Contents 1 History 2 Philosophy 3 Science 3.1 Psychology and neurobiology 3.1.1 Social pre-wiring 3.2 Computer science 4 See also 5 Notes and references 6 Bibliography 7 External links

History[edit] Tabula rasa is a Latin phrase often translated as "blank slate" in English and originates from the Roman tabula used for notes, which was blanked by heating the wax and then smoothing it.[1] This roughly equates to the English term "blank slate" (or, more literally, "erased slate") which refers to the emptiness of a slate prior to it being written on with chalk. Both may be renewed repeatedly, by melting the wax of the tablet or by erasing the chalk on the slate.

Philosophy[edit] See also: Empiricism In Western philosophy, the concept of tabula rasa can be traced back to the writings of Aristotle who writes in his treatise "Περί Ψυχῆς" (De Anima or On the Soul) of the "unscribed tablet." In one of the more well-known passages of this treatise he writes that: Haven't we already disposed of the difficulty about interaction involving a common element, when we said that mind is in a sense potentially whatever is thinkable, though actually it is nothing until it has thought? What it thinks must be in it just as characters may be said to be on a writing-tablet on which as yet nothing stands written: this is exactly what happens with mind.[2] This idea was further developed in Ancient Greek philosophy by the Stoic school. Stoic epistemology emphasizes that the mind starts blank, but acquires knowledge as the outside world is impressed upon it.[3] The doxographer Aetius summarizes this view as "When a man is born, the Stoics say, he has the commanding part of his soul like a sheet of paper ready for writing upon."[4] Diogenes Laërtius attributes a similar belief to the Stoic Zeno of Citium when he writes in Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers that: Perception, again, is an impression produced on the mind, its name being appropriately borrowed from impressions on wax made by a seal; and perception they divide into, comprehensible and incomprehensible: Comprehensible, which they call the criterion of facts, and which is produced by a real object, and is, therefore, at the same time conformable to that object; Incomprehensible, which has no relation to any real object, or else, if it has any such relation, does not correspond to it, being but a vague and indistinct representation.[5] In the eleventh century, the theory of tabula rasa was developed more clearly by the Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina in Arabic). He argued that the "...human intellect at birth resembled a tabula rasa, a pure potentiality that is actualized through education and comes to know," and that knowledge is attained through "...empirical familiarity with objects in this world from which one abstracts universal concepts," which develops through a "...syllogistic method of reasoning; observations lead to propositional statements, which when compounded lead to further abstract concepts." He further argued that the intellect itself "...possesses levels of development from the static/material intellect (al-‘aql al-hayulani), that potentiality can acquire knowledge to the active intellect (al-‘aql al-fa‘il), the state of the human intellect at conjunction with the perfect source of knowledge."[6] In the twelfth century, the Andalusian-Islamic philosopher and novelist, Ibn Tufail, known as "Abubacer" or "Ebn Tophail" in the West, demonstrated the theory of tabula rasa as a thought experiment through his Arabic philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqzan, in which he depicted the development of the mind of a feral child "from a tabula rasa to that of an adult, in complete isolation from society" on a desert island, through experience alone. The Latin translation of his philosophical novel, entitled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.[7] Female Figure (Sibyl with Tabula Rasa) by Diego Velázquez, c. 1648 In the thirteenth century, St. Thomas Aquinas brought the Aristotelian and Avicennian notions to the forefront of Christian thought. These notions sharply contrasted with the previously held Platonic notions of the human mind as an entity that preexisted somewhere in the heavens, before being sent down to join a body here on Earth (see Plato's Phaedo and Apology, as well as others). St. Bonaventure (also thirteenth century) was one of the fiercest intellectual opponents of Aquinas, offering some of the strongest arguments toward the Platonic idea of the mind. The writings of Avicenna, Ibn Tufail, and Aquinas on the tabula rasa theory stood unprogressed and untested for several centuries.[citation needed] For example, the late medieval English jurist Sir John Fortescue, in his work In Praise of the Laws of England (Chapter VI), takes for granted the notion of tabula rasa, stressing it as the basis of the need for the education of the young in general, and of young princes specifically. "Therefore, Prince, whilst you are young and your mind is as it were a clean slate, impress on it these things, lest in future it be impressed more pleasurably with images of lesser worth." (His igitur, Princeps, dum Adolescens es, et Anima tua velut Tabula rasa, depinge eam, ne in futurum ipsa Figuris minoris Frugi delectabilius depingatur.) The modern idea of the theory, however, is attributed mostly to John Locke's expression of the idea in Essay Concerning Human Understanding (he uses the term "white paper" in Book II, Chap. I, 2). In Locke's philosophy, tabula rasa was the theory that at birth the (human) mind is a "blank slate" without rules for processing data, and that data is added and rules for processing are formed solely by one's sensory experiences. The notion is central to Lockean empiricism. As understood by Locke, tabula rasa meant that the mind of the individual was born blank, and it also emphasized the freedom of individuals to author their own soul. Individuals are free to define the content of their character—but basic identity as a member of the human species cannot be altered. This presumption of a free, self-authored mind combined with an immutable human nature leads to the Lockean doctrine of "natural" rights. Locke's idea of tabula rasa is frequently compared with Thomas Hobbes's viewpoint of human nature, in which humans are endowed with inherent mental content—particularly with selfishness.[citation needed] The eighteenth-century Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau used tabula rasa to support his argument that warfare is an advent of society and agriculture, rather than something that occurs from the human state of nature. Since tabula rasa states that humans are born with a "blank-slate", Rousseau uses this to suggest that humans must learn warfare. Tabula rasa also features in Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis. Freud depicted personality traits as being formed by family dynamics (see Oedipus complex). Freud's theories imply that humans lack free will, but also that genetic influences on human personality are minimal. In Freudian psychoanalysis, one is largely determined by one's upbringing.[citation needed] The tabula rasa concept became popular in social sciences during the twentieth century. Early ideas of eugenics posited that human intelligence correlated strongly with social class, but these ideas were rejected, and the idea that genes (or simply "blood") determined a person's character became regarded as racist. By the 1970s, scientists such as John Money had come to see gender identity as socially constructed, rather than rooted in genetics.

