Contents 1 Telenursing and nursing informatics 2 Applications 2.1 Home care 2.2 Case management 2.3 Telephone triage 2.3.1 Countries using telephone triage 2.3.2 In Australia 3 Legal, ethical and regulatory issues 4 References 4.1 Notes 4.2 Bibliography 5 External links

Telenursing and nursing informatics[edit] Nursing informatics, a branch of health informatics, has been defined by Judith Rae Graves and Sheila Corcoran as "a combination of computer science, information science, and nursing science designed to assist in the management and processing of nursing data, information, and knowledge to support the practice of nursing and the delivery of nursing care".[3] Telenursing is a potential application of nursing informatics and as such, nursing informatics has served as a critical background concept its development.[4]

Applications[edit] The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (December 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Home care[edit] One of the most distinctive telenursing applications is home care. For example, patients who are immobilized, or live in remote or difficult to reach places, citizens who have chronic ailments, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, congestive heart disease, or debilitating diseases, such as neural degenerative diseases (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease or ALS), may stay at home and be "visited" and assisted regularly by a nurse via videoconferencing, internet or videophone. Other applications of home care are the care of patients in immediate post-surgical situations, the care of wounds, ostomies or disabled individuals. In normal home health care, one nurse is able to visit up to 5-7 patients per day. Using telenursing, one nurse can “visit” 12-16 patients in the same amount of time. Case management[edit] A common application of telenursing is also used by call centers operated by managed care organizations, which are staffed by registered nurses who act as case managers or perform patient triage, information and counseling as a means of regulating patient access and flow and decrease the use of emergency rooms. McKesson is a leading telephone health service provider in the United States of America, as well as in Australia. Telephone triage[edit] Telephone triage refers to symptom or clinically-based calls. Clinicians perform symptom assessment by asking detailed questions about the patient's illness or injury. The clinician's task is to estimate and/or rule out urgent symptoms. They may use pattern recognition and other problem-solving process as well. Clinicians may utilize guidelines, in paper or electronic format, to determine how urgent the symptoms are. Telephone triage requires clinicians to determine if the symptoms are life-threatening, emergency, urgent, acute or non-acute. It may involve educating and advising clients, and making safe, effective, and appropriate dispositions—all by telephone. Telephone triage takes place in settings as diverse as emergency rooms, ambulance services, large call centers, physician offices, clinics, student health centers and hospices. Countries using telephone triage[edit] An International Telenursing survey was completed in 2005, reporting that the 719 responding full-time and part-time Registered Nurses and Advanced Practice Nurses worked as a telenurse in 36 countries around the world. 68% of these Telenurses where reported to be working in the United States of America, whereas .6% where to be working in Finland. Some of these 36 counties include;[5] Australia Canada Norway United Kingdom New Zealand Iran Sweden Netherlands In Australia[edit] In Australia, telephone triages are conducted in Western Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Northern Territory, Victoria and Queensland. The first telenursing triage was conducted in Western Australia in 1999, where Triage nurses would estimate patient complexity and refer them to Fremantle Hospital. Due to the remoteness of the Australian landscape it is vital that residents living in rural areas have access to clinical support and care. Telenursing allows nurses to overcome the barriers of distance and gives them the opportunity assist those who are unable to access health care clinics or services due to either the late hour or the distance.[6]

Legal, ethical and regulatory issues[edit] Telenursing is fraught with legal, ethical and regulatory issues, as it happens with telehealth as a whole. In many countries, interstate and intercountry practice of telenursing is forbidden (the attending nurse must have a license both in their state/country of residence and in the state/country where the patient receiving telecare is located).[7] The Nurse Licensure Compact helps resolve some of these jurisdiction issues. Legal issues such as accountability and malpractice, etc. are also still largely unsolved and difficult to address. Ethical issues include maintaining autonomy, maintaining a patients integrity as well as preventing harm to a patient.[8] In addition, there are many considerations related to patient confidentiality and safety of clinical data.

