeLeptodoraLeptodoraNew LatinAncient GreekPortal:CrustaceansPortal:ArthropodsBythotrephes LongimanusCercopagis PengoiDaphnia LumholtziMoinaZooplanktonPortable Document FormatHydrobiologiaDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4020-8259-7Help:CS1 ErrorsDigital Object IdentifierJohn Wiley And SonsInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-471-35837-4University Of California PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-520-23939-5Springer Science+Business MediaDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-90-481-2769-6Category:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListNatural History Museum Of Los Angeles CountyZoologica ScriptaDigital Object IdentifierZoologica ScriptaDigital Object IdentifierHoughton Mifflin HarcourtInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-618-39601-6Commons:Category:CladoceraWikispecies:Special:Search/CladoceraHelp:Taxon IdentifiersWikidataAnimal Diversity WebBugGuideEncyclopedia Of LifeFauna EuropaeaFossilworksINaturalistIntegrated Taxonomic Information SystemNational Center For Biotechnology InformationWorld Register Of Marine SpeciesTemplate:BranchiopodaTemplate Talk:BranchiopodaBranchiopodaAnimalArthropodCrustaceanAnostracaBrine ShrimpBranchinectidaeBranchipodidaeChirocephalidaeParartemiaStreptocephalusTanymastigidaeThamnocephalidaeNotostracaNotostracaTriopsLepidurusLaevicaudataSpinicaudataCyzicidaeLeptestheriidaeLimnadiidaeCyclestheridaCyclestheriidaeCtenopodaPseudopeniliaAnomopodaDaphniidaeMoinidaeOnychopodaPolyphemus (genus)LeptodoraLeptodoraHelp:CategoryCategory:CladoceraCategory:Freshwater CrustaceansCategory:Crustacean OrdersCategory:Invasive Animal Species In North AmericaCategory:CS1 Errors: Chapter IgnoredCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListCategory:Articles With 'species' MicroformatsCategory:Articles Containing Greek-language TextDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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