Contents 1 Structure 1.1 Histology 1.1.1 Stereocilia 1.2 Development 2 Function 2.1 Role in storage of sperm and ejaculant 3 Clinical significance 3.1 Inflammation 3.2 Surgical removal 4 Popular culture 4.1 Ghostbusters II 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External links

Structure[edit] The epididymis can be divided into three main regions: The head (Latin: Caput). The head of the epididymis receives spermatozoa via the efferent ducts of the mediastinium of the testis. It is characterized histologically by a thin myoepithelium. The concentration of the sperm here is dilute. The body (Latin: Corpus) The tail (Latin: Cauda). This has a thicker myoepithelium than the head region, as it is involved in absorbing fluid to make the sperm more concentrated. In reptiles, there is an additional canal between the testis and the head of the epididymis and which receives the various efferent ducts. This is, however, absent in all birds and mammals.[2] Histology[edit] The epididymis is covered by a two layered pseudostratified epithelium. The epithelium is separated by a basement membrane from the connective tissue wall which has smooth muscle cells. The major cell types in the epithelium are: Main cells: columnar cells that, with the basal cells, form the majority of the epithelium. These cells extend from the lumen to the basal lamina,[3] They also have non-motile stereocilia, which are long and branching in the head region and shorter in the tail region.[3] They also secrete carnitine, sialic acid, glycoproteins, and glycerylphosphorylcholine into the lumen. Basal cells: shorter, pyramid-shaped cells which contact the basal lamina but taper off before their apical surfaces reach the lumen.[3] These are thought to be undifferentiated precursors of principal cells.[3] Apical cells: predominantly found in the head region[3] Clear cells: predominant in the tail region[3] Intraepithelial lymphocytes: distributed throughout the tissue.[3] Intraepithelial macrophages[4][5] Stereocilia[edit] The stereocilia of the epididymis are structures which aid in absorption. They are long cytoplasmic projections that have no motility. Unlike the stereocilia of the inner ear, which play a role in hearing, stereocilia in the epididymis are more like the long, absorptive microvilli of other epithelia. These membrane extensions increase the surface area of the cell, allowing for greater absorption and secretion.[6] The stereocilia in the epididymis are shaped by an internal actin network with no microtubule structure, and unlike true cilia are non-motile.[7] Because sperm are initially nonmotile as they leave the seminiferous tubules, large volumes of fluid are secreted to propel them to the epididymis. The core function of the stereocilia is to resorb 90% of this fluid as the spermatozoa start to become motile. This absorption creates a fluid current that moves the immobile sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis. Spermatozoa do not reach full motility until they reach the vagina, where the alkaline pH is neutralized by acidic vaginal fluids. Development[edit] In the embryo, the epididymis develops from tissue that once formed the mesonephros, a primitive kidney found in many aquatic vertebrates. Persistence of the cranial end of the mesonephric duct will leave behind a remnant called the appendix of the epididymis. In addition, some mesonephric tubules can persist as the paradidymis, a small body caudal to the efferent ductules. A Gartner's duct is a homologous remnant in the female.

Function[edit] Role in storage of sperm and ejaculant[edit] Spermatozoa formed in the testis enter the caput epididymis, progress to the corpus, and finally reach the cauda region, where they are stored. Sperm entering the caput epididymis are incomplete—they lack the ability to swim forward (motility) and to fertilize an egg. It stores the sperm for 2–3 months. During their transit in the epididymis, sperm undergo maturation processes necessary for them to acquire these functions.[8] Final maturation is completed in the female reproductive tract (capacitation). The epididymis secretes some proteins that blocks the receptors on the plasma membrane of sperm head which renders sperm infertile inside the male tract (decapacitation). During ejaculation, sperm flow from the lower portion of the epididymis (which functions as a storage reservoir). They have not been activated by products from the prostate gland, and they are unable to swim, but are transported via the peristaltic action of muscle layers within the vas deferens, and are mixed with the diluting fluids of the seminal vesicles and other accessory glands prior to ejaculation (forming semen). The epithelial cells of the epididymis possess numerous apical modifications that are often referred to as stereocilia, as under the light microscope they look like cilia. However, as electron microscopy has revealed them to be structurally and functionally more similar to microvilli, some now refer to them as stereovilli.[9]

Clinical significance[edit] Inflammation[edit] An inflammation of the epididymis is called epididymitis. It is much more common than testicular inflammation, termed orchitis. Surgical removal[edit] Epididymotomy is the placing of an incision into the epididymis and is sometimes considered as a treatment option for acute suppurating epididymitis. Epididymectomy is the surgical removal of the epididymis sometimes performed for post-vasectomy pain syndrome and for refractory cases of epididymitis.

