Contents 1 Definition 2 Appearance 3 Habitat 3.1 Origins 4 Families and genera 5 Cultivation 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links


Definition[edit] Center of a succulent (Aloe polyphylla) A general definition of succulents is that they are drought resistant plants in which the leaves, stem or roots have become more than usually fleshy by the development of water-storing tissue.[3] Other sources exclude roots as in the definition "a plant with thick, fleshy and swollen stems and/or leaves, adapted to dry environments."[4] This difference affects the relationship between succulents and "geophytes" – plants that survive unfavorable seasons as a resting bud on an underground organ.[5] These underground organs, such as bulbs, corms and tubers, are often fleshy with water-storing tissues. Thus if roots are included in the definition, many geophytes would be classed as succulents. Plants adapted to living in dry environments such as succulents are termed xerophytes. However, not all xerophytes are succulents, since there are other ways of adapting to a shortage of water, e.g., by developing small leaves which may roll up or having leathery rather than succulent leaves.[6] Nor are all succulents xerophytes, since plants like Crassula helmsii are both succulent and aquatic.[7] Those who grow succulents as a hobby use the term in a different way to botanists. In horticultural use, the term succulent regularly excludes cacti. For example, Jacobsen's three volume Handbook of Succulent Plants does not cover cacti,[8] and "cacti and succulents" is the title or part of the title of many books covering the cultivation of these plants.[9][10][11] However, in botanical terminology, cacti are succulents.[3] Horticulturists may also exclude other groups of plants, e.g., bromeliads.[12] A practical, but unscientific, horticultural definition is "a succulent plant is any desert plant that a succulent plant collector wishes to grow."[13] Such plants less often include geophytes (in which the swollen storage organ is wholly underground) but do include plants with a caudex,[14] which is a swollen above-ground organ at soil level, formed from a stem, a root or both.[5] A further difficulty is that plants are not either succulent or non-succulent. In many genera and families there is a continuous gradation from plants with thin leaves and normal stems to those with very clearly thickened and fleshy leaves or stems, so that deciding what is a succulent is often arbitrary. Different sources may classify the same species differently.[15]


Appearance[edit] A collection of succulent plants, including cacti, from the Jardin botanique d'Èze, France The storage of water often gives succulent plants a more swollen or fleshy appearance than other plants, a characteristic known as succulence. In addition to succulence, succulent plants variously have other water-saving features. These may include: Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to minimize water loss absent, reduced, or cylindrical-to-spherical leaves reduction in the number of stomata stems as the main site of photosynthesis, rather than leaves compact, reduced, cushion-like, columnar, or spherical growth form ribs enabling rapid increases in plant volume and decreasing surface area exposed to the sun waxy, hairy, or spiny outer surface to create a humid micro-habitat around the plant, which reduces air movement near the surface of the plant, and thereby reduces water loss and creates shade roots very near the surface of the soil, so they are able to take up moisture from very small showers or even from heavy dew ability to remain plump and full of water even with high internal temperatures (e.g., 52 °C or 126 °F)[16] very impervious outer cuticle (skin)[16] mucilaginous substances, which retain water abundantly[16]


Habitat[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Origins[edit] Many succulents come from dry areas such as steppes, semi-desert, and desert. High temperatures and low precipitation force plants to collect and store water to survive long dry periods. Some species of cactus can survive for months without rainfall.[17] Succulents may occasionally occur as epiphytes, growing on other plants with limited or no contact with the ground, and are dependent on their ability to store water and gain nutrients by other means; this niche is seen in Tillandsia. Succulents also occur as inhabitants of sea coasts and dry lakes, which are exposed to high levels of dissolved minerals that are deadly to many other plant species.


