Contents 1 Growth forms 1.1 Twining vines 1.1.1 Direction of rotation 2 Horticultural climbing plants 2.1 Use as garden plants 3 Example vine taxa 4 See also 5 References 6 External links


Growth forms[edit] Vine twining around a steel fixed ladder Climbing plant covering a chimney Certain plants always grow as vines, while a few grow as vines only part of the time. For instance, poison ivy and bittersweet can grow as low shrubs when support is not available, but will become vines when support is available.[5] A vine displays a growth form based on long stems. This has two purposes. A vine may use rock exposures, other plants, or other supports for growth rather than investing energy in a lot of supportive tissue, enabling the plant to reach sunlight with a minimum investment of energy. This has been a highly successful growth form for plants such as kudzu and Japanese honeysuckle, both of which are invasive exotics in parts of North America. There are some tropical vines that develop skototropism, and grow away from the light, a type of negative phototropism. Growth away from light allows the vine to reach a tree trunk, which it can then climb to brighter regions.[6] The vine growth form may also enable plants to colonize large areas quickly, even without climbing high. This is the case with periwinkle and ground ivy. It is also an adaptation to life in areas where small patches of fertile soil are adjacent to exposed areas with more sunlight but little or no soil. A vine can root in the soil but have most of its leaves in the brighter, exposed area, getting the best of both environments. The evolution of a climbing habit has been implicated as a key innovation associated with the evolutionary success and diversification of a number of taxonomic groups of plants.[7] It has evolved independently in several plant families, using many different climbing methods[8] such as: twining their stems around a support (e.g., morning glories, Ipomoea species). by way of adventitious, clinging roots (e.g., ivy, Hedera species) with twining petioles (e.g., Clematis species) using tendrils, which can be specialized shoots (Vitaceae), leaves (Bignoniaceae), or even inflorescences (Passiflora) using tendrils which also produce adhesive pads at the end that attach themselves quite strongly to the support (Parthenocissus) using thorns (e.g. climbing rose) or other hooked structures, such as hooked branches (e.g. Artabotrys hexapetalus) The climbing fetterbush (Pieris phillyreifolia) is a woody shrub-vine which climbs without clinging roots, tendrils, or thorns. It directs its stem into a crevice in the bark of fibrous barked trees (such as bald cypress) where the stem adopts a flattened profile and grows up the tree underneath the host tree's outer bark. The fetterbush then sends out branches that emerge near the top of the tree.[9] Most vines are flowering plants. These may be divided into woody vines or lianas, such as wisteria, kiwifruit, and common ivy, and herbaceous (nonwoody) vines, such as morning glory. One odd group of vining plants is the fern genus Lygodium, called climbing ferns.[10] The stem does not climb, but rather the fronds (leaves) do. The fronds unroll from the tip, and theoretically never stop growing; they can form thickets as they unroll over other plants, rockfaces, and fences. L: A left-handed bine grows in an anticlockwise direction from the ground. (S-twist) R: A right-handed bine grows in an clockwise direction from the ground. (Z-twist)[11][12] Twining vines[edit] Twining vine / bine (Fockea edulis) Tendril supported vine (Brunnichia ovata) A twining vine, also known as a bine, is a climbing plant that climbs by its shoots growing in a helix, in contrast other vines which climb using tendrils or suckers. Many bines have rough stems or downward-pointing bristles to aid their grip. Hops (used in flavoring beer) are a commercially important example of a bine.[13][14] Direction of rotation[edit] The rotation of the shoot tip during climbing is autonomous and does not (as sometimes imagined) derive from the shoot's following the sun around the sky – the direction of twist does not therefore depend upon which side of the equator the plant is growing. This is shown by the fact that some bines always twine clockwise, including runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus) and bindweed (Convolvulus species), while others twine anticlockwise, including French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and climbing honeysuckles (Lonicera species). The contrasting rotations of the bindweed and the honeysuckle was the theme of the satirical song "Misalliance",[15] written and sung by Michael Flanders and Donald Swann.