Popular culture[edit] Ghostbusters II[edit] In the 1989 film, Egon Spengler (played by the late Harold Ramis) responds to a jibe made by Peter Venkman (Bill Murray) about his female colleagues being attracted to the size of his cranium with "I think they're more interested in my epididymis."[10]

Gallery[edit] Human Male reproductive system. Testis Schematic drawing of a cross-section through a testicle. Micrograph of an epididymis. H&E stain. Microscopic shot. Epididymis deep dissection.

See also[edit] This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see Anatomical terminology. Epididymal hypertension

Notes[edit] ^ Kim, Howard H.; Goldstein, Marc (2010). "Chapter 53: Anatomy of the epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicle". In Graham, Sam D.; Keane, Thomas E.; Glenn, James F. Glenn's urological surgery (7th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 356. ISBN 978-0-7817-9141-0.  ^ Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 394–395. ISBN 0-03-910284-X.  ^ a b c d e f g Kierszenbaum, Abraham L. (2002). Histology and cell biology : an introduction to pathology. St. Louis: Mosby. p. 556. ISBN 0-323-01639-1.  ^ Da Silva N, Cortez-Retamozo V, Reinecker HC, et al. (May 2011). "A dense network of dendritic cells populates the murine epididymis". Reproduction. 141 (5): 653–63. doi:10.1530/REP-10-0493. PMC 3657760 . PMID 21310816.  ^ Shum WW, Smith TB, Cortez-Retamozo V, et al. (May 2014). "Epithelial basal cells are distinct from dendritic cells and macrophages in the mouse epididymis". Biology of Reproduction. 90 (5): 90. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.113.116681. PMC 4076373 . PMID 24648397.  ^ How sperm are re-absorbed into the body. ^ Efferent Ducts and Epididymis.[unreliable medical source?] ^ Jones RC (April 1999). "To store or mature spermatozoa? The primary role of the epididymis". International Journal of Andrology. 22 (2): 57–67. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2605.1999.00151.x. PMID 10194636.  ^ Ross, Michael H.; Pawlina, Wojciech (2011). Histology: A Text and Atlas. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 110–112. ISBN 978-0-7817-7200-6.  ^

External links[edit] Look up epididymis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Histology image: 16903loa – Histology Learning System at Boston University inguinalregion at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (testes[dead link]) v t e Male reproductive system Internal Seminal tract Testes layers Tunica vaginalis Tunica albuginea Tunica vasculosa Appendix Mediastinum Lobules Septa Leydig cell Sertoli cell Blood–testis barrier Spermatogenesis Spermatogonium Spermatocytogenesis Spermatocyte Spermatidogenesis Spermatid Spermiogenesis Spermatozoon Other Seminiferous tubules Tubuli seminiferi recti Rete testis Efferent ducts Epididymis Appendix Stereocilia Paradidymis Spermatic cord Vas deferens Ampulla Ejaculatory duct Accessory glands Seminal vesicles excretory duct Prostate Urethral crest Seminal colliculus Prostatic utricle Ejaculatory duct Prostatic sinus Prostatic ducts Bulbourethral glands External Penis root Crus Bulb Fundiform ligament Suspensory ligament body Corpus cavernosum Corpus spongiosum glans Foreskin Frenulum Corona fascia superficial deep Tunica albuginea Septum of the penis Urinary tract Internal urethral orifice Urethra Prostatic Intermediate Spongy Navicular fossa External urethral orifice Lacunae of Morgagni Urethral gland Scrotum layers skin Dartos External spermatic fascia Cremaster Cremasteric fascia Internal spermatic fascia Perineal raphe Scrotal septum Retrieved from "" Categories: Mammal male reproductive systemScrotumHidden categories: All articles lacking reliable referencesArticles lacking reliable references from August 2014Medicine infobox template using GraySubject or GrayPageArticles containing Latin-language textAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from September 2016