References[edit] Notes[edit] ^ Edmunds, Marilyn W. (5 April 2010). "Telehealth, Telenursing, and Advanced Practice Nurses". MedScape. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ Nurses Happier Using Telecare, Says International Survey Archived 18 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine., eHealth Insider website, 15 June 2005, retrieved 4 April 2009; ^ Graves, J. R.; Corcoran, S. (1989). "The study of nursing informatics". Image--the Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 21 (4): 227–231. ISSN 0743-5150. PMID 2807330.  ^ Kumar, Sajeesh; Snooks, Helen (9 July 2011). Telenursing. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780857295293.  ^ GRADY, JANET L.; SCHLACHTA-FAIRCHILD, LORETTA. "Report of the 2004-2005 International Telenursing Survey". Computers, Informatics, Nursing. 25 (5): 266–272. doi:10.1097/01.ncn.0000289163.16122.c2.  ^ Karabatsos, Georgia; Wilson, Andrew (June 2008). "Universal telenursing triage in Australia and New Zealand: A new primary health service" (PDF). Australian Family Physician. 37 (6): 476–9.  ^ Hutcherson, Carolyn M (30 September 2001). "Legal Considerations for Nurses Practicing in a Telehealth Setting". Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 6 (3). Retrieved 12 May 2016.  ^ Hoglund, A; Holstrom, I. "Ethical Issues In Telenursing". International Hospital. Retrieved 12 May 2016.  Bibliography[edit] Telenursing: Nursing Practice in Cyberspace. By Charles C Sharpe, 2000. 280 pg. Textbook in Health Informatics: A Nursing Perspective. Edited by J. Mantas, A. Hasman, 2002. IOS Press, 504 pg. International Standards for Telenursing Programmes, International Council of Nurses, 2001. 40 pg. [1] Nursing portal

External links[edit] Telehealth: Issues for Nursing. American Nursing Association. Telenursing Fact Sheet. International Council of Nurses. International Society for Telemedicine & eHealth (ISfTeH) - Telenursing Working Group v t e Nursing Levels of practice Generalists Student nurse Clinical nurse leader Licensed practical nurse Registered nurse Graduate nurse Advanced practice APRNs by role Clinical nurse specialist Nurse anesthetist Nurse midwife Nurse practitioner NPs by Population Family Adult-Gerontology Pediatrics Women's health Neonatal Psych/Mental health Education and licensure Associate of Science in Nursing Bachelor of Science in Nursing Diploma in Nursing Doctor of Nursing Practice Master of Science in Nursing Board of nursing Nurse Licensure Compact Nursing credentials and certifications Nursing school Nurse registry NCLEX TEAS Specialties and areas of practice Ambulatory care Cardiac Critical care Education Emergency Faith community Flight Forensic Geriatrics Holistic Home health Hyperbaric Legal consultation Management Matron Medical-surgical Midwifery Military Neonatal Nursing informatics Obstetrics Occupational health Oncology Orthopedics Pediatrics Perianesthesia Perioperative Psychiatric and mental health Private duty Public health School Space Telenursing WOCN Nursing process Nursing assessment Nursing diagnosis Nursing care plan Nursing theory Classification systems NANDA Nursing Interventions Classification Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) Nursing Outcomes Classification By country Australia (timeline) Canada Germany Hong Kong India Japan Kenya New Zealand (timeline) Pakistan Philippines Republic of Ireland South Africa Taiwan United Kingdom (history) United States (history) Category Commons Portal WikiProject v t e Telemedicine Background concepts Health informatics Telecommunication Medical record Admission note Blue Button De-identification Electronic health record Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Personal health record Patient participation Decision aids Doctor–patient relationship E-patient Health 2.0 Health education Knowledge translation mHealth Participative decision-making Patient Activation Measure Shared decision-making Health information on the Internet Health information on Wikipedia Online patient education PubMed Telemedicine subspecialties eHealth Remote surgery Remote therapy Tele-audiology Tele-epidemiology Teledentistry Teledermatology Telehealth Telemental health Telenursing Teleophthalmology Telepathology Telepharmacy Telepsychiatry Teleradiology Telerehabilitation Roles to play Open-source healthcare software Patient opinion leader Research participant Virtual patient Retrieved from "" Categories: Community nursingTelehealthNursing informaticsVideotelephonyTelemedicineHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksUse dmy dates from June 2017Articles with limited geographic scope from December 2009

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