Contents 1 Career 2 References 3 Further reading 4 External links


Career[edit] Flemming trained in medicine at University of Rostock, graduating in 1868. Afterwards, he served in 1870–71 as a military physician in the Franco-Prussian War. From 1873 to 1876 he worked as a teacher at the University of Prague. In 1876 he accepted a post as a professor of anatomy at the University of Kiel. He became the director of the Anatomical Institute and stayed there until his death. With the use of aniline dyes he was able to find a structure which strongly absorbed basophilic dyes, which he named chromatin. He identified that chromatin was correlated to threadlike structures in the cell nucleus – the chromosomes (meaning coloured bodies), which were named thus later by German anatomist Wilhelm von Waldeyer-Hartz (1841–1923). The Belgian scientist Edouard Van Beneden (1846–1910) had also observed them, independently. Flemming investigated the process of cell division and the distribution of chromosomes to the daughter nuclei, a process he called mitosis from the Greek word for thread. However, he did not see the splitting into identical halves, the daughter chromatids. He studied mitosis both in vivo and in stained preparations, using as the source of biological material the fins and gills of salamanders. These results were published first in 1878[1] and in 1882 in the seminal book Zellsubstanz, Kern und Zelltheilung (1882; Cell substance, nucleus and cell division). On the basis of his discoveries, Flemming surmised for the first time that all cell nuclei came from another predecessor nucleus (he coined the phrase omnis nucleus e nucleo, after Virchow's omnis cellula e cellula). Polytene chromosomes in a Chironimus salivary gland cell, one of over 100 drawings from Flemming's book Zellsubstanz, Kern und Zelltheilung, 1885 Illustrations of cells with chromosomes and mitosis, from the book Zellsubstanz, Kern und Zelltheilung, 1882 Flemming is famously known for the work outside of his work that he did. He weekly fed those who were homeless, donating every year, 20% of his salary to homeless shelters. He taught especially young children who were too poor to attend school about mathematics and science. Flemming was unaware of the work of Gregor Mendel (1822–84) on heredity, so he did not make the connection between his observations and genetic inheritance. Two decades would pass before the significance of Flemming's work was truly realized with the rediscovery of Mendel's rules. The Science Channel named Flemming's discovery of mitosis and chromosomes as one of the 100 most important scientific discoveries of all time, and one of the 10 most important discoveries in cell biology.[2] Flemming's name is honoured by a medal awarded by the German Society for Cell Biology (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Zellbiologie).[3]


References[edit] ^ Flemming, W. (1878). "Zur Kenntniss der Zelle und ihrer Theilungs-Erscheinungen" (PDF). Schriften des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schleswig-Holstein. 3: 23–27.  ^ Science, Carnegie. "100 Greatest Discoveries | Carnegie Institution for Science". carnegiescience.edu. Retrieved 2016-06-10.  ^ "Zellbiologie.de | Scientific awards". zellbiologie.de. Retrieved 2016-06-10. 


Further reading[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Walther Flemming. Lukács (1981). "Walter Flemming, discoverer of chromatin and mitotic cell division". Orvosi hetilap. 122 (6): 349–50. PMID 7015236.  Latronico (2000). "Heredity, constitution and diathesis". Minerva pediatrica. 52 (1–2): 81–115. PMID 10829597.  Breathnach (1982). "Biographical sketches No. 18—Flemming". Irish medical journal. 75 (6): 177. PMID 7050007.  Paweletz (2001). "Walther Flemming: pioneer of mitosis research". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 2 (1): 72–5. doi:10.1038/35048077. PMID 11413469.  Flemming, Walther (1879). "Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Zelle und ihrer Lebenserscheinungen". Archiv für Mikroskopische Anatomie. 16 (1): 302. doi:10.1007/BF02956386.  and Flemming, Walther (1880). "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Zelle und Ihrer Lebenserscheinungen". Archiv für Mikroskopische Anatomie. 18 (1): 151. doi:10.1007/BF02952594.  Reprinted in J. Cell Biol. 25:581–589 (1965).[verification needed] Flemming, W. Zur Kenntniss der Zelle und ihrer Theilungs-Erscheinungen. In: Schriften des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schleswig-Holstein 3 (1878), 23–27. (Reprinted in "Zir Kenntniss der Zelle und ihrer Teilungs-Erscheinungen" (PDF). ) Carlson, E.A. The Analysis of Mitosis Shifts Attention to the Chromosomes. In: Mendel's Legacy. The Origins of Classical Genetics. p. 24-5, CSHL Press, 2004. ISBN 0-87969-675-3.


External links[edit] Walther Flemming Biography. Lasker Labs Zellsubstanz, Kern und Zelltheilung. Original text of the book, as PDF (In German). Walter Flemming Medaille. In PDF, in German. Hardy, P. A., Zacharias, H. (2008): Walther Flemming und die Mitose: Der Beitrag seiner ersten Kieler Jahre. Schr. Naturwiss. Ver. Schlesw.-Holst. 70, 3–15. Paper about his first description of mitosis. In German. "Walther Flemming und die Mitose: Der Beitrag seiner ersten Kieler Jahre" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-03-16.  Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 57409073 LCCN: n85800905 ISNI: 0000 0000 8239 6125 GND: 118691732 SUDOC: 108033643 BIBSYS: 2025229 IATH: w69b3wx2 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Walther_Flemming&oldid=813147514" Categories: 1843 births1905 deathsPeople from SchwerinPeople from the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-SchwerinGerman biologistsGerman geneticistsHidden categories: Articles with hCardsAll pages needing factual verificationWikipedia articles needing factual verification from November 2009Wikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiersWikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers


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