Contents 1 Early life 2 Academic career 2.1 Bryn Mawr 2.2 Marriage and family 2.3 Columbia University 2.4 Caltech 3 Morgan and evolution 4 Legacy and honors 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Early life Morgan was born in Lexington, Kentucky, to Charlton Hunt Morgan and Ellen Key Howard Morgan.[2][3] Part of a line of Southern planter elite on his father's side, Morgan was a nephew of Confederate General John Hunt Morgan and his great-grandfather John Wesley Hunt had been the first millionaire west of the Allegheny Mountains. Through his mother, he was the great-grandson of Francis Scott Key, the author of the "Star Spangled Banner", and John Eager Howard, governor and senator from Maryland.[3] Following the Civil War, the family fell on hard times with the temporary loss of civil and some property rights for those who aided the Confederacy. His father had difficulty finding work in politics and spent much of his time coordinating veterans reunions. Beginning at age 16 in the Preparatory Department, Morgan attended the State College of Kentucky (now the University of Kentucky). He focused on science; he particularly enjoyed natural history, and worked with the U.S. Geological Survey in his summers. He graduated as valedictorian in 1886 with a Bachelor of Science degree.[4] Following a summer at the Marine Biology School in Annisquam, Massachusetts, Morgan began graduate studies in zoology at the recently founded Johns Hopkins University, the first research-oriented American university. After two years of experimental work with morphologist William Keith Brooks and writing several publications, Morgan was eligible to receive a master of science from the State College of Kentucky in 1888. The college required two years of study at another institution and an examination by the college faculty.[citation needed] The college offered Morgan a full professorship; however, he chose to stay at Johns Hopkins and was awarded a relatively large fellowship to help him fund his studies.[citation needed] Under Brooks, Morgan completed his thesis work on the embryology of sea spiders—collected during the summers of 1889 and 1890 at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts—to determine their phylogenetic relationship with other arthropods. He concluded that with respect to embryology, they were more closely related to spiders than crustaceans. Based on the publication of this work, Morgan was awarded his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins in 1890, and was also awarded the Bruce Fellowship in Research. He used the fellowship to travel to Jamaica, the Bahamas and to Europe to conduct further research.[5] Nearly every summer from 1890 to 1942, Morgan returned to the Marine Biological Laboratory to conduct research. He became very involved in governance of the institution, including serving as an MBL trustee from 1897 to 1945.[6] Morgan was an atheist.[7][8][9][10]

Academic career Bryn Mawr In 1890, Morgan was appointed associate professor (and head of the biology department) at Johns Hopkins' sister school Bryn Mawr College, replacing his colleague Edmund Beecher Wilson.[11] Morgan taught all morphology-related courses, while the other member of the department, Jacques Loeb, taught the physiological courses. Although Loeb stayed for only one year, it was the beginning of their lifelong friendship.[12] Morgan lectured in biology five days a week, giving two lectures a day. He frequently included his own recent research in his lectures. Although an enthusiastic teacher, he was most interested in research in the laboratory. During the first few years at Bryn Mawr, he produced descriptive studies of sea acorns, ascidian worms and frogs. In 1894 Morgan was granted a year's absence to conduct research in the laboratories of Stazione Zoologica in Naples, where Wilson had worked two years earlier. There he worked with German biologist Hans Driesch, whose research in the experimental study of development piqued Morgan's interest. Among other projects that year, Morgan completed an experimental study of ctenophore embryology. In Naples and through Loeb, he became familiar with the Entwicklungsmechanik (roughly, "developmental mechanics") school of experimental biology. It was a reaction to the vitalistic Naturphilosophie, which was extremely influential in 19th-century morphology. Morgan changed his work from traditional, largely descriptive morphology to an experimental embryology that sought physical and chemical explanations for organismal development.[13] At the time, there was considerable scientific debate over the question of how an embryo developed. Following Wilhelm Roux's mosaic theory of development, some believed that hereditary material was divided among embryonic cells, which were predestined to form particular parts of a mature organism. Driesch and others thought that development was due to epigenetic factors, where interactions between the protoplasm and the nucleus of the egg and the environment could affect development. Morgan was in the latter camp; his work with Driesch demonstrated that blastomeres isolated from sea urchin and ctenophore eggs could develop into complete larvae, contrary to the predictions (and experimental evidence) of Roux's supporters.[14] A related debate involved the role of epigenetic and environmental factors in development; on this front Morgan showed that sea urchin eggs could be induced to divide without fertilization by adding magnesium chloride. Loeb continued this work and became well known for creating fatherless frogs using the method.[15] [16] When Morgan returned to Bryn Mawr in 1895, he was promoted to full professor. Morgan's main lines of experimental work involved regeneration and larval development; in each case, his goal was to distinguish internal and external causes to shed light on the Roux-Driesch debate. He wrote his first book, The Development of the Frog's Egg (1897). He began a series of studies on different organisms' ability to regenerate. He looked at grafting and regeneration in tadpoles, fish and earthworms; in 1901 he published his research as Regeneration. Beginning in 1900, Morgan started working on the problem of sex determination, which he had previously dismissed when Nettie Stevens discovered the impact of the Y chromosome on sex. He also continued to study the evolutionary problems that had been the focus of his earliest work.[17] Marriage and family On June 4, 1904, Morgan married Lillian Vaughan Sampson (1870–1952), who had entered graduate school in biology at Bryn Mawr the same year Morgan joined the faculty; she put aside her scientific work in the early years of their marriage, when they had four children. Later she contributed significantly to Morgan's Drosophila work. One of their four children (one boy and three girls) was Isabel Morgan (1911–1996) (marr. Mountain), who became a virologist at Johns Hopkins, specializing in polio research. Columbia University Later in 1904, E. B. Wilson—still blazing the path for his younger friend—invited Morgan to join him at Columbia University. This move freed him to focus fully on experimental work.