Horticultural climbing plants[edit] The term "Vine" also applies to cucurbitaceae like cucumbers where botanists refer to creeping vines; In commercial agriculture the natural tendency of coiling tendrils to attach themselves to pre-existing structures or espaliers is optimized by the installation of trellis netting. Vines widely differ in size, form and evolutionary origin. Darwin classified climbing groups based on their climbing method. He classified five classes of vines including twining plants, leaf climbers, tendril bearers, root climbers and hook climbers. Vines are unique in that they have multiple evolutionary origins and a wide range of phenotypic plasticity. They usually reside in tropical locations and have the unique ability to climb. Vines are able to grow in both deep shade and full sun due to their wide range of phenotypic plasticity. This climbing action prevents shading by neighbors and allows the vine to grow out of reach of herbivores[16] The environment where a vine can grow successfully is determined by the climbing mechanism of a vine and how far it can spread across supports. There are many theories supporting the idea that photosynthetic responses are closely related to climbing mechanisms. A large vine on the street in Sochi, Russia Temperate twining vines, which twist tightly around supports, are typically poorly adapted for climbing beneath closed canopies due to their smaller support diameter and shade intolerance. In contrast, tendril vines usually grow on the forest floor and onto trees until they reach the surface of the canopy, suggesting that they have greater physiological plasticity.[17] It has also been suggested that twining vines revolving growth is mediated by changes in turgor pressure mediated by volume changes in the epidermal cells of the bending zone[18] Climbing vines possess many unique characteristics in response to changes in their environments. Climbing vines can induce chemical defenses and modify their biomass allocation in response to herbivores. In particular, the twisting vine C. arvensis increases its twining in response to herbivore associated leaf damage, which may lead to reduced future herbivory.[19] Additionally, the tendrils of perennial vine Cayratia japonica are more like to coil around nearby non-self plans than nearby self-plants in natural and experimental settings. This demonstrates the vine's ability to self-discriminate, which has only been previously documented in roots. In tendrilled vines, the tendrils are highly sensitive to touch and the coiling action is mediated by the hormones octadecanoids, jasmonates and indole-3-acetic acid. The touch stimulus and hormones may interact via volatile compounds or internal oscillation patterns.[20] Research has found the presence of ion translocating ATPases in the Bryonia dioica species of plants, which has implications for a possible ion mediation tendril curling mechanism. In response to a touch stimulus, vanadate sensitive K+, Mg2+ ATPase and a Ca2+ translocating ATPase both rapidly increase in their activity. This increases transmembrane ion fluxes that appear to be involved in the early stages of tendril coiling.[21] Use as garden plants[edit] Gardeners can use the tendency of climbing plants to grow quickly. If a plant display is wanted quickly, a climber can achieve this. Climbers can be trained over walls, pergolas, fences, etc. Climbers can be grown over other plants to provide additional attraction. Artificial support can also be provided. Some climbers climb by themselves; others need work, such as tying them in and training them.


Example vine taxa[edit] Botanical illustration of Lonicera sempervirens Actinidia arguta, the tara vine Actinidia polygama, the silver vine Adlumia fungosa, the Allegheny vine Aeschynanthus radicans, the lipstick vine Akebia, the chocolate vine Ampelocissus acetosa, known as wild grape or djabaru Ampelopsis glandulosa var. brevipedunculata, known as wild grape or porcelain berry Anredera cordifolia Antigonon, the coral vine Antigonon leptopus, the confederate vine Berchemia scandens, the rattan vine Bignonia, the cross vine Bougainvillea, a genus of thorny ornamental vines, bushes, and trees Campsis, the trumpet vine Campsis grandiflora, the Chinese trumpet vine Cardiospermum halicacabum, the balloon vine Celastrus, the staff vine Ceropegia linearis, the rosary vine or sweetheart vine Cissus antarctica, the kangaroo vine Cissus hypoglauca, the water vine Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, the watermelon Cucumis sativus, the cucumber Cyphostemma juttae, known as wild grape Spring growth of Virginia Creeper Fallopia baldschuanica, the Russian vine Hedera helix, known as common ivy, English ivy, European ivy, or ivy Kennedia coccinea, the common coral vine Lagenaria siceraria, known as the bottle gourd, calabash, opo squash, or long melon Lathyrus odoratus, the sweet pea Lonicera japonica, known as Suikazura or Japanese honeysuckle Luffa, a genus of tropical and subtropical vines classified in the cucumber (Cucurbitaceae) family Lygodium, a genus of about 40 species of ferns, known as climbing ferns Momordica charantia, the bitter gourd Mikania scandens, the hemp vine Muehlenbeckia adpressa, the macquarie vine Nepenthes, a genus of carnivorous plants known as tropical pitcher plants or monkey cups Pandorea pandorana, the wonga wonga vine Parthenocissus quinquefolia, known as the Virginia creeper, Victoria creeper, five-leaved ivy, or five-finger Passiflora edulis, the passionfruit Periploca graeca, the silk vine Podranea ricasoliana, the pink trumpet vine Pueraria lobata, the kudzu vine Scindapsus pictus, the silver vine Sechium edule, known as chayote, christophene, or several other names Solandra, a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanum laxum, the potato vine Strongylodon macrobotrys, the jade vine Syngonium, the goosefoot vine Syngonium podophyllum, the arrowhead vine Thunbergia grandiflora, known as the Bengal clock vine or blue trumpet vine Thunbergia erecta, the bush clock vine Toxicodendron radicans, known as poison ivy Vitis, any of about sixty species of grape Wisteria, a genus of flowering plants in the pea family