Families and genera[edit] This section includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. (September 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Apocynaceae: Pachypodium lealii, stem succulent Asphodelaceae: Haworthia arachnoidea, leaf succulent Asphodelaceae: Astroloba tenax, leaf succulent Cactaceae: Rebutia muscula, stem succulent Crassulaceae: Crassula ovata, stem and leaf succulent Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia obesa ssp. symmetrica, stem succulent Cylindropuntia imbricata: stem, woody succulent Malvaceae: Adansonia digitata, stem succulent Moringaceae: Moringa ovalifolia, stem succulent Asparagaceae: Beaucarnea recurvata, stem succulent Asparagaceae: Dracaena draco, stem succulent Euphorbia resinifera Succulents kept at 77 °F (25 °C) in a Connecticut greenhouse Plant families and genera in which succulent species occur are listed below. Order Alismatales Araceae: Zamioculcas Order Apiales Apiaceae: Steganotaenia Araliaceae: Cussonia Order Asparagales Amaryllidaceae (geophytes): Ammocharis, Apodolirion, Boophone, Brunsvigia, Crinum, Crossyne, Cryptostephanus, Cyrtanthus, Gethyllis, Habranthus, Haemanthus, Hessea, Nerine, Pancratium, Rauhia, Scadoxus, Strumaria, Zephyranthes, Asparagaceae subfamily Agavoideae: Agave, Beschorneria, Chlorophytum, Furcraea, Hesperaloe, Hesperoyucca, Yucca subfamily Asparagoideae: Asparagus subfamily Lomandroideae: Cordyline, subfamily Nolinoideae: Beaucarnea, Calibanus, Dasylirion, Dracaena, Nolina, Sansevieria, Eriospermum subfamily Scilloideae: Albuca, Bowiea, Daubenya, Dipcadi, Drimia, Drimiopsis, Eucomis, Hyacinthus, Lachenalia, Ledebouria, Litanthus, Massonia, Merwilla, Namophila, Ornithogalum, Pseudogaltonia, Pseudoprospero, Resnova, Schizobasis, Schizocarphus, Spetaea, Veltheimia Doryanthaceae: Doryanthes Hypoxidaceae (geophytes): Empodium, Hypoxis, Pauridia, Saniella, Spiloxene Iridaceae (geophytes): Babiana, Chasmanthe, Crocosmia, Devia, Dierama, Dietes, Duthiastrum, Ferraria, Freesia, Geissorhiza, Gladiolus, Hesperantha, Ixia, Lapeirousia, Melasphaerula, Micranthus, Moraea, Pillansia, Radinosiphon, Romulea, Sparaxis, Syringodea, Thereianthus, Tritonia, Tritoniopsis, Watsonia, Xenoscapa Orchidaceae (succulents) Acampe, Aerangis, Ansellia, Bolusiella, Bulbophyllum, Calanthe, Cyrtorchis, Oberonia, Polystachya, Tridactyle, Vanilla (succulent geophytes) Eulophia, Liparis, Oeceoclades (geophytes) Acroliphia, Bartholina, Bonatea, Brachycorythis, Brownleea, Centrostigma, Ceratandra, Corycium, Cynorkis, Didymoplexis, Disa, Disperis, Dracomonticola, Eulophia, Evotella, Gastrodia, Habernaria, Holothrix, Huttonaea, Neobolusia, Nervilia, Pachites, Phalaenopsis, Platycoryne, Plicosepalus Asphodelaceae subfamily Asphodeloideae: Aloe (succulents and succulent geophytes), Astroloba, Tulista, × Astrolista, Bulbine (succulent geophytes, succulents, and geophytes), Bulbinella (geophyte), Chortolirion (succulent geophytes), Gasteria, Haworthia, Trachyandra (succulent geophytes and succulents), subfamily Xanothorrhoeoidae: Xanthorrhoea Order Asterales Asteraceae: Arctotheca, Baeriopsis, Chrysanthemoides, Coulterella, Crassocephalum, Didelta, Emilia, Eremothamnus, Gymnodiscus, Gynura, Hillardiella (geophyte), Lopholaena, Monoculus, Nidorella, Osteospermum, Othonna (succulents and succulent geophytes), Phaneroglossa, Poecilolepis, Polyachyrus, Pteronia, Senecio, Solanecio,Tripteris Campanulaceae: Brighamia Order Brassicales Brassicaceae: Heliophila, Lepidium Capparidaceae: Maerua Caricaceae: Carica, Jacarathia Moringaceae: Moringa Order Caryophyllales Aizoaceae: Corbichonia, Gisekia, Herreanthus, Limeum, Ophthalmophyllum, Saphesia subfamily Aizooideae: Acrosanthes, Aizoanthemum, Aizoon, Galenia, Gunniopsis, Plinthus, Tetragonia subfamily Mesembryanthemoideae (syn. Mesembryanthemaceae[18]): Aptenia, Aridaria, Aspazoma, Brownanthus, Calamophyllum, Caulipsilon, Conophytum, Dactylopsis, Erepsia, Hameria, Hartmanthus, Hymenogyne, Marlothistela, Mesembryanthemum, Phiambolia, Phyllobolus, Prenia, Psilocaulon, Ruschiella, Sarozona, Sceletium, Synaptophyllum subfamily Ruschioideae: tribe Apatesieae: Apatesia, Carpanthea, Caryotophora, Conicosia, Hymenogyne, Saphesia, Skiatophytum tribe Dorotheantheae: Aethephyllum Cleretum Dorotheanthus