[18] In a typical Drosophila genetics experiment, male and female flies with known phenotypes are put in a jar to mate; females must be virgins. Eggs are laid in porridge which the larva feed on; when the life cycle is complete, the progeny are scored for inheritance of the trait of interest. When Morgan took the professorship in experimental zoology, he became increasingly focused on the mechanisms of heredity and evolution. He had published Evolution and Adaptation (1903); like many biologists at the time, he saw evidence for biological evolution (as in the common descent of similar species) but rejected Darwin's proposed mechanism of natural selection acting on small, constantly produced variations. Extensive work in biometry seemed to indicate that continuous natural variation had distinct limits and did not represent heritable changes. Embryological development posed an additional problem in Morgan's view, as selection could not act on the early, incomplete stages of highly complex organs such as the eye. The common solution of the Lamarckian mechanism of inheritance of acquired characters, which featured prominently in Darwin's theory, was increasingly rejected by biologists. According to Morgan's biographer Garland Allen, he was also hindered by his views on taxonomy: he thought that species were entirely artificial creations that distorted the continuously variable range of real forms, while he held a "typological" view of larger taxa and could see no way that one such group could transform into another. But while Morgan was skeptical of natural selection for many years, his theories of heredity and variation were radically transformed through his conversion to Mendelism.[19] In 1900 three scientists, Carl Correns, Erich von Tschermak and Hugo De Vries, had rediscovered the work of Gregor Mendel, and with it the foundation of genetics. De Vries proposed that new species were created by mutation, bypassing the need for either Lamarckism or Darwinism. As Morgan had dismissed both evolutionary theories, he was seeking to prove De Vries' mutation theory with his experimental heredity work. He was initially skeptical of Mendel's laws of heredity (as well as the related chromosomal theory of sex determination), which were being considered as a possible basis for natural selection. Sex linked inheritance of the white eyed mutation. Following C. W. Woodworth and William E. Castle, around 1908 Morgan started working on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and encouraging students to do so as well. With Fernandus Payne, he mutated Drosophila through physical, chemical, and radiational means.[20][21] He began cross-breeding experiments to find heritable mutations, but they had no significant success for two years.[20] Castle had also had difficulty identifying mutations in Drosophila, which were tiny. Finally in 1909, a series of heritable mutants appeared, some of which displayed Mendelian inheritance patterns; in 1910 Morgan noticed a white-eyed mutant male among the red-eyed wild types. When white-eyed flies were bred with a red-eyed female, their progeny were all red-eyed. A second generation cross produced white-eyed males—a sex-linked recessive trait, the gene for which Morgan named white. Morgan also discovered a pink-eyed mutant that showed a different pattern of inheritance. In a paper published in Science in 1911, he concluded that (1) some traits were sex-linked, (2) the trait was probably carried on one of the sex chromosomes, and (3) other genes were probably carried on specific chromosomes as well. Morgan's illustration of crossing over, from his 1916 A Critique of the Theory of Evolution Morgan and his students became more successful at finding mutant flies; they counted the mutant characteristics of thousands of fruit flies and studied their inheritance. As they accumulated multiple mutants, they combined them to study more complex inheritance patterns. The observation of a miniature-wing mutant, which was also on the sex chromosome but sometimes sorted independently to the white-eye mutation, led Morgan to the idea of genetic linkage and to hypothesize the phenomenon of crossing over. He relied on the discovery of Frans Alfons Janssens, a Belgian professor at the University of Leuven, who described the phenomenon in 1909 and had called it chiasmatypie. Morgan proposed that the amount of crossing over between linked genes differs and that crossover frequency might indicate the distance separating genes on the chromosome. The later English geneticist J. B. S. Haldane suggested that the unit of measurement for linkage be called the morgan. Morgan's student Alfred Sturtevant developed the first genetic map in 1913. Thomas Hunt Morgan's Drosophila melanogaster genetic linkage map. This was the first successful gene mapping work and provides important evidence for the chromosome theory of inheritance. The map shows the relative positions of allelic characteristics on the second Drosophila chromosome. The distance between the genes (map units) are equal to the percentage of crossing-over events that occurs between different alleles. [image 1] In 1915 Morgan, Sturtevant, Calvin Bridges and H. J. Muller wrote the seminal book The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity.[22] Geneticist Curt Stern called the book "the fundamental textbook of the new genetics" and C. H. Waddington noted that "Morgan's theory of the chromosome represents a great leap of imagination comparable with Galileo or Newton".[citation needed] In the following years, most biologists came to accept the Mendelian-chromosome theory, which was independently proposed by Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri in 1902/1903, and elaborated and expanded by Morgan and his students. Garland Allen characterized the post-1915 period as one of normal science, in which "The activities of 'geneticists' were aimed at further elucidation of the details and implications of the Mendelian-chromosome theory developed between 1910 and 1915." But, the details of the increasingly complex theory, as well as the concept of the gene and its physical nature, were still controversial. Critics such as W. E. Castle pointed to contrary results in other organisms, suggesting that genes interact with each other, while Richard Goldschmidt and others thought there was no compelling reason to view genes as discrete units residing on chromosomes.[23] Because of Morgan's dramatic success with Drosophila, many other labs throughout the world took up fruit fly genetics. Columbia became the center of an informal exchange network, through which promising mutant Drosophila strains were transferred from lab to lab; Drosophila became one of the first, and for some time the most widely used, model organisms.[24] Morgan's group remained highly productive, but Morgan largely withdrew from doing fly work and gave his lab members considerable freedom in designing and carrying out their own experiments. He returned to embryology and worked to encourage the spread of genetics research to other organisms and the spread of the mechanistic experimental approach (Enwicklungsmechanik) to all biological fields.