See also[edit] Vine (disambiguation) Liana, any of various long-stemmed, woody vines Nutation (botany), bending and growth patterns of of plants, which dictate the growth of vines. On the Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants, by Charles Darwin List of world's longest vines Vine training systems Pergola Trellis (architecture)


References[edit] ^ Brown, Lesley (1993). The New shorter Oxford English dictionary on historical principles. Oxford [Eng.]: Clarendon. ISBN 0-19-861271-0.  ^ Jackson; Benjamin; Daydon (1928). A Glossary of Botanic Terms with their Derivation and Accent, 4th ed. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. ^ Francis E. Putz (1991). The Biology of Vines. Cambridge University Press. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-0-521-39250-1.  ^ Shorter Oxford English dictionary, 6th ed. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 3804. ISBN 0199206872.  ^ "Creepers". mannuthynursery. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ Glimn-Lacy, Janice; Kaufman, Peter B. (2006). Botany Illustrated. Springer.  ^ Gianoli, Ernesto (2004). "Evolution of a climbing habit promotes diversification in flowering plants". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 271 (1552): 2011–2015. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2827. JSTOR 4142967. PMC 1691831 . PMID 15451690.  ^ Putz, Francis E. "Vine Ecology". Retrieved 1 March 2012.  ^ Weakley, Alan (2010). Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States (PDF). p. 661.  ^ "Japanese climbing fern". Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ Haldeman, Jan. "As the vine twines". Native and Naturalized Plants of the Carolinas and Georgia. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ Weakley, Alan S. (May 2015). Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. UNC Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ bine at Merriam-Webster ^ Cone Heads at Willamette Week ^ Misalliance ^ Gianoli, Ernesto; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. (2005). "Leaf Damage Induces Twining in a Climbing Plant". The New Phytologist. 167 (2): 385–90. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01484.x. JSTOR 3694507.  ^ Carter, Gregory A.; Teramura, Alan H. (1988). "Vine Photosynthesis and Relationships to Climbing Mechanisms in a Forest Understory". American Journal of Botany. 75 (7): 1101. doi:10.2307/2443769. JSTOR 2443769.  ^ Millet, B.; Melin, D.; Badot, P.-M. (1988). "Circumnutation in Phaseolus vulgaris. I. Growth, osmotic potential and cell ultrastructure in the free moving part of the shoot". Physiologia Plantarum. 72: 133–138. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1988.tb06634.x.  ^ Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Gianoli, Ernesto; Becerra, José (2007). "Interactive Effects of Leaf Damage, Light Intensity and Support Availability on Chemical Defenses and Morphology of a Twining Vine". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 33 (1): 95–103. doi:10.1007/s10886-006-9215-8.  ^ Fukano, Yuya; Yamawo, Akira (26 August 2015). "Self-discrimination in the tendrils of the vine is mediated by physiological connection". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 282 (1814): 20151379. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.1379. PMC 4571702 . PMID 26311669.  ^ Liß, H.; Weiler, E. W. (July 1994). "Ion-translocating ATPases in tendrils of Bryonia dioica Jacq". Planta. 194 (2): 169–180. doi:10.1007/BF00196385. JSTOR 23383001. 