Science[edit] Psychology and neurobiology[edit] Main article: Nature versus nurture Psychologists and neurobiologists have shown evidence that initially, the entire cerebral cortex is programmed and organized to process sensory input, control motor actions, regulate emotion, and respond reflexively (under predetermined conditions).[8] These programmed mechanisms in the brain subsequently act to learn and refine the ability of the organism.[9][10] For example, psychologist Steven Pinker showed that—in contrast to written language—the brain is "programmed" to pick up spoken language spontaneously.[11] There have been claims by a minority in psychology and neurobiology, however, that the brain is tabula rasa only for certain behaviours. For instance, with respect to one's ability to acquire both general and special types of knowledge or skills, Howe argued against the existence of innate talent.[12] There also have been neurological investigations into specific learning and memory functions, such as Karl Lashley's study on mass action and serial interaction mechanisms. Important evidence against the tabula rasa model of the mind comes from behavioural genetics, especially twin and adoption studies (see below). These indicate strong genetic influences on personal characteristics such as IQ, alcoholism, gender identity, and other traits.[11] Critically, multivariate studies show that the distinct faculties of the mind, such as memory and reason, fractionate along genetic boundaries. Cultural universals such as emotion and the relative resilience of psychological adaptation to accidental biological changes (for instance the David Reimer case of gender reassignment following an accident) also support basic biological mechanisms in the mind.[citation needed] Social pre-wiring[edit] Twin studies have resulted in important evidence against the tabula rasa model of the mind, specifically, of social behaviour. The social pre-wiring hypothesis refers to the ontogeny of social interaction. Also informally referred to as, "wired to be social." The theory questions whether there is a propensity to socially oriented action already present before birth. Research in the theory concludes that newborns are born into the world with a unique genetic wiring to be social[13]. Circumstantial evidence supporting the social pre-wiring hypothesis can be revealed when examining newborns' behaviour. Newborns, not even hours after birth, have been found to display a preparedness for social interaction. This preparedness is expressed in ways such as their imitation of facial gestures. This observed behaviour cannot be contributed to any current form of socialization or social construction. Rather, newborns most likely inherit to some extent social behaviour and identity through genetics[13]. Principal evidence of this theory is uncovered by examining twin pregnancies. The main argument is, if there are social behaviours that are inherited and developed before birth, then one should expect twin fetuses to engage in some form of social interaction before they are born. Thus, ten fetuses were analyzed over a period of time using ultrasound techniques. Using kinematic analysis, the results of the experiment were that the twin fetuses would interact with each other for longer periods and more often as the pregnancies went on. Researchers were able to conclude that the performance of movements between the co-twins were not accidental but specifically aimed[13]. The social pre-wiring hypothesis was proved correct, "The central advance of this study is the demonstration that 'social actions' are already performed in the second trimester of gestation. Starting from the 14th week of gestation twin fetuses plan and execute movements specifically aimed at the co-twin. These findings force us to predate the emergence of social behaviour: when the context enables it, as in the case of twin fetuses, other-directed actions are not only possible but predominant over self-directed actions."[13]. Computer science[edit] In computer science, tabula rasa refers to the development of autonomous agents with a mechanism to reason and plan toward their goal, but no "built-in" knowledge-base of their environment. Thus they truly are a blank slate. In reality autonomous agents possess an initial data-set or knowledge-base, but this cannot be immutable or it would hamper autonomy and heuristic ability.[citation needed] Even if the data-set is empty, it usually may be argued that there is a built-in bias in the reasoning and planning mechanisms.[citation needed] Either intentionally or unintentionally placed there by the human designer, it thus negates the true spirit of tabula rasa.[14] A synthetic (programming) language parser (LR(1), LALR(1) or SLR(1), for example) could be considered a special case of a tabula rasa, as it is designed to accept any of a possibly infinite set of source language programs, within a single programming language, and to output either a good parse of the program, or a good machine language translation of the program, either of which represents a success, or, alternately, a failure, and nothing else. The "initial data-set" is a set of tables which are generally produced mechanically by a parser table generator, usually from a BNF representation of the source language, and represents a "table representation" of that single programming language.

