Contents 1 Description 2 Shape 3 Style 3.1 Structure 3.2 Attachment to the ovary 3.3 Pollination 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links


Description[edit] Stigma of a Tulipa species, with pollen The stigma, together with the style and ovary comprises the pistil, which in turn is part of the gynoecium or female reproductive organ of a plant. The stigma forms the distal portion of the style or stylodia. The stigma is composed of stigmatic papillae, the cells which are receptive to pollen. These may be restricted to the apex of the style or, especially in wind pollinated species, cover a wide surface.[1] The stigma receives pollen and it is on the stigma that the pollen grain germinates. Often sticky, the stigma is adapted in various ways to catch and trap pollen with various hairs, flaps, or sculpturings.[2] The pollen may be captured from the air (wind-borne pollen, anemophily), from visiting insects or other animals (biotic pollination), or in rare cases from surrounding water (hydrophily). Stigma can vary from long and slender to globe shaped to feathery.[3] Pollen is typically highly desiccated when it leaves an anther. Stigma have been shown to assist in the rehydration of pollen and in promoting germination of the pollen tube.[4] Stigma also ensure proper adhesion of the correct species of pollen. Stigma can play an active role in pollen discrimination and some self-incompatibility reactions, that reject pollen from the same or genetically similar plants, involve interaction between the stigma and the surface of the pollen grain.


Shape[edit] The stigma is often split into lobes, e.g. trifid (three lobed), and may resemble the head of a pin (capitate), or come to a point (punctiform). The shape of the stigma may vary considerably:[1] Corn stigma called "silk" Stigma shapes Capitate and simple Trifid


Style[edit] Structure[edit] The style is a narrow upward extension of the ovary, connecting it to the stigmatic papillae. It may be absent in some plants in the case the stigma is referred to as sessile. Styles are generally tube-like—either long or short.[5] The style can be open (containing few or no cells in the central portion) with a central canal which may be filled with mucilage. Alternatively the style may be closed (densely packed with cells throughout). Most syncarpous monocots and some eudicots have open styles, while many syncarpous eudicots and grasses have closed (solid) styles containing specialised secretory transmitting tissue tissue, linking the stigma to the centre of the ovary. This forms a nutrient rich tract for pollen tube growth.[3] Where there are more than one carpels to the pistil, each may have a separate style-like stylodium, or share a common style. In Irises and others in the Iridaceae family, the style divides into three petal-like (petaloid) style branches (sometimes also referred to as 'stylodia'[6]), almost to the base of the style and is called tribrachiate.[7] These are flaps of tissue, running from the perianth tube above the sepal. The stigma is a rim or edge on the underside of the branch, near the end lobes.[8] Style branches also appear on Dietes, Pardanthopsis and most species of Moraea.[9] In Crocuses, there are three divided style branches, creating a tube.[10] Hesperantha has a spreading style branch. Alternatively the style may be lobed rather than branched. Gladiolus has a bi-lobed style branch (bilobate). Freesia, Lapeirousia, Romulea, Savannosiphon and Watsonia have bifuracated (two branched) and recurved style branches.[9][1] Style morphology Iris versicolor showing three structures with two overlapping lips, an upper petaloid style branch and a lower tepal, enclosing a stamen Iris missouriensis showing the pale blue style branch above the drooping petal The feathery stigma of Crocus speciosus has branches corresponding to three carpels Attachment to the ovary[edit] Style position Terminal (apical) Lateral Gynobasic May be terminal (apical), subapical, lateral, gynobasic, or subgynobasic. Terminal (apical) style position refers to attachment at the apex of the ovary and is the commonest pattern. In the subapical pattern the style arises to the side slightly below the apex. a lateral style arises from the side of the ovary and is found in Rosaceae. The gynobasic style arises from the base of the ovary, or between the ovary lobes and is characteristic of Boraginaceae. Subgynobasic styles characterise Allium.[11] Pollination[edit] Pollen tubes grow the length of the style to reach the ovules, and in some cases self-incompatibility reactions in the style prevent full growth of the pollen tubes. In some species, including Gasteria at least, the pollen tube is directed to the micropyle of the ovule by the style.[12]


See also[edit] Gynoecium


References[edit] ^ a b c Dahlgren, Clifford & Yeo 1985, Gynoecium p. 11 ^ The Penguin Dictionary of Botany, edited by Elizabeth Toothill, Penguin Books 1984 ISBN 0-14-051126-1 ^ a b Rudall 2007. ^ Edlund, Swanson & Preuss 2004. ^ González & Arbo 2016, Estilo y estigma ^ Klaus Kubitzki (Editor) Flowering Plants. Dicotyledons: Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales and Ericales, p. 208, at Google Books ^ Weberling 1989, pp. 182-186. ^ "The Anatomy Of Irises". herbs2000.com. Retrieved 27 July 2015.  ^ a b Klaus Kubitzki (Editor) Flowering Plants. Monocotyledons: Lilianae (except Orchidaceae), p. 305, at Google Books ^ Michael Hickey, Clive King 100 Families of Flowering Plants, p. 562, at Google Books ^ Simpson 2011, Style position p. 378 ^ Christophe Clement, Ettore Pacini, Jean-Claude Audran (Editors) Anther and Pollen: From Biology to Biotechnology, p. 151, at Google Books


Bibliography[edit] Dahlgren, R.M.; Clifford, H.T.; Yeo, P.F. (1985). The families of the monocotyledons. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-64903-5. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  Edlund, Anna F.; Swanson, Robert; Preuss, Daphne (2004). "Pollen and stigma structure and function: the role of diversity in pollination". Plant Cell. 16 (Supplement): 84–97. doi:10.1105/tpc.015800.  Rudall, Paula J. (2007). Anatomy of flowering plants: an introduction to structure and development (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521692458. Retrieved 18 January 2015.  Simpson, Michael G. (2011). Plant Systematics. Academic Press. ISBN 0-08-051404-9.  González, A.M.; Arbo, M.M. (2016). "Botánica Morfológica: Morfología de Plantas Vasculares" (in Spanish). Corrientes, Argentina: Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste. Retrieved 22 June 2016.  Weberling, Focko (1989) [1981]. Morphologie der Blüten und der Blütenstände [Morphology of Flowers and Inflorescences]. trans. Richard J. Pankhurst. CUP Archive. ISBN 0-521-43832-2. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 


External links[edit] Stigma shape and size - English labels Terminal versus gynobasic style Images Gynobasic Diagram Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stigma (botany). v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stigma_(botany)&oldid=811057791#Style" Categories: Plant reproductive systemPlant morphologyPlant sexualityHidden categories: CS1 Spanish-language sources (es)


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