External links[edit] Look up vine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Media related to Vines at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Climbing plants at Wikimedia Commons  Beach, Chandler B., ed. (1914). "Twiner". The New Student's Reference Work. Chicago: F. E. Compton and Co.  v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Authority control NDL: 00573537 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vine&oldid=820721912" Categories: Garden plantsPlant morphologyVinesPlants by habitPlant life-formBotanyHidden categories: Use dmy dates from January 2018Commons category with local link different than on WikidataWikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRWWikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW with an wstitle parameter


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages AfrikaansÆngliscالعربيةܐܪܡܝܐAsturianuБългарскиCatalàČeštinaDeutschEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisFryskGaeilgeGalego한국어हिन्दीBahasa IndonesiaItalianoעבריתქართულიLietuviųമലയാളംBahasa MelayuNederlands日本語NorskਪੰਜਾਬੀپنجابیPolskiRuna SimiРусскийShqipSimple EnglishСрпски / srpskiSuomiSvenskaதமிழ்తెలుగుУкраїнськаŽemaitėška中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 16 January 2018, at 06:45. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.324","walltime":"0.429","ppvisitednodes":{"value":1625,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":75245,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":809,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":12,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":1,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 322.870 1 -total"," 43.04% 138.961 1 Template:Reflist"," 18.42% 59.473 6 Template:Cite_book"," 13.68% 44.184 1 Template:Botany"," 13.26% 42.819 2 Template:Navbox"," 10.96% 35.384 1 Template:Use_dmy_dates"," 9.52% 30.726 7 Template:Cite_journal"," 8.50% 27.432 2 Template:Commons_category-inline"," 7.60% 24.534 2 Template:Sister-inline"," 6.21% 20.047 1 Template:DMCA"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.129","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":4142436,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1313","timestamp":"20180116064543","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":82,"wgHostname":"mw1215"});});