[25] After 1915, he also became a strong critic of the growing eugenics movement. This adopted the ideas of genetics in support of racism and worse.[26] Morgan's fly-room at Columbia became world-famous, and he found it easy to attract funding and visiting academics. In 1927 after 25 years at Columbia, and nearing the age of retirement, he received an offer from George Ellery Hale to establish a school of biology in California. Caltech Morgan moved to California to head the Division of Biology at the California Institute of Technology in 1928. In establishing the biology division, Morgan wanted to distinguish his program from those offered by Johns Hopkins and Columbia, with research focused on genetics and evolution; experimental embryology; physiology; biophysics and biochemistry. He was also instrumental in the establishment of the Marine Laboratory at Corona del Mar. He wanted to attract the best people to the Division at Caltech, so he took Bridges, Sturtevant, Jack Shultz and Albert Tyler from Columbia and took on Theodosius Dobzhansky as an international research fellow. More scientists came to work in the Division including George Beadle, Boris Ephrussi, Edward L. Tatum, Linus Pauling, Frits Went, and Sidney W. Fox. In accordance with his reputation, Morgan held numerous prestigious positions in American science organizations. From 1927 to 1931 Morgan served as the President of the National Academy of Sciences; in 1930 he was the President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; and in 1932 he chaired the Sixth International Congress of Genetics in Ithaca, New York. In 1933 Morgan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; he had been nominated in 1919 and 1930 for the same work. As an acknowledgement of the group nature of his discovery he gave his prize money to Bridges', Sturtevant's and his own children. Morgan declined to attend the awards ceremony in 1933, instead attending in 1934. The 1933 rediscovery of the giant polytene chromosomes in the salivary gland of Drosophila may have influenced his choice. Until that point, the lab's results had been inferred from phenotypic results, the visible polytene chromosome enabled them to confirm their results on a physical basis. Morgan's Nobel acceptance speech entitled "The Contribution of Genetics to Physiology and Medicine" downplayed the contribution genetics could make to medicine beyond genetic counselling. In 1939 he was awarded the Copley Medal by the Royal Society. He received two extensions of his contract at Caltech, but eventually retired in 1942, becoming professor and chairman emeritus. George Beadle returned to Caltech to replace Morgan as chairman of the department in 1946. Although he had retired, Morgan kept offices across the road from the Division and continued laboratory work. In his retirement, he returned to the questions of sexual differentiation, regeneration, and embryology. Morgan had throughout his life suffered with a chronic duodenal ulcer. In 1945, at age 79, he experienced a severe heart attack and died from a ruptured artery.

Morgan and evolution Morgan was interested in evolution throughout his life. He wrote his thesis on the phylogeny of sea spiders (pycnogonids) and wrote four books about evolution. In Evolution and Adaptation (1903), he argued the anti-Darwinist position that selection could never produce wholly new species by acting on slight individual differences.[27] He rejected Darwin's theory of sexual selection[28] and the Neo-Lamarckian theory of the inheritance of acquired characters.[29] Morgan was not the only scientist attacking natural selection. The period 1875–1925 has been called 'The eclipse of Darwinism'.[30] After discovering many small stable heritable mutations in Drosophila, Morgan gradually changed his mind. The relevance of mutations for evolution is that only characters that are inherited can have an effect in evolution. Since Morgan (1915) 'solved the problem of heredity', he was in a unique position to examine critically Darwin's theory of natural selection. In A Critique of the Theory of Evolution (1916), Morgan discussed questions such as: "Does selection play any role in evolution? How can selection produce anything new? Is selection no more than the elimination of the unfit? Is selection a creative force?" After eliminating some misunderstandings and explaining in detail the new science of Mendelian heredity and its chromosomal basis, Morgan concludes, "the evidence shows clearly that the characters of wild animals and plants, as well as those of domesticated races, are inherited both in the wild and in domesticated forms according to the Mendel's Law". "Evolution has taken place by the incorporation into the race of those mutations that are beneficial to the life and reproduction of the organism".[31] Injurious mutations have practically no chance of becoming established.[32] Far from rejecting evolution, as the title of his 1916 book may suggest, Morgan laid the foundation of the science of genetics. He also laid the theoretical foundation for the mechanism of evolution: natural selection. Heredity was a central plank of Darwin's theory of natural selection, but Darwin could not provide a working theory of heredity. Darwinism could not progress without a correct theory of genetics. By creating that foundation, Morgan contributed to the neo-Darwinian synthesis, despite his criticism of Darwin at the beginning of his career. Much work on the Evolutionary Synthesis remained to be done.

Legacy and honors Morgan left an important legacy in genetics. Some of Morgan's students from Columbia and Caltech went on to win their own Nobel Prizes, including George Wells Beadle and Hermann Joseph Muller. Nobel prize winner Eric Kandel has written of Morgan, "Much as Darwin's insights into the evolution of animal species first gave coherence to nineteenth-century biology as a descriptive science, Morgan's findings about genes and their location on chromosomes helped transform biology into an experimental science."[33] Johns Hopkins awarded Morgan an honorary LL.D. and the University of Kentucky awarded him an honorary Ph.D. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences and made a foreign member of the Royal Society. In 1924 Morgan received the Darwin Medal. The Thomas Hunt Morgan School of Biological Sciences at the University of Kentucky is named for him. The Genetics Society of America annually awards the Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal, named in his honor, to one of its members who has made a significant contribution to the science of genetics. Thomas Hunt Morgan's discovery was illustrated on a 1989 stamp issued in Sweden, showing the discoveries of eight Nobel Prize-winning geneticists. A junior high school in Shoreline, Washington was named in Morgan's honor for the latter half of the 20th century.

