Contents 1 Description 2 Ecology 3 Breeding 4 References 5 External links

Description[edit] Engystomops pustulosus is a small species of terrestrial frog growing to a length of between 25 and 35 mm (1.0 and 1.4 in).[3]

Ecology[edit] Engystomops pustulosus is nocturnal, emerging at night to feed on ants and termites and other small invertebrates among the plant litter on the ground. During the breeding season, the males group together at night at temporary pools and call to attract mates. When a female chooses one of the males, amplexus occurs at the edge of the water and the male creates a foam nest in which the eggs are laid; the tadpoles develop in the water and undergo metamorphosis into juvenile frogs in about four weeks.[3]

Breeding[edit] Female frogs will choose a mate based on the attractiveness of a male’s call. The females are able to recognize the species of the calling male[4] and will preferentially choose to mate with males of the same species. Female preference within her own species is based on complexity of call. Males produce a call that consists of a whine, and can also add up to seven short chuck sounds to their mating call. A call consisting of both a whine and a chuck is considered a complex call. The chuck portion of the call is produced by vibrations of a fibrous mass suspended near the frog's larynx. Larger fibrous masses allow a frog to produce more chucks for each whine. Females usually prefer complex mating calls (whine and chucks) to simple mating calls.[5] One study found that females will choose a simple call from a member of her own species rather than a complex call from a foreign or different species.[4] Females prefer the mating call of frogs who produce chucks with lower frequencies. One explanation for this preference is that lower frequency calls are found in males of larger size. A larger body size usually correlates with a higher rate of fertilization.[6] If a female finds a male attractive, she will use his mating call, as well as ripples in the water caused by the production of his call, to locate her new mate. Natural selection plays a role in the varying complexity of a male's advertisement call. Parasites as well as predators, such as the fringe-lipped bat (Trachops cirrhosus), are able to recognize species of frogs based on their mating calls. These predators, like females, prefer complex calls and will use these calls to locate and prey upon male túngara frogs. It is for this reason that males have been found to alternate between complex and simple calls depending on the situation at hand.[6] Males produce complex calls more often when there are other calling males nearby, forming what is known as a chorus. Males that use calling strategies such as this according to cost and benefits of call complexity are able to maximize the possibility of finding a mate and minimize the risk of predation.[7] When mating, the male frog centers himself atop the female to do rhythmic mixing of a foam-producing solvent released by the female to generate a floating foam nest.[8] The foam nests are resistant bio-foams that protect the fertilized eggs from dehydration, sunlight, temperature, and potential pathogens until the tadpoles hatch. The nest degrades when the tadpoles leave after about four days, otherwise the nest can last for up to two weeks. The foam is made up of a mixture of novel proteins (called ranaspumins) with unusual surfactant and carbohydrate binding properties that are thought to contribute to the formation and stabilization of the nest structure, resisting dehydration, predation and microbial degradation, whilst being compatible with developing eggs and embryos.[9][10] One of the proteins present in the foam (ranaspumin-2) has been used by Carlos Montemagno, David Wendell, and Jacob Todd to create an artificial photosynthetic foam. Unlike chemical detergents the protein does not disrupt cell membranes allowing photosynthetic proteins to be positioned in the foam.[11] This new method for producing biofuel won a 2011 Earth Award. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Engystomops pustulosus.