See also[edit] Innatism Pu (Daoism) Veil of ignorance

Notes and references[edit] ^ Smith, Sir William (1898). Cornish, F. Warre, ed. A Concise Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. London: Spottiswoode and Co. pp. 608–9.  ^ Aristotle, De Anima, 429b29–430a1. ^ Bardzell, Jeffrey (June 11, 2014). Speculative Grammar and Stoic Language Theory in Medieval Allegorical Narrative: From Prudentius to Alan of Lille. Routledge. pp. 18–9.  ^ Diels-Kranz 4.11 translated by Long, A.A.; Sedley, D.N. (1987). The Hellenistic Philosophers: Vol. 1. Cambridge, Ma: Cambridge. p. 238.  ^ Diogenes Laërtius, vii. 43-46 ^ Sajjad H. Rizvi (2006), Avicenna/Ibn Sina (CA. 980–1037), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy ^ G. A. Russell (1994), The Impact of the Philosophus autodidactus: Pocockes, John Locke and the Society of Friends, in: G. A. Russell (ed.), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, pp. 224–262, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09459-8. ^ Rakic P. (July 1988). "Specification of cerebral cortical areas". Science. 241 (4862): 170–6. Bibcode:1988Sci...241..170R. doi:10.1126/science.3291116. PMID 3291116.  ^ Kalisman N, Silberberg G, Markram H; Silberberg; Markram (January 2005). "The neocortical microcircuit as a tabula rasa". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (3): 880–5. Bibcode:2005PNAS..102..880K. doi:10.1073/pnas.0407088102. PMC 545526 . PMID 15630093. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Le Bé JV, Markram H; Markram (August 2006). "Spontaneous and evoked synaptic rewiring in the neonatal neocortex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (35): 13214–9. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10313214L. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604691103. PMC 1559779 . PMID 16924105.  ^ a b Pinker, Steven. The Blank Slate. New York: Penguin. 2002. ^ M. J. Howe, J. W. Davidson and J. A. Sloboda. (1998). Innate talents: reality or myth? Behav. Brain. Sci., 21, 399–407; discussion 407–42. ^ a b c d Umberto Castiello, et al: National Institutes of Health ^ The Jargon Files: "Sussman attains enlightenment", also see the article section Hacker koan: Uncarved block

Bibliography[edit] Aristotle, On the Soul (De Anima), W. S. Hett (trans.), pp. 1–203 in Aristotle, Volume 8, Loeb Classical Library, William Heinemann, London, UK, 1936. Avicenna, De Anima (Fi’l-Nafs), F. Rahman (trans.), London, UK, 1954. Tufail, Ibn, The Improvement of Human Reason: Exhibited in the Life of Hai Ebn Yokdhan (Hayy ibn Yaqzan), Simon Ockley (trans.), pp. 1–195, Edm. Powell, London, Great Britain, 1708. Aquinas, Thomas, Summa Theologica, Fathers of the English Dominican Province (trans.), Daniel J. Sullivan (ed.), vols. 19–20 in Robert Maynard Hutchins (ed.), Great Books of the Western World, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, IL, 1952. Locke, John, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Kenneth P. Winkler (ed.), pp. xix (Editor's Introduction) and 33–36 (Book II, Chap. I, 1–9), Hackett Publishing Company, Indianapolis, IN, 1996 [1689]. Baird, Forrest E.; Kaufmann, Walter (2008). From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-158591-6. 