See also List of books by Thomas Hunt Morgan History of genetics History of model organisms Centimorgan, unit of genetic crossover

Notes ^ Mader, Sylvia (2007). Biology Ninth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-07-325839-3. 

References ^ a b Fisher, R. A.; De Beer, G. R. (1947). "Thomas Hunt Morgan. 1866-1945". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 5 (15): 451–466. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1947.0011. JSTOR 769094.  ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933". Nobel Web AB. Retrieved 2010-09-14.  ^ a b Sturtevant (1959), p283. ^ Allen (1978), pp11-14, 24. ^ Allen, Thomas Hunt Morgan: The Man and His Science, pp 46-51 ^ Kenney, D. E.; Borisy, G. G. (2009). "Thomas Hunt Morgan at the Marine Biological Laboratory: Naturalist and Experimentalist". Genetics. 181 (3): 841–846. doi:10.1534/genetics.109.101659.  ^ George Pendle (2006). Strange Angel: The Otherworldly Life of Rocket Scientist John Whiteside Parsons. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 69. ISBN 9780156031790. The Nobel Prize-winning geneticist and stringent atheist Thomas Hunt Morgan was developing the chromosome theory of heredity by examining his swarm of mutated Drosophila (fruit flies) through a jeweler's loupe.  ^ "Morgan's passion for experimentation was symptomatic of his general scepticism and his distaste for speculation. He believed only what could be proven. He was said to be an atheist, and I have always believed that he was. Everything I knew about him—his scepticism, his honesty—was consistent with disbelief in the supernatural." Norman H. Horowitz, T. H. Morgan at Caltech: A Reminiscence, Genetics, Vol. 149, 1629-1632, August 1998, Copyright © 1998. ^ ^ ^ Morgan, T. H. (1940). "Edmund Beecher Wilson. 1856-1939". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 3 (8): 123–126. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1940.0012.  ^ Allen, Thomas Hunt Morgan, pp 50-53 ^ Allen, Thomas Hunt Morgan, pp 55-59, 72-80 ^ Allen, Thomas Hunt Morgan, pp 55-59, 80-82 ^ Loeb, Jacques (1899). "On the Nature of the Process of Fertilization and the Artificial Production of Normal Larvae (Plutei) from the Unfertilized Eggs of the Sea Urchin". American Journal of Physiology. 31: 135–138.  ^ Loeb, Jacques (1913). Artificial parthenogenesis and fertilization. University of Chicago Press.  ^ Allen, Thomas Hunt Morgan, pp 84-96 ^ Allen, Thomas Hunt Morgan, pp 68-70 ^ Allen, Thomas Hunt Morgan: The Man and His Science, pp 105-116 ^ a b Kohler, Lords of the Fly, pp 37-43 ^ Hamilton, Vivien (2016). "The Secrets of Life: Historian Luis Campos resurrects radium's role in early genetics research". Distillations. 2 (2): 44–45. Retrieved 17 February 2017.  ^ Morgan, Thomas Hunt; Alfred H. Sturtevant, H. J. Muller and C. B. Bridges (1915). The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity. New York: Henry Holt. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Allen, Thomas Hunt Morgan, pp 208-213, 257-278. Quotation from p 213. ^ Kohler, Lords of the Fly, chapter 5 ^ Allen, Thomas Hunt Morgan, pp 214-215, 285 ^ Allen, Thomas Hunt Morgan, pp 227-234 ^ Allen, Garland E. (2009). Ruse, Michael; Travis, Joseph, eds. Evolution. The First Four Billion Years. Harvard University Press. p. 746. ISBN 9780674031753.  ^ "I think we shall be justified in rejecting it as an explanation of the secondary sexual differences amongst animals", page 220-221, chapter VI, Evolution and Adaptation, 1903. ^ Chapter VII of Evolution and Adaptation, 1903. ^ Bowler, Peter (2003). Evolution. The History of an Idea. University of California Press. chapter 7.  ^ A Critique of the Theory of Evolution, Princeton University Press, 1916, p. 193-194 ^ A Critique of the Theory of Evolution, page 189. ^ Kandel, Eric. 1999. "Genes, Chromosomes, and the Origins of Modern Biology", Columbia Magazine

Further reading Allen, Garland E. (1978). Thomas Hunt Morgan: The Man and His Science. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08200-6.  Allen, Garland E. (2000). "Morgan, Thomas Hunt". American National Biography. Oxford University Press.  Kohler, Robert E. (1994). Lords of the Fly: Drosophila Genetics and the Experimental Life. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-45063-5.  Shine, Ian B; Sylvia Wrobel (1976). Thomas Hunt Morgan: Pioneer of Genetics. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-0095-X.  Stephenson, Wendell H. (April 1946). "Thomas Hunt Morgan: Kentucky's Gift to Biological Science". Filson Club History Quarterly. 20 (2). Retrieved 2012-02-22.  Sturtevant, Alfred H. (1959). "Thomas Hunt Morgan". Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences. 33: 283–325. 