References[edit] ^ a b Santos-Barrera, G.; et al. (2010). "Engystomops pustulosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 February 2014.  ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Engystomops pustulosus (Cope, 1864)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 26 February 2014.  ^ a b Leigh, Egbert Giles (1999). Tropical Forest Ecology: A View from Barro Colorado Island. Oxford University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-19-509603-3.  ^ a b Ryan, Michael, and Monica Guerra. (2014). The Mechanism of Sound Production in Tungara Frogs and Its Role in Sexual Selection and Speciation. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 28: 54-59. ^ Ryan, MJ. 1985. The túngara frog: a study in sexual selection and communication. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ^ a b Page, R.A., Bernal, X.E. 2006. Túngara frogs. Current Biology. 23:R979-980 ^ Baugh, A.T, Ryan, M.J. 2010. The relative value of call embellishment in túngara frogs. Behavioral Ecological Sociobiology. 65:359-367. ^ Dalgetty L. and M. W. Kennedy. (2010). Building a home from foam - túngara frog foam nest architecture and three-phase construction process. Biol. Lett. 6(3) 293-296. ^ Alan Cooper & Malcolm W. Kennedy, Biofoams and natural protein surfactants, 2010, Biophysical Chemistry, 151: 96-104. doi:10.1016/j.bpc.2010.06.006 ^ Fleming, R. I., C. D. Mackenzie, A. Cooper, and M. W. Kennedy. 2009. Foam nest components of the túngara frog: a cocktail of proteins conferring physical and biological resilience. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276: 1787-1795 ^ Wendell, D.; Todd, J.; Montemagno, C. (2010). "Artificial photosynthesis in ranaspumin-2 based foam". Nano Letters. 10 (9): 3231–3236. Bibcode:2010NanoL..10.3231W. doi:10.1021/nl100550k. PMID 20205454.  Free version

External links[edit] Smithsonian: The Tungara Frog's Mating Call Attracts Predators National Geographic: How Female Frogs Get Tricked Into Choosing An "Ugly" Mate Taxon identifiers Wd: Q1895136 EoL: 331284 GBIF: 2423497 iNaturalist: 65448 ITIS: 774697 IUCN: 57272 NCBI: 76066 Retrieved from "úngara_frog&oldid=820563704" Categories: IUCN Red List least concern speciesEngystomopsFrogs of North AmericaFrogs of South AmericaAmphibians of Central AmericaAmphibians of BelizeAmphibians of ColombiaAmphibians of Costa RicaAmphibians of El SalvadorAmphibians of GuatemalaAmphibians of GuyanaAmphibians of HondurasAmphibians of MexicoAmphibians of NicaraguaAmphibians of PanamaAmphibians of Trinidad and TobagoAmphibians of VenezuelaAmphibians described in the 19th centuryVertebrates described in 1864Taxa named by Edward Drinker CopeHidden categories: Articles with 'species' microformats

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Conservation StatusLeast ConcernIUCN Red ListTaxonomy (biology)EAnimalChordateAmphibianFrogLeptodactylidaeEngystomopsBinomial NomenclatureEdward Drinker CopeSynonym (taxonomy)FrogLeptodactylidaeSpanish (language)BelizeColombiaCosta RicaEl SalvadorGuatemalaHondurasMexicoNicaraguaPanamaTrinidad And TobagoVenezuelaGuyanaHabitatForestSavannaGrasslandMarshPondCanalNocturnalityAntTermitePlant LitterAmplexusTadpoleMetamorphosisMating CallLarynxFertilizationNatural SelectionFringe-lipped BatSurfactantProteinsDavid WendellPhotosynthesisDetergentCell MembraneIUCN Red ListInternational Union For Conservation Of NatureInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-509603-3BibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierHelp:Taxon IdentifiersWikidataEncyclopedia Of LifeGlobal Biodiversity Information FacilityINaturalistIntegrated Taxonomic Information SystemIUCN Red ListNational Center For Biotechnology InformationHelp:CategoryCategory:IUCN Red List Least Concern SpeciesCategory:EngystomopsCategory:Frogs Of North AmericaCategory:Frogs Of South AmericaCategory:Amphibians Of Central AmericaCategory:Amphibians Of BelizeCategory:Amphibians Of ColombiaCategory:Amphibians Of Costa RicaCategory:Amphibians Of El SalvadorCategory:Amphibians Of GuatemalaCategory:Amphibians Of GuyanaCategory:Amphibians Of HondurasCategory:Amphibians Of MexicoCategory:Amphibians Of NicaraguaCategory:Amphibians Of PanamaCategory:Amphibians Of Trinidad And TobagoCategory:Amphibians Of VenezuelaCategory:Amphibians Described In The 19th CenturyCategory:Vertebrates Described In 1864Category:Taxa Named By Edward Drinker CopeCategory:Articles With 'species' MicroformatsDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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