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Stereocilia_(epididymis) - Photos and All Basic Informations

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TestisTunica VaginalisEmbryologyWolffian DuctVeinPampiniform PlexusLatinMedical Subject HeadingsAnatomical TerminologyHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishTesticleVas DeferensMale Reproductive SystemEfferent DuctsLatin LanguageSpermatozoaEfferent DuctsMediastinum TestisTestisHistologicalMyoepitheliumLatin LanguageLatin LanguagePseudostratified EpitheliumEpitheliumBasement MembraneConnective TissueSmooth MuscleStereociliaCarnitineSialic AcidGlycoproteinsStereociliaInner EarMicrovilliActinMicrotubuleCiliaSpermSeminiferous TubulesSpermatozoaHypermotilityVaginaEmbryoMesonephrosKidneyAppendix Of The EpididymisParadidymisEfferent DuctsGartner's DuctHomology (biology)SpermatozoonFertilizeFemale Reproductive TractCapacitationEjaculationPeristalsisMuscleVas DeferensSeminal VesicleSemenEpididymitisOrchitisPost-vasectomy Pain SyndromeHarold RamisTauntingBill MurrayCraniumMicrographH&E StainEdit Section: See AlsoAnatomical TerminologyEpididymal HypertensionInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7817-9141-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-03-910284-XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-323-01639-1Digital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierWikipedia:Identifying Reliable Sources (medicine)Digital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7817-7200-6Wikipedia:Link RotTemplate:Male Reproductive SystemTemplate Talk:Male Reproductive SystemMale Reproductive SystemMale Internal GenitaliaSeminal TractTesticleTunica VaginalisTunica Albuginea Of TestisTunica Vasculosa TestisAppendix Of TestisMediastinum TestisLobules Of TestisSepta Of TestisLeydig CellSertoli CellBlood–testis BarrierSpermatogenesisSpermatogoniumSpermatocytogenesisSpermatocyteSpermatidogenesisSpermatidSpermiogenesisSpermatozoonSeminiferous TubuleTubuli Seminiferi RectiRete TestisEfferent DuctsAppendix Of The EpididymisStereocilia (epididymis)ParadidymisSpermatic CordVas DeferensAmpulla Of Ductus DeferensEjaculatory DuctSeminal VesicleExcretory Duct Of Seminal GlandProstateUrethral CrestSeminal ColliculusProstatic UtricleEjaculatory DuctProstatic SinusProstatic DuctsBulbourethral GlandMale External GenitaliaHuman PenisRoot Of PenisCrus Of PenisBulb Of PenisFundiform LigamentSuspensory Ligament Of PenisBody Of PenisCorpus Cavernosum PenisCorpus Spongiosum PenisGlans PenisForeskinFrenulum Of Prepuce Of PenisCorona Of Glans PenisFasciaSubcutaneous Tissue Of PenisBuck's FasciaTunica Albuginea (penis)Septum Of The PenisUrinary SystemInternal Urethral OrificeUrethraProstatic UrethraMembranous UrethraSpongy UrethraNavicular Fossa Of Male UrethraExternal Urethral Orifice (male)Lacunae Of MorgagniUrethral GlandScrotumHuman SkinDartosExternal Spermatic FasciaCremaster MuscleCremasteric FasciaInternal Spermatic FasciaPerineal RapheScrotal SeptumHelp:CategoryCategory:Mammal Male Reproductive SystemCategory:ScrotumCategory:All Articles Lacking Reliable ReferencesCategory:Articles Lacking Reliable References From August 2014Category:Medicine Infobox Template Using GraySubject Or GrayPageCategory:Articles Containing Latin-language TextCategory:All Articles With Dead External LinksCategory:Articles With Dead External Links From September 2016Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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