External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thomas Hunt Morgan (category) Nobel Prize Biography Thomas Hunt Morgan Biological Sciences Building at University of Kentucky Thomas Hunt Morgan Thomas Hunt Morgan — Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences Works by Thomas Hunt Morgan at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Thomas Hunt Morgan at Internet Archive v t e Copley Medallists of 1901–50 Josiah Willard Gibbs (1901) Joseph Lister (1902) Eduard Suess (1903) William Crookes (1904) Dmitri Mendeleev (1905) Élie Metchnikoff (1906) Albert A. Michelson (1907) Alfred Russel Wallace (1908) George William Hill (1909) Francis Galton (1910) George Darwin (1911) Felix Klein (1912) Ray Lankester (1913) J. J. Thomson (1914) Ivan Pavlov (1915) James Dewar (1916) Pierre Paul Émile Roux (1917) Hendrik Lorentz (1918) William Bayliss (1919) Horace Tabberer Brown (1920) Joseph Larmor (1921) Ernest Rutherford (1922) Horace Lamb (1923) Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer (1924) Albert Einstein (1925) Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1926) Charles Scott Sherrington (1927) Charles Algernon Parsons (1928) Max Planck (1929) William Henry Bragg (1930) Arthur Schuster (1931) George Ellery Hale (1932) Theobald Smith (1933) John Scott Haldane (1934) Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1935) Arthur Evans (1936) Henry Hallett Dale (1937) Niels Bohr (1938) Thomas Hunt Morgan (1939) Paul Langevin (1940) Thomas Lewis (1941) Robert Robinson (1942) Leonel Messi (1943) Geoffrey Ingram Taylor (1944) Oswald Avery (1945) Edgar Douglas Adrian (1946) G. H. Hardy (1947) Archibald Hill (1948) George de Hevesy (1949) James Chadwick (1950) v t e Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901–1925 1901 Emil Behring 1902 Ronald Ross 1903 Niels Finsen 1904 Ivan Pavlov 1905 Robert Koch 1906 Camillo Golgi / Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1907 Alphonse Laveran 1908 Élie Metchnikoff / Paul Ehrlich 1909 Emil Kocher 1910 Albrecht Kossel 1911 Allvar Gullstrand 1912 Alexis Carrel 1913 Charles Richet 1914 Róbert Bárány 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 Jules Bordet 1920 August Krogh 1921 1922 Archibald Hill / Otto Meyerhof 1923 Frederick Banting / John Macleod 1924 Willem Einthoven 1925 1926–1950 1926 Johannes Fibiger 1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg 1928 Charles Nicolle 1929 Christiaan Eijkman / Frederick Gowland Hopkins 1930 Karl Landsteiner 1931 Otto Warburg 1932 Charles Scott Sherrington / Edgar Adrian 1933 Thomas Morgan 1934 George Whipple / George Minot / William Murphy 1935 Hans Spemann 1936 Henry Dale / Otto Loewi 1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi 1938 Corneille Heymans 1939 Gerhard Domagk 1940 1941 1942 1943 Henrik Dam / Edward Doisy 1944 Joseph Erlanger / Herbert Gasser 1945 Alexander Fleming / Ernst Chain / Howard Florey 1946 Hermann Muller 1947 Carl Cori / Gerty Cori / Bernardo Houssay 1948 Paul Müller 1949 Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz 1950 Edward Kendall / Tadeusz Reichstein / Philip Hench 1951–1975 1951 Max Theiler 1952 Selman Waksman 1953 Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann 1954 John Enders / Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins 1955 Hugo Theorell 1956 André Cournand / Werner Forssmann / Dickinson W. Richards 1957 Daniel Bovet 1958 George Beadle / Edward Tatum / Joshua Lederberg 1959 Severo Ochoa / Arthur Kornberg 1960 Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar 1961 Georg von Békésy 1962 Francis Crick / James Watson / Maurice Wilkins 1963 John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley 1964 Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen 1965 François Jacob / André Lwoff / Jacques Monod 1966 Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins 1967 Ragnar Granit / Haldan Hartline / George Wald 1968 Robert W. Holley / Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg 1969 Max Delbrück / Alfred Hershey / Salvador Luria 1970 Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler / Julius Axelrod 1971 Earl Sutherland Jr. 1972 Gerald Edelman / Rodney Porter 1973 Karl von Frisch / Konrad Lorenz / Nikolaas Tinbergen 1974 Albert Claude / Christian de Duve / George Palade 1975 David Baltimore / Renato Dulbecco / Howard Temin 1976–2000 1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek 1977 Roger Guillemin / Andrew Schally / Rosalyn Yalow 1978 Werner Arber / Daniel Nathans / Hamilton O. Smith 1979 Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield 1980 Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset / George Snell 1981 Roger Sperry / David H. Hubel / Torsten Wiesel 1982 Sune Bergström / Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane 1983 Barbara McClintock 1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein 1985 Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein 1986 Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini 1987 Susumu Tonegawa 1988 James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion / George H. Hitchings 1989 J. Michael Bishop / Harold E. Varmus 1990 Joseph Murray / E. Donnall Thomas 1991 Erwin Neher / Bert Sakmann 1992 Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs 1993 Richard J. Roberts / Phillip Sharp 1994 Alfred G. Gilman / Martin Rodbell 1995 Edward