Contents 1 Presentation 2 Causes 2.1 Karyotypes 3 Diagnosis 4 Treatment 5 Human prevalence 6 Etymology 7 Society and culture 7.1 M.C. v. Aaronson 8 References 9 External links


Presentation[edit] External genitalia are often ambiguous, the degree depending mainly on the amount of testosterone produced by the testicular tissue between 8 and 16 weeks of gestation.


Causes[edit] There are several ways in which this may occur. It can be caused by the division of one ovum, followed by fertilization of each haploid ovum and fusion of the two zygotes early in development. Alternately, an ovum can be fertilized by two sperm followed by trisomic rescue in one or more daughter cells. Two ova fertilized by two sperm will occasionally fuse to form a tetragametic chimera. If one male zygote and one female zygote fuse, a hermaphroditic individual may result. It can be associated with mutation in the SRY gene.[3] Karyotypes[edit] Encountered karyotypes include 47XXY, 46XX/46XY, or 46XX/47XXY or XX & XY with SRY Mutations, Mixed Chromosomal abnormalities or hormone deficiency/excess disorders, and various degrees of mosaicism of these and a variety of others. The 3 Primary Karyotypes for True Hermaphroditism are XX with genetic defects (55-70% of cases), XX/XY (20-30% of cases) & XY (5-15% of cases) with the remainder being a variety of other Chromosomal abnormalities and Mosaicisms.


Diagnosis[edit] This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (August 2017)


Treatment[edit] This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (August 2017)


Human prevalence[edit] There are no documented cases in which both types of gonadal tissue function.[4] Although fertility is possible in true hermaphrodites, there has yet to be a documented case where both gonadal tissues function, contrary to the misconception that hermaphrodites can impregnate themselves. As of 2010, there have been at least 11 reported cases of fertility in true hermaphrodite humans in the scientific literature,[2] with one case of a person with XY-predominant (96%) mosaic giving birth.[4]


Etymology[edit] Further information: Intersex in history The term derives from the Latin: hermaphroditus, from Ancient Greek: ἑρμαφρόδιτος, translit. hermaphroditos,[5] which derives from Hermaphroditos ( Ἑρμαϕρόδιτος), the son of Hermes and Aphrodite in Greek mythology. According to Ovid, he fused with the nymph Salmacis resulting in one individual possessing physical traits of both sexes;[6] according to the earlier Diodorus Siculus, he was born with a physical body combining both sexes.[7] The word hermaphrodite entered the English lexicon in the late fourteenth century.[8]


Society and culture[edit] M.C. v. Aaronson[edit] Further information: Intersex rights in the United States The U.S. legal case of M.C. v. Aaronson, advanced by intersex civil society organization interACT with the Southern Poverty Law Center was brought before the courts in 2013.[9][10][11][12] The child in the case was born in December 2004 with ovotestes, initially determined as male, but subsequently assigned female and placed in the care of South Carolina Department of Social Services in February 2005.[13] Physicians responsible for M.C. initially concluded that surgery was not urgent or necessary and M.C. had potential to identify as male or female, but, in April 2006, M.C. was subjected to feminizing medical interventions.[13] He was adopted in December 2006. Aged 8 at the time the case was taken, he now identifies as male. The Southern Poverty Law Center state: "In M.C.’s condition, there is no way to tell whether the child will ultimately identify as a boy or a girl. Instead, the doctors decided to assign M.C. female and change his body to fit their stereotype of how a girl should look."[10][14] The defendant in the case, Dr Ian Aaronson, had written in 2001 that "feminizing genitoplasty on an infant who might eventually identify herself as a boy would be catastrophic".[15][13] The defendants sought to dismiss the case and seek a defense of qualified immunity, but these were denied by the District Court for the District of South Carolina. In January 2015, the Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit reversed this decision and dismissed the complaint, stating that, "it did not “mean to diminish the severe harm that M.C. claims to have suffered” but that a reasonable official in 2006 did not have fair warning from then-existing precedent that performing sex assignment surgery on sixteen-month-old M.C. violated a clearly established constitutional right."[16] The Court did not rule on whether or not the surgery violated M.C.'s constitutional rights.[17] State suits were subsequently filed.[16] In July 2017, it was reported that the case had been settled out of court by the Medical University of South Carolina for $440,000. The University denied negligence, but agreed to a "compromise" settlement to avoid "costs of litigation."[18]