External links[edit] The dictionary definition of tabula rasa at Wiktionary Works related to Book II, Chapter I of Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding at Wikisource v t e Philosophy of mind Theories Behaviorism (Radical) Biological naturalism Cognitive psychology Mind–body dualism Eliminative materialism Emergent materialism Emergentism Epiphenomenalism Functionalism Idealism Interactionism Materialism Monism Naïve realism Neurophenomenology Neutral monism Occasionalism Psychoanalysis Parallelism Phenomenalism Phenomenology Physicalism identity theory Property dualism Representational Solipsism Substance dualism Concepts Abstract object Artificial intelligence Chinese room Cognition Cognitive closure Concept Concept and object Consciousness Hard problem of consciousness Hypostatic abstraction Idea Identity Ingenuity Intelligence Intentionality Introspection Intuition Language of thought Materialism Mental event Mental image Mental process Mental property Mental representation Mind Mind–body problem Non-physical entity New mysterianism Pain Problem of other minds Propositional attitude Qualia Tabula rasa Understanding Zombie more... Related topics Metaphysics Philosophy of artificial intelligence / information / perception / self Portal Category Philosophers category Project Task Force Retrieved from "" Categories: Latin philosophical phrasesLatin political phrasesNothingPhilosophical anthropologySocial philosophyConcepts in epistemologyTheory of mindHistory of psychologyJohn LockeMental contentHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listUse dmy dates from August 2014All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from December 2012Articles with unsourced statements from March 2011Articles with unsourced statements from March 2017Articles with unsourced statements from February 2011

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages العربيةБългарскиCatalàČeštinaDanskDeutschΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançais한국어ՀայերենHrvatskiBahasa IndonesiaItalianoעבריתKurdîMagyarNederlands日本語NorskPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийSimple EnglishСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaTürkçeУкраїнськаTiếng ViệtZazaki中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 18 December 2017, at 16:11. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.288","walltime":"0.399","ppvisitednodes":{"value":2101,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":59607,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":3875,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":16,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":6,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 322.919 1 -total"," 30.78% 99.382 1 Template:Reflist"," 21.88% 70.643 6 Template:Citation_needed"," 19.32% 62.385 6 Template:Fix"," 12.99% 41.952 4 Template:Cite_book"," 10.16% 32.793 6 Template:Delink"," 8.36% 27.009 1 Template:IPAc-en"," 8.33% 26.892 1 Template:Redirect"," 7.60% 24.554 12 Template:Category_handler"," 7.27% 23.484 1 Template:ISBN"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.125","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":4935111,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1266","timestamp":"20180115164913","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":511,"wgHostname":"mw1266"});});