B. Lewis / Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard / Eric F. Wieschaus 1996 Peter C. Doherty / Rolf M. Zinkernagel 1997 Stanley B. Prusiner 1998 Robert F. Furchgott / Louis Ignarro / Ferid Murad 1999 Günter Blobel 2000 Arvid Carlsson / Paul Greengard / Eric Kandel 2001–present 2001 Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt / Paul Nurse 2002 Sydney Brenner / H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston 2003 Paul Lauterbur / Peter Mansfield 2004 Richard Axel / Linda B. Buck 2005 Barry Marshall / Robin Warren 2006 Andrew Fire / Craig Mello 2007 Mario Capecchi / Martin Evans / Oliver Smithies 2008 Harald zur Hausen / Luc Montagnier / Françoise Barré-Sinoussi 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn / Carol W. Greider / Jack W. Szostak 2010 Robert G. Edwards 2011 Bruce Beutler / Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman (posthumously) 2012 John B. Gurdon / Shinya Yamanaka 2013 James Rothman / Randy Schekman / Thomas C. Südhof 2014 John O'Keefe / May-Britt Moser / Edvard Moser 2015 William C. Campbell / Satoshi Ōmura / Tu Youyou 2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi 2017 Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young v t e Presidents of the National Academy of Sciences Alexander Bache (1863) Joseph Henry (1868) William Rogers (1879) Othniel Marsh (1883) Wolcott Gibbs (1895) Alexander Agassiz (1901) Ira Remsen (1907) William H. Welch (1913) Charles Walcott (1917) Albert A. Michelson (1923) Thomas Morgan (1927) William Campbell (1931) Frank Lillie (1935) Frank B. Jewett (1939) Alfred Richards (1947) Detlev Bronk (1950) Frederick Seitz (1962) Philip Handler (1969) Frank Press (1981) Bruce Alberts (1993) Ralph J. Cicerone (2005) Marcia McNutt (2016) Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 66545024 LCCN: n50006108 ISNI: 0000 0001 1028 5706 GND: 118736892 SUDOC: 032735367 BNF: cb12370861t (data) NLA: 35362487 NDL: 00541724 NKC: nlk20000079384 IATH: w6vh5q27 Retrieved from "" Categories: 1866 births1945 deathsAmerican biologistsAmerican geneticistsAmerican atheistsCalifornia Institute of Technology facultyNobel laureates in Physiology or MedicineAmerican Nobel laureatesRecipients of the Copley MedalWriters from Lexington, KentuckyColumbia University facultyJohns Hopkins University alumniUniversity of Kentucky alumniForeign Members of the Royal SocietyCorresponding Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1917–25)Corresponding Members of the USSR Academy of SciencesHonorary Members of the USSR Academy of SciencesMembers of the Pontifical Academy of SciencesKey family of MarylandHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listWikipedia semi-protected pagesBiography with signatureArticles with hCardsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from February 2007Articles with Project Gutenberg linksArticles with Internet Archive linksWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with NLA identifiersWikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadView sourceView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikisource Languages العربيةAzərbaycancaتۆرکجهবাংলাBân-lâm-gúБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎БългарскиCatalàČeštinaDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEuskaraفارسیFrançaisGaeilgeGalego한국어ՀայերենHrvatskiIdoBahasa IndonesiaItalianoעבריתქართულიҚазақшаKiswahiliКыргызчаLatinaMagyarМакедонскиമലയാളംМонголNederlands日本語NorskOccitanOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаپنجابیPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийसंस्कृतम्ScotsSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaСрпски / srpskiSuomiSvenskaTürkçeУкраїнськаاردوTiếng ViệtYorùbá中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 9 January 2018, at 13:44. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.492","walltime":"0.624","ppvisitednodes":{"value":5276,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":136373,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":9133,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":18,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":4,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 502.825 1 -total"," 22.97% 115.523 1 Template:Infobox_scientist"," 21.42% 107.703 2 Template:Reflist"," 20.84% 104.814 1 Template:Infobox_person"," 13.79% 69.350 2 Template:Infobox"," 13.64% 68.577 3 Template:Citation_needed"," 12.25% 61.598 9 Template:Cite_book"," 12.05% 60.602 3 Template:Fix"," 7.16% 35.993 6 Template:Category_handler"," 7.14% 35.898 1 Template:Pp-protect"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.206","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":6224674,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1327","timestamp":"20180113181551","ttl":86400,"transientcontent":true}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":119,"wgHostname":"mw1219"});});

Thomas_Hunt_Morgan - Photos and All Basic Informations

Thomas_Hunt_Morgan More Links