Vine - Photos and All Basic Informations

Vine More Links

VitisVine (service)Vine (disambiguation)EnlargeTendrilLatinVitisPlantHabit (biology)LianaWickerEnlargeFixed LadderEnlargePoison IvySolanum DulcamaraShrubsPlant StemKudzuJapanese HoneysuckleInvasive ExoticNorth AmericaPhototropismVincaGround IvyIpomoeaHederaClematisTendrilVitaceaeBignoniaceaePassifloraParthenocissusRoseArtabotrys HexapetalusBald CypressLianaWisteriaKiwifruitHederaMorning GloryClimbing FernEnlargeAnticlockwiseYarnClockwiseYarnFockeaBrunnichiaPlantHelixTendrilHumulusEquatorClockwisePhaseolus CoccineusConvolvulusPhaseolus VulgarisLoniceraFlanders And SwannCucurbitaceaeCucumberAgricultureTendrilEspalierHorticulture Netting Or Vegetable Support NetEnlargeSochiGardenerWallPergolaFenceEnlargeLonicera SempervirensActinidia ArgutaActinidia PolygamaAdlumia FungosaAeschynanthus RadicansAkebiaAmpelocissus AcetosaAmpelopsis Glandulosa Var. BrevipedunculataAnredera CordifoliaAntigononAntigonon LeptopusBerchemia ScandensBignoniaBougainvilleaCampsisCampsis GrandifloraCardiospermum HalicacabumCelastrusCeropegia LinearisCissus AntarcticaCissus HypoglaucaWatermelonCucumis SativusCyphostemma JuttaeEnlargeVirginia CreeperFallopia BaldschuanicaHedera HelixKennedia CoccineaLagenaria SicerariaLathyrus OdoratusLonicera JaponicaLuffaLygodiumMomordica CharantiaMikania ScandensMuehlenbeckia AdpressaNepenthesPandorea PandoranaParthenocissus QuinquefoliaPassiflora EdulisPeriploca GraecaPueraria LobataScindapsus PictusSechium EduleSolandraSolanum LaxumStrongylodon MacrobotrysSyngoniumSyngonium PodophyllumThunbergia GrandifloraThunbergia ErectaToxicodendron RadicansVitisWisteriaVine (disambiguation)LianaNutation (botany)On The Movements And Habits Of Climbing PlantsCharles DarwinList Of World's Longest VinesVine Training SystemsPergolaTrellis (architecture)International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-19-861271-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-39250-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0199206872Digital Object IdentifierJSTORPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierMerriam-WebsterWillamette WeekDigital Object IdentifierJSTORDigital Object IdentifierJSTORDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierJSTORCommons:Category:VinesCommons:Category:Climbing PlantsTemplate:BotanyTemplate Talk:BotanyBotanyHistory Of BotanyBranches Of BotanyHistory Of Plant SystematicsEthnobotanyPaleobotanyPlant AnatomyPlant EcologyPhytogeographyGeobotanical ProspectingFloraPhytochemistryPlant PathologyBryologyPhycologyFloristicsDendrologyPlantAlgaeArchaeplastidaBryophyteNon-vascular PlantVascular PlantSpermatophytePteridophyteGymnospermFlowering PlantPlant MorphologyGlossary Of Plant MorphologyPlant CellCell WallPhragmoplastPlastidPlasmodesmaVacuoleTissue (biology)MeristemVascular TissueVascular BundleGround TissueLeafCork CambiumWoodStorage OrganRootRhizoidBulbRhizomeShootPlant StemLeafPetiole (botany)CataphyllBudSessility (botany)Plant Reproductive MorphologyABC Model Of Flower DevelopmentInflorescenceUmbelRacemeBractPedicel (botany)FlowerWhorl (botany)Floral SymmetryFloral DiagramFloral FormulaReceptacle (botany)HypanthiumPerianthTepalPetalSepalSporophyllGynoeciumOvary (botany)OvuleStigma (botany)ArchegoniumStamenStamenStaminodePollenTapetum (botany)Column (botany)GametophyteSporophyteEmbryoFruitFruit AnatomyBerry (botany)Capsule (fruit)SeedSeed DispersalEndospermEpicuticular WaxPlant CuticleEpidermis (botany)StomaNectarTrichomeThorns, Spines, And PricklesPlant PhysiologyPlant NutritionPhotosynthesisChlorophyllPlant HormoneTranspirationTurgor PressureBulk MovementAleuronePhytomelaninSugarSapStarchCelluloseSecondary GrowthWoody PlantHerbaceous PlantHabit (biology)LianaShrubSubshrubTreeSucculent PlantPlant ReproductionPlant EvolutionPlant EcologyAlternation Of GenerationsSporangiumSporeMicrosporangiaMicrosporeSporangiumMegasporePollinationPollinatorPollen TubeDouble FertilizationGerminationPlant Evolutionary Developmental BiologyEvolutionary History Of PlantsTimeline Of Plant EvolutionHardiness ZonePlant TaxonomyHistory Of Plant SystematicsHerbariumTaxonomy (biology)Botanical NomenclatureBotanical NameCorrect NameAuthor Citation (botany)International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And PlantsInternational Code Of Nomenclature For Cultivated PlantsTaxonomic RankInternational Association For Plant TaxonomyList Of Systems Of Plant TaxonomyCultivated Plant TaxonomyCitrus TaxonomyCultigenCultivarCultivar GroupGrex (horticulture)AgronomyFloricultureForestryHorticultureGlossary Of Botanical TermsList Of BotanistsList Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation (W–Z)Botanical ExpeditionCategory:BotanyPortal:PlantsWikipedia:WikiProject PlantsHelp:Authority ControlNational Diet LibraryHelp:CategoryCategory:Garden PlantsCategory:Plant MorphologyCategory:VinesCategory:Plants By HabitCategory:Plant Life-formCategory:BotanyCategory:Use Dmy Dates From January 2018Category:Commons Category With Local Link Different Than On WikidataCategory:Wikipedia Articles Incorporating Citation To The NSRWCategory:Wikipedia Articles Incorporating Citation To The NSRW With An Wstitle ParameterDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link