Tabula_rasa - Photos and All Basic Informations

Tabula_rasa More Links

Blank Slate (disambiguation)Tabula Rasa (disambiguation)Category:PhilosophyPhilosophyLeft To Right: Plato, Kant, Nietzsche, Buddha, Confucius, AverroesPlatoImmanuel KantFriedrich NietzscheGautama BuddhaConfuciusAverroesCategory:PhilosophersList Of AestheticiansList Of EpistemologistsList Of EthicistsList Of LogiciansList Of MetaphysiciansIndex Of Sociopolitical ThinkersCategory:Philosophical TraditionsAfrican PhilosophyAnalytic PhilosophyAristotelianismBuddhist PhilosophyChinese PhilosophyChristian PhilosophyContinental PhilosophyExistentialismHindu PhilosophyJain PhilosophyJewish PhilosophyPragmatismEastern PhilosophyIslamic PhilosophyPlatonismWestern PhilosophyCategory:Philosophy By PeriodAncient PhilosophyMedieval PhilosophyModern PhilosophyContemporary PhilosophyCategory:Philosophical LiteratureCategory:Aesthetics LiteratureCategory:Epistemology LiteratureCategory:Ethics LiteratureCategory:Logic LiteratureCategory:Metaphysics LiteratureCategory:Political Philosophy LiteratureCategory:Branches Of PhilosophyAestheticsEpistemologyEthicsPhilosophy Of LawLogicMetaphysicsPolitical PhilosophySocial PhilosophyCategory:Philosophy-related ListsIndex Of PhilosophyOutline Of PhilosophyList Of Years In PhilosophyList Of Unsolved Problems In PhilosophyList Of Important Publications In PhilosophyList Of PhilosophiesGlossary Of PhilosophyLists Of PhilosophersPhilosopherPhilomathPhilalethesWomen In PhilosophyPortal:PhilosophyTemplate:Philosophy SidebarTemplate Talk:Philosophy SidebarEnlargeWax TabletStylusHelp:IPA/EnglishEpistemologyMental ContentExperiencePerceptionInnatismNature Versus NurtureLatin LanguageEnglish LanguageSlate (writing)EmpiricismWestern PhilosophyAristotleDe AnimaStoicismAetius (philosopher)Diogenes LaërtiusZeno Of CitiumLives And Opinions Of Eminent PhilosophersPersian PeopleAvicennaArabic LanguageEmpiricalSyllogismReasoningAl-AndalusEarly Islamic PhilosophyIbn TufailThought ExperimentArabic LiteratureHayy Ibn YaqzanFeral ChildDesert IslandExperienceLatinPhilosophical NovelEdward PocockeJohn LockeAn Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingEnlargeFemale Figure (Velázquez)Diego VelázquezSt. Thomas AquinasAristotelianismAvicennismChristian PhilosophyPlatonismPhaedoSt. BonaventureWikipedia:Citation NeededLate MedievalJohn Fortescue (judge)John LockeEssay Concerning Human UnderstandingSenseSoul (spirit)Thomas HobbesWikipedia:Citation NeededJean-Jacques RousseauSigmund FreudPsychoanalysisOedipus ComplexWikipedia:Citation NeededEugenicsJohn MoneyGender IdentityNature Versus NurtureCerebral CortexSteven PinkerMichael Howe (psychologist)Karl LashleyMass Action Principle (neuroscience)Behavioural GeneticsTwin StudiesAdoptionIQAlcoholismGender IdentityEmotionDavid ReimerWikipedia:Citation NeededSocial BehaviourOntogenySocial RelationSocial ActionsGeneticsSocial RelationSocializationSocial ConstructionHereditySocial BehaviourIdentity (social Science)GeneticsSocial BehaviourHereditySocial RelationSocial ActionsGestational AgeGestational AgeSocial BehaviourComputer ScienceWikipedia:Citation NeededBiasWikipedia:Citation NeededLR(1)LALR(1)SLR(1)Backus–Naur FormInnatismPu (Daoism)Veil Of IgnoranceInternet Encyclopedia Of PhilosophyBrill PublishersInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/90-04-09459-8BibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierSteven PinkerThe Blank SlateBehavioral And Brain SciencesHacker KoanAristotleOn The SoulLoeb Classical LibraryHeinemann (book Publisher)AvicennaThe Book Of HealingIbn TufailHayy Ibn YaqdhanSimon OckleyKingdom Of Great BritainThomas AquinasSumma TheologicaRobert Maynard HutchinsGreat Books Of The Western WorldEncyclopædia BritannicaJohn LockeAn Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-13-158591-6Wiktionary:Special:Search/tabula RasaWikisource:An Essay Concerning Human Understanding/Book II/Chapter ITemplate:Philosophy Of MindTemplate Talk:Philosophy Of MindPhilosophy Of MindBehaviorismRadical BehaviorismBiological NaturalismCognitive PsychologyMind–body DualismEliminative MaterialismEmergent MaterialismEmergentismEpiphenomenalismFunctionalism (philosophy Of Mind)IdealismInteractionism (philosophy Of Mind)MaterialismMonismNaïve RealismNeurophenomenologyNeutral MonismOccasionalismPsychoanalysisPsychophysical ParallelismPhenomenalismPhenomenology (philosophy)PhysicalismType PhysicalismProperty DualismMental RepresentationSolipsismSubstance DualismAbstract And ConcreteArtificial IntelligenceChinese RoomCognitionCognitive Closure (philosophy)ConceptConcept And ObjectConsciousnessHard Problem Of ConsciousnessHypostatic AbstractionIdeaIdentity (philosophy)IngenuityIntelligenceIntentionalityIntrospectionIntuitionLanguage Of Thought HypothesisMaterialismMental EventMental ImageMental ProcessMental PropertyMental RepresentationMindMind–body ProblemNon-physical EntityNew MysterianismPain (philosophy)Problem Of Other MindsPropositional AttitudeQualiaUnderstandingPhilosophical ZombieIndex Of Philosophy Of Mind ArticlesMetaphysicsPhilosophy Of Artificial IntelligencePhilosophy Of InformationPhilosophy Of PerceptionPhilosophy Of SelfPortal:Mind And BrainCategory:Philosophy Of MindCategory:Philosophers Of MindWikipedia:WikiProject PhilosophyWikipedia:WikiProject Philosophy/MindHelp:CategoryCategory:Latin Philosophical PhrasesCategory:Latin Political PhrasesCategory:NothingCategory:Philosophical AnthropologyCategory:Social PhilosophyCategory:Concepts In EpistemologyCategory:Theory Of MindCategory:History Of PsychologyCategory:John LockeCategory:Mental ContentCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListCategory:Use Dmy Dates From August 2014Category:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From December 2012Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From March 2011Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From March 2017Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From February 2011Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link