This Article Is Semi-protected Until February 6, 2019.Thomas Morgan (disambiguation)Lexington, KentuckyPasadena, CaliforniaUnited StatesUniversity Of KentuckyBachelor Of ScienceJohns Hopkins UniversityDoctor Of PhilosophyDrosophila MelanogasterModel OrganismLinked GenesNobel Prize In Physiology Or MedicineCopley MedalGeneticsEmbryologyBryn Mawr CollegeColumbia UniversityCalifornia Institute Of TechnologyNettie Maria StevensJohn Howard NorthropHermann Joseph MullerCalvin BridgesAlfred SturtevantEvolutionary BiologistGeneticistEmbryologyNobel Prize In Physiology Or MedicineChromosomeHeredityJohns Hopkins UniversityZoologyBryn Mawr CollegeMendelian InheritanceDrosophila MelanogasterColumbia UniversityGeneChromosomeGeneticsList Of Books By Thomas Hunt MorganModel OrganismCalifornia Institute Of TechnologyLexington, KentuckyKentuckySouthern United StatesConfederate States ArmyJohn Hunt MorganJohn Wesley HuntAllegheny MountainsFrancis Scott KeyStar Spangled BannerJohn Eager HowardMarylandUniversity Of KentuckyUnited States Geological SurveyValedictorianAnnisquam, MassachusettsZoologyJohns Hopkins UniversityMorphology (biology)William Keith BrooksWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Citation NeededSea SpiderMarine Biological LaboratoryWoods Hole, MassachusettsPhylogeneticsArthropodChelicerataDoctor Of PhilosophyJamaicaBahamaEuropeMarine Biological LaboratoryBryn Mawr CollegeEdmund Beecher WilsonJacques LoebSea AcornStazione ZoologicaNaplesHans DrieschCtenophoreNaturphilosophieWilhelm RouxBlastomeresSea UrchinEpigeneticSea UrchinMagnesium ChlorideRegeneration (biology)Sex-determination SystemNettie StevensLillian Vaughn MorganIsabel MorganVirologistPoliomyelitisColumbia UniversityEnlargePhenotypeCommon DescentNatural SelectionBiometryLamarckismInheritance Of Acquired CharactersCarl CorrensErich Von TschermakHugo De VriesGregor MendelGeneticsMutation TheoryEnlargeCharles W. WoodworthWilliam E. CastleDrosophila MelanogasterFernandus PayneMutantWild TypeWhite (mutation)Science (journal)Sex-linkedSex ChromosomeEnlargeChromosomal CrossoverGenetic LinkageChromosomal CrossoverFrans Alfons JanssensCatholic University Of Leuven (1834–1968)J. B. S. HaldaneCentimorganAlfred SturtevantGenetic MapEnlargeDrosophila MelanogasterGenetic LinkageGene MappingChromosome Theory Of InheritanceAlleleChromosomal CrossoverCalvin BridgesH. J. MullerCurt Stern (geneticist)C. H. WaddingtonWikipedia:Citation NeededBoveri-Sutton Chromosome TheoryWalter SuttonTheodor BoveriNormal ScienceGeneW. E. CastleRichard GoldschmidtModel OrganismEugenicsRacismGeorge Ellery HaleCalifornia Institute Of TechnologyKerckhoff Marine LaboratoryCorona Del MarAlbert Tyler (biologist)Theodosius DobzhanskyGeorge BeadleBoris EphrussiEdward L. TatumLinus PaulingFrits WentSidney W. FoxAmerican Association For The Advancement Of ScienceInternational Congress Of GeneticsIthaca, New YorkNobel Prize In Physiology Or MedicinePolytene ChromosomeGenetic CounsellingCopley MedalDuodenal UlcerPycnogonidsThe Eclipse Of DarwinismCharles DarwinDarwinismNeo-DarwinismGeorge Wells BeadleHermann Joseph MullerEric KandelUnited States National Academy Of SciencesRoyal SocietyDarwin MedalGenetics Society Of AmericaThomas Hunt Morgan MedalList Of Books By Thomas Hunt MorganHistory Of GeneticsHistory Of Model OrganismsCentimorganInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-07-325839-3Ronald FisherObituary Notices Of Fellows Of The Royal SocietyDigital Object IdentifierJSTORGenetics (journal)Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780156031790Edmund Beecher WilsonObituary Notices Of Fellows Of The Royal SocietyDigital Object IdentifierJacques LoebCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780674031753Princeton University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-691-08200-6American National BiographyOxford University PressUniversity Of Chicago PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-226-45063-5University Press Of KentuckyInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8131-0095-XAlfred SturtevantWikimedia CommonsBiographical Memoirs Of The National Academy Of SciencesNational Academy Of SciencesProject GutenbergInternet ArchiveTemplate:Copley Medallists 1901–1950Template Talk:Copley Medallists 1901–1950Copley MedalJosiah Willard GibbsJoseph ListerEduard SuessWilliam CrookesDmitri MendeleevÉlie MetchnikoffAlbert A. MichelsonAlfred Russel WallaceGeorge William HillFrancis GaltonGeorge DarwinFelix KleinRay LankesterJ. J. ThomsonIvan PavlovJames DewarPierre Paul Émile RouxHendrik LorentzWilliam BaylissHorace Tabberer BrownJoseph LarmorErnest RutherfordHorace LambEdward Albert Sharpey-SchaferAlbert EinsteinFrederick Gowland HopkinsCharles Scott SherringtonCharles Algernon ParsonsMax PlanckWilliam Henry BraggArthur SchusterGeorge Ellery HaleTheobald SmithJohn Scott HaldaneCharles Thomson Rees WilsonArthur EvansHenry Hallett DaleNiels BohrPaul LangevinThomas Lewis (cardiologist)Robert Robinson (organic Chemist)G. I. TaylorOswald AveryEdgar AdrianG. H. HardyArchibald HillGeorge De HevesyJames ChadwickTemplate:Nobel Prize In Physiology Or MedicineTemplate Talk:Nobel Prize In Physiology Or MedicineList Of Nobel Laureates In Physiology Or MedicineNobel Prize In Physiology Or MedicineEmil Von BehringRonald RossNiels Ryberg FinsenIvan PavlovRobert KochCamillo GolgiSantiago Ramón Y CajalCharles Louis Alphonse LaveranÉlie MetchnikoffPaul EhrlichEmil Theodor KocherAlbrecht KosselAllvar GullstrandAlexis CarrelCharles RichetRóbert BárányJules BordetAugust KroghArchibald HillOtto Fritz MeyerhofFrederick BantingJohn James Rickard MacleodWillem EinthovenJohannes FibigerJulius Wagner-JaureggCharles NicolleChristiaan EijkmanFrederick Gowland HopkinsKarl LandsteinerOtto Heinrich WarburgCharles