Contents 1 Relationship to perennating organ 2 Underground storage organ 3 Other storage organs 4 Notes and references

Relationship to perennating organ[edit] Storage organs may act as perennating organs ('perennating' as in perennial, meaning "through the year", used in the sense of continuing beyond the year and in due course lasting for multiple years). These are used by plants to survive adverse periods in the plant's life-cycle (e.g. caused by cold, excessive heat, lack of light or drought). During these periods, parts of the plant die and then when conditions become favourable again, re-growth occurs from buds in the perennating organs. For example, geophytes growing in woodland under deciduous trees (e.g. bluebells, trilliums) die back to underground storage organs during summer when tree leaf cover restricts light and water is less available.[citation needed] However, perennating organs need not be storage organs. After losing their leaves, deciduous trees grow them again from 'resting buds', which are the perennating organs of phanerophytes in the Raunkiær classification, but which do not specifically act as storage organs. Equally, storage organs need not be perennating organs. Many succulents have leaves adapted for water storage, which they retain in adverse conditions.

Underground storage organ[edit] In common parlance, underground storage organs may be generically called roots, tubers, or bulbs, but to the botanist there is more specific technical nomenclature: A harvested ginger rhizome True roots: Tuberous root or root tuber — e.g. Dahlia[4] Storage taproot — e.g. carrot Modified stems: Corm — e.g. Crocus Stem tuber — e.g. Zantedeschia (arum lily), potato Rhizome — e.g. Iris pseudacorus (yellow flag iris) Pseudobulb — e.g. Pleione (windowsill orchid) Caudex — e.g. Adenium (desert-rose) Others: Storage hypocotyl (the stem of a seedling) — sometimes called a tuber, as in Cyclamen Bulb (a short stem that produces fleshy scale leaves or modified leaf bases) — e.g. Lilium, Narcissus, onion Some of the above, particularly pseudobulbs and caudices, may occur wholly or partially above ground. Intermediates and combinations of the above are also found, making classification difficult. As an example of an intermediate, the tuber of Cyclamen arises from the stem of the seedling, which forms the junction of the roots and stem of the mature plant. In some species (e.g. Cyclamen coum) roots come from the bottom of the tuber, suggesting that it is a stem tuber; in others (e.g. Cyclamen hederifolium) roots come largely from the top of the tuber, suggesting that it is a root tuber.[5] As an example of a combination, juno irises have both bulbs and storage roots.[6] Underground storage organs used for food may be generically called root vegetables, although this phrase should not be taken to imply that the class only includes true roots.

Other storage organs[edit] Crassula arborescens, a leaf succulent Succulents are plants which are adapted to withstand periods of drought by their ability to store moisture in specialized storage organs.[7] Leaf succulents store water in their leaves, which are thus thickened, fleshy and typically covered with a waxy coating or fine hairs to reduce evaporation. They may also contain mucilagenous compounds. Some leaf succulents have leaves which are distributed along the stem in a similar fashion to non-succulent species (e.g. Crassula, Kalanchoe); their stems may also be succulent. In others, the leaves are more compact, forming a rosette (e.g. Echeveria, Aloe). Pebble-plants or living stones (e.g. Lithops, Conophytum) have reduced their leaves to just two, forming a fleshy body, only the top of which may be visible above ground. Ferocactus pilosus (Mexican lime cactus), a stem succulent Stem succulents are generally either leafless or have leaves which can be quickly shed in the event of drought. Photosynthesis is then taken over by the stems. As with leaf succulents, stems may be covered with a waxy coating or fine hairs to reduce evaporation. The ribbed bodies of cacti may be an adaption to allow shrinkage and expansion with the amount of water stored. Plants of the same general form as cacti are found in other families (e.g. Euphorbia canariensis (family Euphorbiaceae), Stapelia (family Apocynaceae)).

Notes and references[edit] ^ "the definition of storage organ". Retrieved 2016-09-02.  ^ The underground storage organ itself is sometimes called a geophyte, but this is not the original usage of the term in the Raunkiær plant life-form classification. ^ Raunkiær, Christen (1934), The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography, trans. Gilbert-Carter, H.; Fausbøll, A. & Tansley, A.G., Oxford: Clarendon Press, OCLC 4300750 ; reprinted (1977) in History of ecology series, New York: Arno Press, ISBN 978-0-405-10418-3 ^ Examples mainly taken from Rix, M. (1983), Growing bulbs, Beckenham, Kent: Croom Helm, ISBN 978-0-7099-2248-3 , pp. 5-12 ^ Grey-Wilson, C. (1988), The Genus Cyclamen, Bromley, UK: Christopher Helm, ISBN 978-0-7470-1221-4  ^ Köhlein, Fritz (1987), Iris, translated by M.C. Peters from German original published in 1981, London: Christopher Helm, ISBN 978-0-7470-1803-2 , pp. 257ff. ^ Information in this section taken from Innes, Clive & Wall, Bill (1995), Cacti, Succulents and Bromeliads, London: Cassell Educational (for Royal Horticultural Society), ISBN 978-0-304-32076-9 , pp. 75–6 v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Retrieved from "" Categories: Plant morphologyEnergy storageBiology terminologyHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from December 2010

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