Contents 1 Characteristics 2 Phylogeny 3 Nutrient distribution 3.1 Transpiration 3.2 Absorption 3.3 Conduction 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography


Characteristics[edit] Vascular plants are distinguished by two primary characteristics: Vascular plants have vascular tissues which distribute resources through the plant. This feature allows vascular plants to evolve to a larger size than non-vascular plants, which lack these specialized conducting tissues and are therefore restricted to relatively small sizes. In vascular plants, the principal generation phase is the sporophyte, which is usually diploid with two sets of chromosomes per cell. Only the germ cells and gametophytes are haploid. By contrast, the principal generation phase in non-vascular plants is the gametophyte, which is haploid with one set of chromosomes per cell. In these plants, only the spore stalk and capsule are diploid. One possible mechanism for the presumed switch from emphasis on the haploid generation to emphasis on the diploid generation is the greater efficiency in spore dispersal with more complex diploid structures. In other words, elaboration of the spore stalk enabled the production of more spores, and enabled the development of the ability to release them higher and to broadcast them farther. Such developments may include more photosynthetic area for the spore-bearing structure, the ability to grow independent roots, woody structure for support, and more branching.[citation needed]


Phylogeny[edit] A proposed phylogeny of the vascular plants after Kenrick and Crane[7] is as follows, with modification to the gymnosperms from Christenhusz et al. (2011a),[8] Pteridophyta from Smith et al.[9] and lycophytes and ferns by Christenhusz et al. (2011b) [10] Polysporangiates Tracheophytes Eutracheophytes Euphyllophytina Lignophytes Spermatophytes  Pteridospermatophyta † (seed ferns)  Cycadophyta (cycads)   Pinophyta (conifers)   Ginkgophyta (ginkgo)   Gnetophyta   Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)  Progymnospermophyta † Pteridophyta Pteridopsida (true ferns) Marattiopsida Equisetopsida (horsetails) Psilotopsida (whisk ferns & adders'-tongues) Cladoxylopsida † Lycophytina Lycopodiophyta Zosterophyllophyta † Rhyniophyta † Aglaophyton † Horneophytopsida † Gymnosperms This phylogeny is supported by several molecular studies.[9][11][12] Other researchers state that taking fossils into account leads to different conclusions, for example that the ferns (Pteridophyta) are not monophyletic.[13]


Nutrient distribution[edit] Photographs showing xylem elements in the shoot of a fig tree (Ficus alba): crushed in hydrochloric acid, between slides and cover slips. Water and nutrients in the form of inorganic solutes are drawn up from the soil by the roots and transported throughout the plant by the xylem. Organic compounds such as sucrose produced by photosynthesis in leaves are distributed by the phloem sieve tube elements. The xylem consists of vessels in flowering plants and tracheids in other vascular plants, which are dead hard-walled hollow cells arranged to form files of tubes that function in water transport. A tracheid cell wall usually contains the polymer lignin. The phloem however consists of living cells called sieve-tube members. Between the sieve-tube members are sieve plates, which have pores to allow molecules to pass through. Sieve-tube members lack such organs as nuclei or ribosomes, but cells next to them, the companion cells, function to keep the sieve-tube members alive. Transpiration[edit] The most abundant compound in all plants, as in all cellular organisms, is water which serves an important structural role and a vital role in plant metabolism. Transpiration is the main process of water movement within plant tissues. Water is constantly transpired from the plant through its stomata to the atmosphere and replaced by soil water taken up by the roots. The movement of water out of the leaf stomata creates a transpiration pull or tension in the water column in the xylem vessels or tracheids. The pull is the result of water surface tension within the cell walls of the mesophyll cells, from the surfaces of which evaporation takes place when the stomata are open. Hydrogen bonds exist between water molecules, causing them to line up; as the molecules at the top of the plant evaporate, each pulls the next one up to replace it, which in turn pulls on the next one in line. The draw of water upwards may be entirely passive and can be assisted by the movement of water into the roots via osmosis. Consequently, transpiration requires very little energy to be used by the plant. Transpiration assists the plant in absorbing nutrients from the soil as soluble salts. Absorption[edit] Living root cells passively absorb water in the absence of transpiration pull via osmosis creating root pressure. It is possible for there to be no evapotranspiration and therefore no pull of water towards the shoots and leaves. This is usually due to high temperatures, high humidity, darkness or drought. Conduction[edit] Xylem and phloem tissues are involved in the conduction processes within plants. Sugars are conducted throughout the plant in the phloem, water and other nutrients through the xylem. Conduction occurs from a source to a sink for each separate nutrient. Sugars are produced in the leaves (a source) by photosynthesis and transported to the growing shoots and roots (sinks) for use in growth, cellular respiration or storage. Minerals are absorbed in the roots (a source) and transported to the shoots to allow cell division and growth.[14]