Scott SherringtonEdgar Adrian, 1st Baron AdrianGeorge WhippleGeorge MinotWilliam P. MurphyHans SpemannHenry Hallett DaleOtto LoewiAlbert Szent-GyörgyiCorneille HeymansGerhard DomagkHenrik DamEdward Adelbert DoisyJoseph ErlangerHerbert Spencer GasserAlexander FlemingErnst ChainHoward FloreyHermann Joseph MullerCarl Ferdinand CoriGerty CoriBernardo HoussayPaul Hermann MüllerWalter Rudolf HessAntónio Egas MonizEdward Calvin KendallTadeusz ReichsteinPhilip Showalter HenchMax TheilerSelman WaksmanHans Adolf KrebsFritz Albert LipmannJohn Franklin EndersThomas Huckle WellerFrederick Chapman RobbinsHugo TheorellAndré Frédéric CournandWerner ForssmannDickinson W. RichardsDaniel BovetGeorge BeadleEdward TatumJoshua LederbergSevero OchoaArthur KornbergFrank Macfarlane BurnetPeter MedawarGeorg Von BékésyFrancis CrickJames WatsonMaurice WilkinsJohn Eccles (neurophysiologist)Alan Lloyd HodgkinAndrew HuxleyKonrad Emil BlochFeodor Felix Konrad LynenFrançois JacobAndré Michel LwoffJacques MonodFrancis Peyton RousCharles Brenton HugginsRagnar GranitHaldan Keffer HartlineGeorge WaldRobert W. HolleyHar Gobind KhoranaMarshall Warren NirenbergMax DelbrückAlfred HersheySalvador LuriaBernard KatzUlf Von EulerJulius AxelrodEarl Wilbur Sutherland Jr.Gerald EdelmanRodney Robert PorterKarl Von FrischKonrad LorenzNikolaas TinbergenAlbert ClaudeChristian De DuveGeorge Emil PaladeDavid BaltimoreRenato DulbeccoHoward Martin TeminBaruch Samuel BlumbergDaniel Carleton GajdusekRoger GuilleminAndrew SchallyRosalyn Sussman YalowWerner ArberDaniel NathansHamilton O. SmithAllan McLeod CormackGodfrey HounsfieldBaruj BenacerrafJean DaussetGeorge Davis SnellRoger Wolcott SperryDavid H. HubelTorsten WieselSune BergströmBengt I. SamuelssonJohn VaneBarbara McClintockNiels Kaj JerneGeorges J. F. KöhlerCésar MilsteinMichael Stuart BrownJoseph L. GoldsteinStanley Cohen (biochemist)Rita Levi-MontalciniSusumu TonegawaJames Black (pharmacologist)Gertrude B. ElionGeorge H. HitchingsJ. Michael BishopHarold E. VarmusJoseph MurrayE. Donnall ThomasErwin NeherBert SakmannEdmond H. FischerEdwin G. KrebsRichard J. RobertsPhillip Allen SharpAlfred G. GilmanMartin RodbellEdward B. LewisChristiane Nüsslein-VolhardEric F. WieschausPeter C. DohertyRolf M. ZinkernagelStanley B. PrusinerRobert F. FurchgottLouis IgnarroFerid MuradGünter BlobelArvid CarlssonPaul GreengardEric KandelLeland H. HartwellTim HuntPaul NurseSydney BrennerH. Robert HorvitzJohn SulstonPaul LauterburPeter MansfieldRichard AxelLinda B. BuckBarry MarshallRobin WarrenAndrew FireCraig MelloMario CapecchiMartin EvansOliver SmithiesHarald Zur HausenLuc MontagnierFrançoise Barré-SinoussiElizabeth BlackburnCarol W. GreiderJack W. SzostakRobert G. EdwardsBruce BeutlerJules A. HoffmannRalph M. SteinmanJohn B. GurdonShinya YamanakaJames RothmanRandy SchekmanThomas C. SüdhofJohn O'Keefe (neuroscientist)May-Britt MoserEdvard MoserWilliam C. Campbell (scientist)Satoshi ŌmuraTu YouyouYoshinori OhsumiJeffrey C. HallMichael RosbashMichael W. YoungTemplate:NAS PresidentsNational Academy Of SciencesAlexander Dallas BacheJoseph HenryWilliam Barton RogersOthniel Charles MarshOliver Wolcott GibbsAlexander AgassizIra RemsenWilliam H. WelchCharles Doolittle WalcottAlbert A. MichelsonWilliam Wallace CampbellFrank Rattray LillieFrank B. JewettAlfred Newton RichardsDetlev BronkFrederick SeitzPhilip HandlerFrank PressBruce AlbertsRalph J. CiceroneMarcia McNuttHelp:Authority ControlVirtual International Authority FileLibrary Of Congress Control NumberInternational Standard Name IdentifierIntegrated Authority FileSystème Universitaire De DocumentationBibliothèque Nationale De FranceNational Library Of AustraliaNational Diet LibraryNational Library Of The Czech RepublicInstitute For Advanced Technology In The HumanitiesHelp:CategoryCategory:1866 BirthsCategory:1945 DeathsCategory:American BiologistsCategory:American GeneticistsCategory:American AtheistsCategory:California Institute Of Technology FacultyCategory:Nobel Laureates In Physiology Or MedicineCategory:American Nobel LaureatesCategory:Recipients Of The Copley MedalCategory:Writers From Lexington, KentuckyCategory:Columbia University FacultyCategory:Johns Hopkins University AlumniCategory:University Of Kentucky AlumniCategory:Foreign Members Of The Royal SocietyCategory:Corresponding Members Of The Russian Academy Of Sciences (1917–25)Category:Corresponding Members Of The USSR Academy Of SciencesCategory:Honorary Members Of The USSR Academy Of SciencesCategory:Members Of The Pontifical Academy Of SciencesCategory:Key Family Of MarylandCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListCategory:Wikipedia Semi-protected PagesCategory:Biography With SignatureCategory:Articles With HCardsCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From February 2007Category:Articles With Project Gutenberg LinksCategory:Articles With Internet Archive LinksCategory:Wikipedia Articles With VIAF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With LCCN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With ISNI IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With BNF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With NLA IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SNAC-ID IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]This Page Is Protected. You Can View Its Source [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link