tribe Ruschiae: Acrodon, Aloinopsis, Amphibolia, Antegibbaeum, Antimima, Arenifera, Argyroderma, Astridia, Bergeranthus, Bijlia, Braunsia, Brianhuntleya, Carpobrotus, Carruanthus, Cephalophyllum, Cerochlamys, Chasmatophyllum, Cheiridopsis, Circandra, Conophytum, Corpuscularia, Cylindrophyllum, Delosperma, Dicrocaulon, Didymaotus, Dinteranthus, Diplosoma, Disphyma, Dracophilus, Drosanthemum, Eberlanzia, Ebracteola, Enarganthe, Erepsia, Esterhuysenia, Faucaria, Fenestraria, Frithia, Gibbaeum, Glottiphyllum, Hallianthus, Hereroa, Ihlenfeldtia, Imitaria, Jacobsenia, Jensenobotrya, Jordaaniella, Juttadinteria, Khadia, Lampranthus, Lapidaria (plant), Leipoldtia, Lithops, Machairophyllum, Malephora, Mestoklema, Meyerophytum, Mitrophyllum, Monilaria, Mossia, Muiria, Namaquanthus, Namibia, Nananthus, Nelia, Neohenricia, Octopoma, Odontophorus, Oophytum, Ophthalmophyllum, Orthopterum, Oscularia, Ottosonderia, Pleiospilos, Polymita, Psammophora, Rabiea, Rhinephyllum, Rhombophyllum, Ruschia, Ruschianthemum, Ruschianthus, Schlechteranthus, Schwantesia, Scopelogena, Smicrostigma, Stayneria, Stoeberia, Stomatium Tanquana Titanopsis, Trichodiadema, Vanheerdea, Vanzijlia, Vlokia, Wooleya, Zeuktophyllum subfamily Sesuvioideae: Cypselea, Sesuvium, Trianthema, Tribulocarpus, Zaleya Amaranthaceae: subfamily Amaranthoideae: Arthraerva subfamily Chenopodioideae (family Chenopodiaceae):[19]) Atriplex, Chenopodium, Dissocarpus, Einadia, Enchylaena, Eremophea, Halopeplis, Maireana, Malacocera, Neobassia, Osteocarpum, Rhagodia, Roycea, Halosarcia, Salicornia, Salsola, Sarcocornia, Sclerochlamys, Sclerolaena, Suaeda, Tecticornia, Threlkeldia Basellaceae: Anredera, Basella Cactaceae: Acanthocalycium, Acanthocereus, Ariocarpus, Armatocereus, Arrojadoa, Arthrocereus, Astrophytum, Austrocactus, Aztekium, Bergerocactus, Blossfeldia, Brachycereus, Browningia, Brasilicereus, Calymmanthium, Carnegiea, Cephalocereus, Cephalocleistocactus, Cereus, Cintia, Cipocereus, Cleistocactus, Coleocephalocereus, Copiapoa, Corryocactus, Coryphantha, Dendrocereus, Denmoza, Discocactus, Disocactus, Echinocactus, Echinocereus, Echinopsis, Epiphyllum, Epithelantha, Eriosyce, Escobaria, Escontria, Espostoa, Espostoopsis, Eulychnia, Facheiroa, Ferocactus, Frailea, Geohintonia, Gymnocalycium, Haageocereus, Harrisia, Hatiora, Hylocereus, Jasminocereus, Lasiocereus, Leocereus, Lepismium, Leptocereus, Leuchtenbergia, Lophophora, Maihuenia, Malacocarpus, Mammillaria, Mammilloydia, Matucana, Melocactus, Micranthocereus, Mila, Monvillea, Myrtillocactus, Neobuxbaumia, Neolloydia, Neoraimondia, Neowerdermannia, Obregonia, Opuntia, Oreocereus, Oroya, Ortegocactus, Pachycereus, Parodia, Pediocactus, Pelecyphora, Peniocereus, Pereskia, Pereskiopsis, Pilosocereus, Polaskia, Praecereus, Pseudoacanthocereus, Pseudorhipsalis, Pterocactus, Pygmaeocereus, Quiabentia, Rauhocereus, Rebutia, Rhipsalis, Samaipaticereus, Schlumbergera, Sclerocactus, Selenicereus, Stenocactus, Stenocereus, Stephanocereus, Stetsonia, Strombocactus, Tacinga, Thelocactus,Trichocereus Turbinicarpus, Uebelmannia, Weberbauerocereus, Weberocereus, Yungasocereus Didiereaceae: Alluaudia, Alluaudiopsis, Decaria, Didierea Molluginaceae: Hypertelis Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca Portulacaceae: Amphipetalum, Anacampseros, Avonia, Calyptrotheca, Ceraria, Cistanthe, Calandrinia, Dendroportulaca, Grahamia, Lewisia, Parakeelya,[20] Portulaca, Portulacaria, Schreiteria, Talinella, Talinum Order Commelinales Commelinaceae: Aneilema, Callisia, Cyanotis, Tradescantia, Tripogandra Order Cornales Loasaceae: Schismocarpus Order Cucurbitales Begoniaceae: Begonia Cucurbitaceae: Acanthosicyos, Apodanthera, Brandegea, Cephalopentandra, Ceratosanthes, Citrullus, Coccinia, Corallocarpus, Cucumella, Cucumis, Cucurbita, Cyclantheropsis, Dactyliandra, Dendrosicyos, Doyera, Eureindra, Fevillea, Gerrandanthus, Gynostemma, Halosicyos, Ibervilla, Kedostris, Lagenaria, Marah, Momordica, Neoalsomitra, Odosicyos, Parasicyos, Syrigia, Telfairia, Trochomeria, Trochomeriopsis, Tumamoca, Xerosicyos, Zehneria, Zygosicyos Order Dioscoreales Dioscoreaceae: Dioscorea Order Ericales Balsaminaceae: Impatiens Ericaceae: Sphyrospermum Fouquieriaceae: Fouquieria Order Fabales Fabaceae: Delonix, Dolichos, Erythrina, Lotononis, Neorautanenia, Pachyrhizus, Tylosema Order Gentianales Apocynaceae: Adenium, Mandevilla, Pachypodium, Plumeria subfamily Asclepiadoideae (syn. Asclepiadaceae): Absolmsia, Australluma, Aspidoglossum, Aspidonepsis, Baynesia, Brachystelma, Ceropegia, Chlorocyathus, Cibirhiza, Cordylogyne, Cynanchum, Dischidia, Dischidiopsis, Duvaliandra, Eustegia, Fanninia, Fockea, Glossostelma, Hoya, Ischnolepis, Lavrania, Marsdenia, Miraglossum, Odontostelma, Ophionella, Orbeanthus, Pachycarpus, Parapodium, Periglossum, Petopentia, Raphionacme, Riocreuxia, Sarcorrhiza, Schizoglossum, Schlechterella, Stathmostelma, Stenostelma, Stomatostemma, Trachycalymma, Trichocaulon, Tylophora, Woodia, Xysmalobium tribe Asclepiadeae: subtribe Asclepiadne: Asclepias, subtribe Cynanchinae: Sarcostemma, subtribe Gonolobinae: Matelea, tribe Maxillarieae: subtribe Lycastinae: Rudolfiella tribe Stapeliae: Angolluma, Caralluma, Desmidorchis, Duvalia, Echidnopsis, Edithcolea, Frerea, Hoodia, Huernia, Huerniopsis, Larryleachia, Notechidnopsis, Orbea (plant), Orbeopsis, Piaranthus, Pachycymbium, Pectinaria, Pseudolithos, Pseudopectinaria, Quaqua, Rhytidocaulon, Stapelia, Stapelianthus, Stapeliopsis, Tavaresia, Tridentea, Tromotriche, Whitesloanea subfamily Periplocoideae: tribe Cryptolepideae: Cryptolepis Rubiaceae: Anthorrhiza, Anthospermum, Hydnophytum, Hydrophylax, Myrmecodia, Myrmephytum, Phylohydrax, Squamellaria Order Geraniales Geraniaceae: Monsonia, Pelargonium (succulents and geophytes), Sarcocaulon Order Lamiales Gesneriaceae: Aeschynanthus, Alsobia, Chirita, Codonanthe, Columnea, Nematanthus, Sinningia, Streptocarpus Lamiaceae: Aeollanthus, Dauphinea, Perrierastrum, Plectranthus, Rotheca, Solenostemon, Tetradenia, Thorncroftia Lentibulariaceae Pedaliaceae: Holubia, Pterodiscus, Sesamothamnus, Uncarina Order Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae: Cnidoscolus, Euphorbia, Jatropha, Monadenium, Pedilanthus, Phyllanthus, Synadenium Passifloraceae: Adenia Phyllanthaceae: Phyllanthus Order Malvales Cochlospermaceae Malvaceae: Adansonia, Cavanillesia, Ceiba, Pseudobombax subgroup Sterculiaceae: Brachychiton, Sterculia Order Myrtales Melastomataceae: Medinilla Order Oxalidales Oxalidaceae (geophytes): Oxalis Order Piperales Piperaceae: Peperomia Order Poales Bromeliaceae: Abromeitiella, Aechmea, Ananas, Catopsis, Connellia, Dyckia, Hechtia, Neoregelia, Puya, Tillandsia, Vriesea Poaceae: Dregeochloa[21] Order Ranunculales Menispermaceae: Chasmanthera, Stephania, Tinospora Order Rosales Moraceae: Dorstenia, Ficus Urticaceae: Laportea, Obetia, Pilea, Pouzolzia, Sarcopilea Order Santalales Loranthaceae: Actinanthella, Agelanthus, Erianthemum, Helixanthera, Moquiniella, Oncocalyx, Pedistylis, Plicosepalus, Septulina, Tapinanthus, Vanwykia Viscaceae(syn. Santalaceae): Viscum Order Sapindales Anacardiaceae: Operculicaria, Pachycormus Burseraceae: Boswellia, Bursera, Commiphora Meliaceae: Entandrophragma Sapindaceae: Erythrophysa Order Saxifragales Crassulaceae: Adromischus, Aeonium, Aichryson, Cotyledon, Crassula, Cremnophila, Dudleya, Echeveria, Graptopetalum, Greenovia, Hylotelephium, Kalanchoe, Kungia, Lenophyllum, Meterostachys, Monanthes, Mucizonia, Orostachys, Pachyphytum, Perrierosedum, Petrosedum, Phedimus, Pistorinia, Prometheum, Pseudosedum, Rhodiola, Rosularia, Sedella, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sinocrassula, Thompsonella, Tylecodon, Umbilicus, Villadia[22] Saxifragaceae Order Solanales Convolvulaceae: Ipomoea, Merremia, Stictocardia, Turbina (plant) Solanaceae: Nolana Order Vitales Vitaceae: Cissus, Cyphostemma Order Zygophyllales Zygophyllaceae: Augea, Seetzenia, Zygophyllum (unplaced order)* Boraginaceae: Heliotropium (unplaced order)* Icacinaceae: Pyrenacantha (geophyte) For some families and subfamilies, most members are succulent; for example the Cactaceae, Agavoideae, Aizoaceae, and Crassulaceae. The table below shows the number of succulent species found in some families: Family or subfamily Succulent # Modified parts Distribution Agavoideae 300 Leaf North and Central America Cactaceae 1600 Stem (root, leaf) The Americas Crassulaceae 1300 Leaf (root) Worldwide Aizoaceae 2000 Leaf Southern Africa, Australia Apocynaceae 500 Stem Africa, Arabia, India, Australia Asphodelaceae 500+ Leaf Africa, Madagascar, Australia Didiereaceae 11 Stem Madagascar (endemic) Euphorbiaceae > 1000 Stem and/or leaf and/or root Australia, Africa, Madagascar, Asia, the Americas, Europe Portulacaceae ~500 Leaf and stem The Americas, Australia, Africa Edgerton Park Conservancy succulent at dusk.