See also[edit] Fern allies Non-vascular plant


References[edit] ^ D. Edwards; Feehan, J. (1980). "Records of Cooksonia-type sporangia from late Wenlock strata in Ireland". Nature. 287 (5777): 41–42. doi:10.1038/287041a0.  ^ Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Katz, Laura A. (August 16, 2011). "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (33): 13624–13629. doi:10.1073/pnas.1110633108. PMC 3158185 . PMID 21810989.  ^ Sinnott, E. W. 1935. Botany. Principles and Problems, 3d edition. McGraw-Hill, New York. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.  ^ Abercrombie, Hickman & Johnson. 1966. A Dictionary of Biology. (Penguin Books ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page: Tracheobionta". Retrieved September 20, 2013.  ^ Kenrick, Paul & Peter R. Crane. 1997. The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study. (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press). ISBN 1-56098-730-8. ^ Christenhusz, Maarten J. M.; Reveal, James L.; Farjon, Aljos; Gardner, Martin F.; Mill, R.R.; Chase, Mark W. (2011). "A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms" (PDF). Phytotaxa. 19: 55–70.  ^ a b Smith, Alan R.; Pryer, Kathleen M.; Schuettpelz, E.; Korall, P.; Schneider, H.; Wolf, Paul G. (2006). "A classification for extant ferns" (PDF). Taxon. 55 (3): 705–731. doi:10.2307/25065646.  ^ Christenhusz, Maarten J. M.; Zhang, Xian-Chun; Schneider, Harald (2011). "A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns" (PDF). Phytotaxa. 19: 7–54.  ^ Pryer, K. M.; Schneider, H.; Smith, AR; Cranfill, R; Wolf, PG; Hunt, JS; Sipes, SD (2001). "Horsetails and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives to seed plants". Nature. 409 (6820): 618–22. doi:10.1038/35054555. PMID 11214320.  ^ Pryer, K. M., E. Schuettpelz, P. G. Wolf, H. Schneider, A. R. Smith, R. Cranfill (2004). Phylogeny and evolution of ferns (monilophytes) with a focus on the early leptosporangiate divergences, American Journal of Botany. 91: 1582-1598 ^ Rothwell, G.W. & Nixon, K.C. (2006). "How Does the Inclusion of Fossil Data Change Our Conclusions about the Phylogenetic History of Euphyllophytes?". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 167 (3): 737–749. doi:10.1086/503298  ^ Chapters 5, 6 and 10 Taiz and Zeiger Plant Physiology 3rd Edition SINAUER 2002


Bibliography[edit] Cracraft, Joel; Donoghue, Michael J., eds. (2004). Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-972960-9.  Cantino, Philip D.; Doyle, James A.; Graham, Sean W.; Judd, Walter S.; Olmstead, Richard G.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Donoghue, Michael J. (1 August 2007). "Towards a Phylogenetic Nomenclature of Tracheophyta". Taxon. 56 (3): 822. doi:10.2307/25065865.  Kenrick, P. (29 June 2000). "The relationships of vascular plants". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 355 (1398): 847–855. doi:10.1098/rstb.2000.0619. PMC 1692788 .  Pryer, Kathleen M.; Schneider, Harald; Magallon, Susana. The radiation of vascular plants (PDF). pp. 138–153. , in Cracraft & Donoghue (2004) v t e Classification of Archaeplastida / Plantae sensu lato Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Animal Fungi) Rhodophyta (red algae) Cyanidiophyceae Porphyridiophyceae Compsopogonophyceae Stylonematophyceae Rhodellophyceae Bangiophyceae Florideophyceae Glaucocystophyta (glaucophytes) Glaucocystophyceae Glaucocystis Cyanophora Gloeochaete Viridiplantae (green algae & land plants) Chlorophyta Palmophyllales Nephroselmidophyceae Prasinophyceae Pseudoscourfieldiales Pyramimonadophyceae Scourfieldiales Pedinophyceae Chlorodendrophyceae UTC clade Ulvophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Chlorophyceae Streptophyta (charophytes, & land plants) Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Phragmo- plastophyta Charophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Zygnematophyceae Embryophyta (land plants) Bryophytes (non-vascular) Marchantiophyta Anthocerotophyta Bryophyta "Moss" †Horneophytopsida Tracheophyta (vascular) Lycopodiophyta (microphylls) †Zosterophyllopsida †Sawdoniales Isoetopsida Lycopodiopsida Euphyllophyta (megaphylls) Moniliformopses (ferns) †Cladoxylopsida †Stauropteridales †Zygopteridales Equisetopsida Psilotopsida Marattiopsida Filicopsida Spermatophyta (seed plants) †Seed ferns Gymnosperms Gnetopsida Pinopsida Cycadopsida Ginkgoopsida Angiosperms or flowering plants Amborellales Nymphaeales Austrobaileyales Magnoliids Monocots Eudicots Other †Trimerophytopsida †Progymnosperm Other †Rhyniopsida † = extinct. See also the list of plant orders. v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Taxon identifiers Wd: Q27133 AlgaeBase: 99767 EoL: 4077 iNaturalist: 211194 ITIS: 846496 NCBI: 58023 WoRMS: 596326 Authority control GND: 4019654-9 NDL: 00564013 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vascular_plant&oldid=819293993" Categories: PlantsExtant Silurian first appearancesHidden categories: Articles with inconsistent citation formatsArticles with 'species' microformatsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from February 2016Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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