References[edit] ^ Lee P. A., Houk C. P., Ahmed S. F., Hughes I. A.; Houk; Ahmed; Hughes (2006). "Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders". Pediatrics. 118 (2): e488–500. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-0738. PMID 16882788. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Kim, Kyu-Rae; Kwon, Youngmee; Joung, Jae Young; Kim, Kun Suk; Ayala, Alberto G.; ťRo, Jae Y. (2002). "True Hermaphroditism and Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis in Young Children: A Clinicopathologic Study of 10 Cases". Modern Pathology. 15 (10): 1013–9. doi:10.1097/01.MP.0000027623.23885.0D. PMID 12379746.  ^ Braun, A; Kammerer, S; Cleve, H; Löhrs, U; Schwarz, H. P.; Kuhnle, U (1993). "True hermaphroditism in a 46,XY individual, caused by a postzygotic somatic point mutation in the male gonadal sex-determining locus (SRY): Molecular genetics and histological findings in a sporadic case". American Journal of Human Genetics. 52 (3): 578–85. PMC 1682159 . PMID 8447323.  ^ a b Schoenhaus, S. A.; Lentz, S. E.; Saber, P; Munro, M. G.; Kivnick, S (2008). "Pregnancy in a hermaphrodite with a male-predominant mosaic karyotype". Fertility and Sterility. 90 (5): 2016.e7–10. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.01.104. PMID 18394621.  ^ "Definition of hermaphroditus". Numen: The Latin Lexicon. Retrieved 19 July 2013.  ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses, Book IV: The story of Hermaphroditus and Salmacis. ^ Diodorus Siculus — Book IV Chapters 1–7 ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1st edn, s.v. hermaphrodite, n. and adj.; "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 3 June 2012.  ^ "AIC's Landmark Lawsuit Makes History!". AIC. May 16, 2013.  ^ a b Southern Poverty Law Center (May 14, 2013). "Groundbreaking SLPC Lawsuit Accuses South Carolina Doctors and Hospitals of Unnecessary Surgery on Infant". Retrieved 2015-07-20.  ^ Reis, Elizabeth (May 17, 2013). "Do No Harm: Intersex Surgeries and the Limits of Certainty". Nursing Clio. Retrieved 2015-07-20.  ^ Dreger, Alice (May 16, 2013). "When to Do Surgery on a Child With 'Both' Genitalia". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2015-07-20.  ^ a b c White, Ryan L. (2013). "Preferred Private Parts: Importing Intersex Autonomy for M.C. v. Aaronson". Fordham International Law Journal. 37: 777.  ^ "Adoptive parents sue over son's sex-assignment surgery". Washington Times.  ^ Aaronson, Ian A (July 2001). "The investigation and management of the infant with ambiguous genitalia: A surgeon's perspective". Current Problems in Pediatrics. 31 (6): 168–194. doi:10.1067/mps.2001.116127. ISSN 0045-9380.  ^ a b Largent, Emily (March 5, 2015). "M.C. v. Aaronson". Petrie-Flom Center, Harvard Law.  ^ interACT (January 27, 2015). "Update on M.C.'s Case – The Road to Justice can be Long, but there is more than one path for M.C". Retrieved 2017-02-18.  ^ Ghorayshi, Azeen (July 27, 2017). "A Landmark Lawsuit About An Intersex Baby's Genital Surgery Just Settled For $440,000". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 2017-07-27. 


External links[edit] Media related to Intersex at Wikimedia Commons v t e Female congenital anomalies of the genitalia, including Intersex and DSD: (Q50–Q52; 752.0–752.4) Internal Uterine malformation Müllerian agenesis Cervical agenesis Unicornuate uterus Uterus didelphys Bicornuate uterus Uterine septum Arcuate uterus Vagina Vaginal septum Vaginal hypoplasia External Clitoromegaly Imperforate hymen Progestin-induced virilisation Pseudohermaphroditism Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=True_hermaphroditism&oldid=816961522" Categories: Congenital disorders of genital organsRare diseasesIntersex and medicineHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listInfobox medical conditionArticles to be expanded from August 2017All articles to be expandedArticles with empty sections from August 2017All articles with empty sectionsArticles using small message boxesArticles containing Latin-language textArticles containing Ancient Greek-language textCommons category without a link on Wikidata


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True_hermaphroditism - Photos and All Basic Informations

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International Statistical Classification Of Diseases And Related Health ProblemsICD-10OMIMEMedicineMedical Subject HeadingsOrphanetIntersexOvaryTestisOvotestisMixed Gonadal DysgenesisExternal GenitaliaTestosteroneGestationTrisomic RescueChimera (genetics)SRYKaryotypesKlinefelter SyndromeEdit Section: TreatmentEdit Section: Human PrevalenceMosaic (genetics)Intersex In HistoryLatin LanguageAncient Greek LanguageRomanization Of Ancient GreekHermaphroditosHermesAphroditeGreek MythologyOvidNymphSalmacisDiodorus SiculusEnglish LexiconIntersex Rights In The United StatesIntersex Civil Society OrganizationInteract Advocates For Intersex YouthSouthern Poverty Law CenterDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInteract Advocates For Intersex YouthSouthern Poverty Law CenterAlice DregerThe AtlanticWashington TimesDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberInteract Advocates For Intersex YouthCommons:Category:IntersexTemplate:Female Congenital Anomalies Of Genital OrgansTemplate Talk:Female Congenital Anomalies Of Genital OrgansFemaleCongenital Anomalies Of The GenitaliaIntersexDisorders Of Sex DevelopmentICD-10 Chapter XVII: Congenital Malformations, Deformations And Chromosomal AbnormalitiesList Of ICD-9 Codes 740–759: Congenital AnomaliesFemale Internal GenitaliaUterine MalformationMüllerian AgenesisCervical AgenesisUnicornuate UterusUterus DidelphysBicornuate UterusUterine SeptumArcuate UterusVaginaVaginal SeptumVaginal HypoplasiaFemale External GenitaliaClitoromegalyImperforate HymenProgestin-induced VirilisationPseudohermaphroditismHelp:CategoryCategory:Congenital Disorders Of Genital OrgansCategory:Rare DiseasesCategory:Intersex And MedicineCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListCategory:Infobox Medical ConditionCategory:Articles To Be Expanded From August 2017Category:All Articles To Be ExpandedCategory:Articles With Empty Sections From August 2017Category:All Articles With Empty SectionsCategory:Articles Using Small Message BoxesCategory:Articles Containing Latin-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Ancient Greek-language TextCategory:Commons Category Without A Link On WikidataDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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