Cultivation[edit] The succulent 'wall' consists of Sempervivum, Echeveria, and Crassula in a nursery in San Francisco, United States. Succulents are favored as houseplants for their attractiveness and ease of care. If properly potted succulents require little maintenance to survive indoors.[23] Succulents are very adaptable houseplants and will thrive in a range of indoor conditions.[24] For most plant owners over-watering and associated infections are main cause of death in succulents. Succulents can be propagated by different means. The most common one is the vegetative propagation. They include cuttings where several inches of stem with leaves are cut and after healing produce a callus. After a week or so, roots may grow. A second method is division consisting of uprooting an overgrown clump and pulling the stems and roots apart. The easiest one is allowing the formation of callus from a leaf. The vegetative propagation can be different according to the species.[25]


See also[edit] Cactus and Succulent Society of America Crassulacean acid metabolism


References[edit] ^ Merriam-Webster: succulent, retrieved 2015-04-13  ^ Dimmitt, Mark. "The Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society". www.tucsoncactus.org. Retrieved 5 February 2017.  ^ a b Rowley 1980, p. 1 ^ Beentje 2010, p. 116 ^ a b Beentje 2010, p. 32 ^ "xerophyte", Dictionary of Botany, 2001 onwards, retrieved 2012-09-23  Check date values in: |date= (help) ^ "Crassula helmsii (aquatic plant, succulent)", Global Invasive Species Database, ISSG, April 15, 2010, retrieved 2012-09-23  ^ Jacobsen 1960 ^ Anderson 1999 ^ Hecht 1994 ^ Hewitt 1993 ^ Innes & Wall 1995 ^ Martin & Chapman 1977 ^ Martin & Chapman 1977, pp. 19-20 ^ Rowley 1980, p. 2 ^ a b c Compton n.d. ^ https://askabiologist.asu.edu/cam-plants ^ Plants of Southern Africa Retrieved on 2010-1-1 ^ FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora Retrieved on 2010-1-1 ^ Parakeelya. The Plant List. ^ Dregeochloa pumila. South African National Biodiversity Institute. ^ "Crassulaceae Genera". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2017-10-26.  ^ Kramer, Jack (1977). Cacti and Other Succulents. New York: Abrams. p. 9.  ^ Kramer, Jack (1977). Cacti and Other Succulents. New York: Abrams. p. 49.  ^ Lee, Debra (2007). Designing with Succulents. Portland, Obregon: Timber Press. p. 133. 


Bibliography[edit] Anderson, Miles (1999), Cacti and Succulents : Illustrated Encyclopedia, Oxford: Sebastian Kelly, ISBN 978-1-84081-253-4  Beentje, Henk (2010), The Kew Plant Glossary, Richmond, Surrey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, ISBN 978-1-84246-422-9  Compton, R.H., ed. (n.d.), Our South African Flora, Cape Times Ltd, OCLC 222867742  (publication date also given as 1930s or 1940s) Hecht, Hans (1994), Cacti & Succulents (p/b ed.), New York: Sterling, ISBN 978-0-8069-0549-5  Hewitt, Terry (1993), The Complete Book of Cacti & Succulents, London: Covent Garden Books, ISBN 978-1-85605-402-7  Innes, Clive & Wall, Bill (1995), Cacti, Succulents and Bromeliads, London: Cassell for the Royal Horticultural Society, ISBN 978-0-304-32076-9  Jacobsen, Hermann (1960), A Handbook of Succulent Plants (Vols 1–3), Poole, Dorset: Blandford Press, ISBN 978-0-7137-0140-1  Martin, Margaret J. & Chapman, Peter R. (1977), Succulents and their cultivation, London: Faber & Faber, ISBN 978-0-571-10221-1  Rowley, Gordon D. (1980), Name that Succulent, Cheltenham, Glos.: Stanley Thornes, ISBN 978-0-85950-447-8 


External links[edit] Look up succulent in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Succulents. v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Authority control LCCN: sh85129595 GND: 4058540-2 NDL: 00572652 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Succulent_plant&oldid=816861598" Categories: Succulent plantsPlant common namesPlant morphologyDrought-tolerant plantsGarden plantsHidden categories: CS1 errors: datesArticles needing additional references from January 2013All articles needing additional referencesArticles lacking in-text citations from September 2012All articles lacking in-text citationsWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages AfrikaansالعربيةБеларускаяCatalàČeštinaDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisGaeilgeGalego한국어Հայերենहिन्दीHrvatskiItalianoעבריתBasa JawaҚазақшаKiswahiliLatviešuLietuviųMagyarNederlands日本語NorskNorsk nynorskPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийSimple EnglishSlovenčinaСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaతెలుగుไทยTürkçeУкраїнськаTiếng Việt中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 24 December 2017, at 06:14. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.468","walltime":"0.600","ppvisitednodes":{"value":2678,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":85181,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":785,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":12,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":2,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 358.882 1 -total"," 28.34% 101.721 1 Template:Reflist"," 24.63% 88.398 12 Template:Citation"," 13.00% 46.650 2 Template:Navbox"," 12.74% 45.708 1 Template:Botany"," 8.68% 31.143 2 Template:Ambox"," 8.46% 30.351 1 Template:Unreferenced_section"," 7.73% 27.741 1 Template:Convert"," 7.41% 26.603 16 Template:Sfn"," 7.36% 26.431 1 Template:Unreferenced"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.179","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":7098225,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1330","timestamp":"20180116040717","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":87,"wgHostname":"mw1251"});});


Succulent_plant - Photos and All Basic Informations

Succulent_plant More Links

CactusEnlargeAloeBotanyPlantAridSoilLeafPlant StemRootGeophyteStorage OrganHorticultureBotanyCactusOrnamental PlantAizoaceaeCactaceaeCrassulaceaeEnlargeAloe PolyphyllaXerophyteCrassula HelmsiiBromeliadsCaudexEnlargeJardin Botanique D'ÈzeCrassulacean Acid MetabolismStomaPhotosynthesisDewPlant CuticleMucilageWikipedia:Citing SourcesWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Wikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalSteppeSemi-desertDesertPrecipitation (meteorology)CactusEpiphyteTillandsiaSeaCoastDry LakeWikipedia:Citing SourcesWikipedia:External LinksWikipedia:Citing SourcesWikipedia:WikiProject Fact And Reference CheckWikipedia:When To CiteHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalEnlargeApocynaceaePachypodium LealiiStem SucculentEnlargeAsphodelaceaeHaworthia ArachnoideaEnlargeAsphodelaceaeAstroloba TenaxEnlargeCactusEnlargeCrassulaceaeCrassula OvataEnlargeEuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia ObesaEnlargeCylindropuntia ImbricataEnlargeMalvaceaeAdansonia DigitataEnlargeMoringaceaeMoringa OvalifoliaEnlargeAsparagaceaeBeaucarnea RecurvataEnlargeAsparagaceaeDracaena DracoEnlargeEuphorbia ResiniferaEnlargeAlismatalesAraceaeZamioculcasApialesApiaceaeSteganotaeniaAraliaceaeCussoniaAsparagalesAmaryllidaceaeAmmocharisApodolirionBoophoneBrunsvigiaCrinumCrossyneCryptostephanusCyrtanthusGethyllisHabranthusHaemanthusHesseaNerinePancratium (plant)RauhiaScadoxusStrumariaZephyranthesAsparagaceaeAgavoideaeAgaveBeschorneriaChlorophytumFurcraeaHesperaloeHesperoyuccaYuccaAsparagoideaeAsparagusLomandroideaeCordylineNolinoideaeBeaucarneaCalibanusDasylirionDracaena (plant)NolinaSansevieriaEriospermumScilloideaeAlbucaBowieaDaubenyaDipcadiDrimiaDrimiopsisEucomisHyacinth (plant)LachenaliaLedebouriaLitanthusMassoniaMerwillaNamophilaOrnithogalumPseudogaltoniaPseudoprosperoResnovaSchizobasisSchizocarphusSpetaeaVeltheimiaDoryanthaceaeDoryanthesHypoxidaceaeEmpodiumHypoxisPauridiaSaniellaSpiloxeneIridaceaeBabianaChasmantheCrocosmiaDeviaDieramaDietesDuthiastrumFerrariaFreesiaGeissorhizaGladiolusHesperanthaIxiaLapeirousiaMelasphaerulaMicranthusMoraeaPillansiaRadinosiphonRomuleaSparaxisSyringodeaThereianthusTritonia (plant)TritoniopsisWatsonia (plant)XenoscapaOrchidaceaeAcampeAerangisAnselliaBolusiellaBulbophyllumCalantheCyrtorchisOberoniaPolystachyaTridactyleVanilla (genus)EulophiaLiparis (plant)OeceocladesBartholinaBonatea (plant)BrachycorythisBrownleeaCentrostigmaCeratandraCoryciumCynorkisDidymoplexisDisa (plant)DisperisDracomonticolaEulophiaEvotellaGastrodiaHolothrixHuttonaeaNeobolusiaNerviliaPachitesPhalaenopsisPlatycoryneAsphodelaceaeAsphodeloideaeAloeAstrolobaTulista× AstrolistaBulbineBulbinellaChortolirionGasteriaHaworthiaTrachyandraXanthorrhoeaAsteralesAsteraceaeArctothecaBaeriopsisChrysanthemoidesCoulterellaCrassocephalumDideltaEmilia (plant)EremothamnusGymnodiscusGynuraLopholaenaMonoculusNidorellaOsteospermumOthonnaPhaneroglossaPoecilolepisPolyachyrusPteroniaSenecioSolanecioTripterisCampanulaceaeBrighamiaBrassicalesBrassicaceaeHeliophilaLepidiumCapparidaceaeMaeruaCaricaceaeCaricaMoringaceaeMoringaCaryophyllalesAizoaceaeLimeumAizoanthemumAizoonGaleniaGunniopsisTetragoniaMesembryanthemaceaeApteniaAridariaBrownanthusConophytumMesembryanthemumSceletiumConicosiaAloinopsisAmphiboliaAntimimaArgyrodermaAstridiaBraunsiaCarpobrotusCarruanthusCephalophyllumCerochlamysChasmatophyllumCheiridopsisConophytumDelospermaDinteranthusDisphymaDrosanthemumFaucariaFenestrariaFrithiaGibbaeumGlottiphyllumJensenobotryaJordaaniellaJuttadinteriaKhadiaLampranthusLapidaria (plant)LithopsMachairophyllumMalephoraMeyerophytumMitrophyllumMuiriaNamibiaOophytumOrthopterumOsculariaPleiospilosPolymitaPsammophoraRuschiaRuschianthusSchwantesiaTitanopsisTrichodiademaVlokiaZeuktophyllumSesuviumTrianthemaAmaranthaceaeAmaranthoideaeChenopodioideaeAtriplexChenopodiumEinadiaEnchylaenaHalopeplisMaireanaRhagodiaHalosarciaSalicorniaSalsolaSarcocorniaSclerolaenaSuaedaTecticorniaThrelkeldiaBasellaceaeAnrederaBasellaCactusAcanthocalyciumAcanthocereusAriocarpusArmatocereusArrojadoaArthrocereusAstrophytumAustrocactusAztekiumBergerocactusBlossfeldiaBrachycereusBrowningiaBrasilicereusCalymmanthiumCarnegieaCephalocereusCephalocleistocactusCereus (plant)CintiaCipocereusCleistocactusColeocephalocereusCopiapoaCorryocactusCoryphanthaDendrocereusDenmozaDiscocactusDisocactusEchinocactusEchinocereusEchinopsisEpiphyllumEpithelanthaEriosyceEscobariaEscontriaEspostoaEspostoopsisEulychniaFacheiroaFerocactusFraileaGeohintoniaGymnocalyciumHaageocereusHarrisia (plant)HatioraHylocereusJasminocereusLasiocereusLeocereusLepismiumLeptocereusLeuchtenbergiaLophophoraMaihueniaMalacocarpusMammillariaMammilloydiaMatucanaMelocactusMicranthocereusMila (plant)MonvilleaMyrtillocactusNeobuxbaumiaNeolloydiaNeoraimondiaNeowerdermanniaObregoniaOpuntiaOreocereusOroyaOrtegocactusPachycereusParodiaPediocactusPelecyphoraPeniocereusPereskiaPereskiopsisPilosocereusPolaskiaPraecereusPseudoacanthocereusPseudorhipsalisPterocactusPygmaeocereusQuiabentiaRauhocereusRebutiaRhipsalisSamaipaticereusSchlumbergeraSclerocactusSelenicereusStenocactusStenocereusStephanocereusStetsonia (plant)StrombocactusTacingaThelocactusTrichocereusTurbinicarpusUebelmanniaWeberbauerocereusWeberocereusYungasocereusDidiereaceaeAlluaudiaDidiereaMolluginaceaeHypertelisPhytolaccaceaePhytolaccaPortulacaceaeAnacampserosCerariaCistantheCalandriniaGrahamia (plant)LewisiaPortulacaPortulacariaSchreiteriaTalinumCommelinalesCommelinaceaeAneilemaCallisiaCyanotisTradescantiaTripogandraCornalesLoasaceaeCucurbitalesBegoniaceaeBegoniaCucurbitaceaeAcanthosicyosApodantheraBrandegeaCitrullusCocciniaCorallocarpusCucumellaCucumisCucurbitaDendrosicyosFevilleaGynostemmaLagenariaMarah (plant)MomordicaTelfairiaTumamocaXerosicyosZehneriaDioscorealesDioscoreaceaeDioscoreaEricalesBalsaminaceaeImpatiensEricaceaeFouquieriaceaeFouquieriaFabalesFabaceaeDelonixDolichos (plant)ErythrinaLotononisNeorautaneniaPachyrhizusTylosemaGentianalesApocynaceaeAdeniumMandevillaPachypodiumPlumeriaAsclepiadoideaeAsclepiadaceaeAbsolmsiaAustrallumaAspidoglossumBaynesiaBrachystelmaCeropegiaChlorocyathusCibirhizaCordylogyneCynanchumDischidiaDischidiopsisDuvaliandraEustegiaFanniniaFockeaGlossostelmaHoyaIschnolepisLavraniaMarsdeniaMiraglossumOdontostelmaOphionellaOrbeanthusPachycarpusParapodium (plant)PeriglossumPetopentiaRaphionacmeRiocreuxiaSchlechterellaStathmostelmaStenostelmaStomatostemmaTrichocaulonTylophoraWoodiaXysmalobiumAsclepiasSarcostemmaMateleaMaxillarieaeRudolfiellaStapeliaeAngollumaCarallumaDuvaliaEchidnopsisEdithcoleaFrereaHoodiaHuerniaHuerniopsisLarryleachiaNotechidnopsisOrbea (plant)OrbeopsisPiaranthusPachycymbiumPectinaria (plant)PseudolithosQuaquaRhytidocaulonStapeliaStapelianthusStapeliopsisTavaresiaTridenteaTromotrichePeriplocoideaeCryptolepis (plant)RubiaceaeAnthorrhizaAnthospermumHydnophytumHydrophylaxMyrmecodiaMyrmephytumPhylohydraxSquamellariaGeranialesGeraniaceaeMonsoniaPelargoniumLamialesGesneriaceaeAeschynanthusAlsobiaChiritaCodonantheColumneaNematanthusSinningiaStreptocarpusLamiaceaeAeollanthusDauphineaPlectranthusRothecaSolenostemonTetradeniaThorncroftiaLentibulariaceaePedaliaceaeSesamothamnusUncarinaMalpighialesEuphorbiaceaeCnidoscolusEuphorbiaJatrophaMonadeniumPedilanthusPhyllanthusSynadeniumPassifloraceaeAdeniaPhyllanthaceaePhyllanthusMalvalesCochlospermaceaeMalvaceaeAdansoniaCavanillesiaCeibaPseudobombaxSterculiaceaeBrachychitonSterculiaMyrtalesMelastomataceaeMedinillaOxalidalesOxalidaceaeOxalisPiperalesPiperaceaePeperomiaPoalesBromeliaceaeAbromeitiellaAechmeaAnanasCatopsisConnelliaDyckiaHechtiaNeoregeliaPuya (genus)TillandsiaVrieseaPoaceaeDregeochloaRanunculalesMenispermaceaeStephaniaRosalesMoraceaeDorsteniaFicusUrticaceaeLaporteaObetiaPileaPouzolziaSantalalesLoranthaceaeAgelanthusHelixantheraTapinanthusViscaceaeSantalaceaeViscumSapindalesAnacardiaceaePachycormus (plant)BurseraceaeBoswelliaBurseraCommiphoraMeliaceaeEntandrophragmaSapindaceaeErythrophysaSaxifragalesCrassulaceaeAdromischusAeoniumAichrysonCotyledon (genus)CrassulaCremnophilaDudleyaEcheveriaGraptopetalumGreenoviaHylotelephiumKalanchoeKungiaLenophyllumMeterostachysMonanthesMucizoniaOrostachysPachyphytumPerrierosedumPetrosedumPhedimusPistoriniaPrometheumPseudosedumRhodiolaRosulariaSedella (plant)SedumSempervivumSinocrassulaThompsonellaTylecodonUmbilicus (genus)VilladiaSaxifragaceaeSolanalesConvolvulaceaeIpomoeaMerremiaSolanaceaeNolanaVitalesVitaceaeCissusCyphostemmaZygophyllalesZygophyllaceaeAugeaZygophyllumBoraginaceaeHeliotropiumIcacinaceaePyrenacanthaCactusAgavoideaeAizoaceaeCrassulaceaeAgavoideaeCactusCrassulaceaeAizoaceaeApocynaceaeAsphodelaceaeDidiereaceaeEndemic (ecology)EuphorbiaceaePortulacaceaeEnlargeEnlargeSempervivumEcheveriaCrassulaHouseplantCactus And Succulent Society Of AmericaCrassulacean Acid MetabolismHelp:CS1 ErrorsInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-84081-253-4Royal Botanic Gardens, KewInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-84246-422-9OCLCInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8069-0549-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-85605-402-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-304-32076-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7137-0140-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-571-10221-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-85950-447-8Template:BotanyTemplate Talk:BotanyBotanyHistory Of BotanyBranches Of BotanyHistory Of Plant SystematicsEthnobotanyPaleobotanyPlant AnatomyPlant EcologyPhytogeographyGeobotanical ProspectingFloraPhytochemistryPlant PathologyBryologyPhycologyFloristicsDendrologyPlantAlgaeArchaeplastidaBryophyteNon-vascular PlantVascular PlantSpermatophytePteridophyteGymnospermFlowering PlantPlant MorphologyGlossary Of Plant MorphologyPlant CellCell WallPhragmoplastPlastidPlasmodesmaVacuoleTissue (biology)MeristemVascular TissueVascular BundleGround TissueLeafCork CambiumWoodStorage OrganRootRhizoidBulbRhizomeShootPlant StemLeafPetiole (botany)CataphyllBudSessility (botany)Plant Reproductive MorphologyABC Model Of Flower DevelopmentInflorescenceUmbelRacemeBractPedicel (botany)FlowerWhorl (botany)Floral SymmetryFloral DiagramFloral FormulaReceptacle (botany)HypanthiumPerianthTepalPetalSepalSporophyllGynoeciumOvary (botany)OvuleStigma (botany)ArchegoniumStamenStamenStaminodePollenTapetum (botany)Column (botany)GametophyteSporophyteEmbryoFruitFruit AnatomyBerry (botany)Capsule (fruit)SeedSeed DispersalEndospermEpicuticular WaxPlant CuticleEpidermis (botany)StomaNectarTrichomeThorns, Spines, And PricklesPlant PhysiologyPlant NutritionPhotosynthesisChlorophyllPlant HormoneTranspirationTurgor PressureBulk MovementAleuronePhytomelaninSugarSapStarchCelluloseSecondary GrowthWoody PlantHerbaceous PlantHabit (biology)VineLianaShrubSubshrubTreePlant ReproductionPlant EvolutionPlant EcologyAlternation Of GenerationsSporangiumSporeMicrosporangiaMicrosporeSporangiumMegasporePollinationPollinatorPollen TubeDouble FertilizationGerminationPlant Evolutionary Developmental BiologyEvolutionary History Of PlantsTimeline Of Plant EvolutionHardiness ZonePlant TaxonomyHistory Of Plant SystematicsHerbariumTaxonomy (biology)Botanical NomenclatureBotanical NameCorrect NameAuthor Citation (botany)International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And PlantsInternational Code Of Nomenclature For Cultivated PlantsTaxonomic RankInternational Association For Plant TaxonomyList Of Systems Of Plant TaxonomyCultivated Plant TaxonomyCitrus TaxonomyCultigenCultivarCultivar GroupGrex (horticulture)AgronomyFloricultureForestryHorticultureGlossary Of Botanical TermsList Of BotanistsList Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation (W–Z)Botanical ExpeditionCategory:BotanyPortal:PlantsWikipedia:WikiProject PlantsHelp:Authority ControlLibrary Of Congress Control NumberIntegrated Authority FileNational Diet LibraryHelp:CategoryCategory:Succulent PlantsCategory:Plant Common NamesCategory:Plant MorphologyCategory:Drought-tolerant PlantsCategory:Garden PlantsCategory:CS1 Errors: DatesCategory:Articles Needing Additional References From January 2013Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:Articles Lacking In-text Citations From September 2012Category:All Articles Lacking In-text CitationsCategory:Wikipedia Articles With LCCN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link