Contents 1 Description 2 Evolution 3 Relationships and nomenclature 4 References 5 Bibliography


Description[edit] The living spermatophytes form five groups, the first four of which were traditionally grouped as "gymnosperms": cycads, a subtropical and tropical group of plants with a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk, Ginkgo, a single living species of tree, conifers, cone-bearing trees and shrubs, gnetophytes, woody plants in the genera Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwitschia angiosperms, (or magnoliophyta) the flowering plants, a large group including many familiar plants in a wide variety of habitats. In addition to the taxa listed above, the fossil record contains evidence of many extinct taxa of seed plants. The so-called "seed ferns" (Pteridospermae) were one of the earliest successful groups of land plants, and forests dominated by seed ferns were prevalent in the late Paleozoic. Glossopteris was the most prominent tree genus in the ancient southern supercontinent of Gondwana during the Permian period. By the Triassic period, seed ferns had declined in ecological importance, and representatives of modern gymnosperm groups were abundant and dominant through the end of the Cretaceous, when angiosperms radiated.


Evolution[edit] Main article: Evolutionary history of plants § Seeds A whole genome duplication event in the ancestor of seed plants occurred about 319 million years ago.[1] This gave rise to a series of evolutionary changes that resulted in the origin of seed plants. A middle Devonian (385-million-year-old) precursor to seed plants from Belgium has been identified predating the earliest seed plants by about 20 million years. Runcaria, small and radially symmetrical, is an integumented megasporangium surrounded by a cupule. The megasporangium bears an unopened distal extension protruding above the mutlilobed integument. It is suspected that the extension was involved in anemophilous (wind) pollination. Runcaria sheds new light on the sequence of character acquisition leading to the seed. Runcaria has all of the qualities of seed plants except for a solid seed coat and a system to guide the pollen to the seed.[2]


Relationships and nomenclature[edit] Further information: Gnetophyta § Classification Seed-bearing plants were traditionally divided into angiosperms, or flowering plants, and gymnosperms, which includes the gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgo, and conifers. Older morphological studies believed in a close relationship between the gnetophytes and the angiosperms,[3] in particular based on vessel elements. However, molecular studies (and some more recent morphological[4] and fossil[5] papers) have generally shown a clade of gymnosperms, with the gnetophytes in or near the conifers. For example, one common proposed set of relationships is known as the gne-pine hypothesis and looks like:[6][7][8] angiosperms (flowering plants) gymnosperms cycads [9] Ginkgo Pinaceae (the pine family) gnetophytes other conifers However, the relationships between these groups should not be considered settled.[3][10] Other classifications group all the seed plants in a single division, with classes for the five groups: Division Spermatophyta Cycadopsida, the cycads Ginkgoopsida, the ginkgo Pinopsida, the conifers, ("Coniferopsida") Gnetopsida, the gnetophytes Magnoliopsida, the flowering plants, or Angiospermopsida A more modern classification ranks these groups as separate divisions (sometimes under the Superdivision Spermatophyta): Cycadophyta, the cycads Ginkgophyta, the ginkgo Pinophyta, the conifers Gnetophyta, the gnetophytes Magnoliophyta, the flowering plants An alternative phylogeny of spermatophytes based on the work by Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni 2015[11] with plant taxon authors from Anderson, Anderson & Cleal 2007[12] showing the relationship of extinct clades. Spermatophytina  †Moresnetiopsida Doweld 2001   †Lyginopteridopsida Novák 1961 emend. Anderson, Anderson & Cleal 2007  †Pachytestopsida Doweld 2001  †Callistophytales Rothwell 1981 emend. Anderson, Anderson & Cleal 2007  †Peltaspermopsida Doweld 2001  †Umkomasiales Doweld 2001    Acrogymnospermae Cycadopsida (Cycads) Ginkgoopsida (Maidenhair trees) Pinopsida (Conifers) †Phasmatocycadopsida Doweld 2001 †Pentoxylopsida Pant ex Doweld 2001 †Dictyopteridiopsida Doweld 2001 †Cycadeoideopsida Scott 1923 †Caytoniopsida Thomas ex Frenguelli 1946 Magnoliopsida (Flowering plants) Seed ferns Unassigned spermatophytes:[citation needed] †Avatiaceae Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Axelrodiopsida Anderson & Anderson †Alexiales Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Hamshawviales Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Hexapterospermales Doweld 2001 †Hlatimbiales Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Matatiellales Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Petriellales Taylor et al. 1994 †Arberiopsida Doweld 2001


References[edit] ^ Jiao Y, Wickett NJ, Ayyampalayam S, Chanderbali AS, Landherr L, Ralph PE, Tomsho LP, Hu Y, Liang H, Soltis PS, Soltis DE, Clifton SW, Schlarbaum SE, Schuster SC, Ma H, Leebens-Mack J, Depamphilis CW (2011) Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms. Nature ^ "Science Magazine". Runcaria, a Middle Devonian Seed Plant Precursor. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011.  ^ a b Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Chase, Mark W. (2004). "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1437–1445. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1437. PMID 21652302.  ^ James A. Doyle (January 2006). "Seed ferns and the origin of angiosperms". The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 133 (1): 169–209. doi:10.3159/1095-5674(2006)133[169:SFATOO]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1095-5674.  ^ Zi-Qiang Wang (2004). "A New Permian Gnetalean Cone as Fossil Evidence for Supporting Current Molecular Phylogeny". Annals of Botany. 94 (2): 281–288. doi:10.1093/aob/mch138. PMID 15229124.  ^ Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Parkinson, Christopher L.; Cheng, Yuchang; Vincent, Thomas M.; Palmer, Jeffrey D. (2000). "Seed plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: Monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from conifers". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (8): 4086–4091. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.8.4086. PMC 18157 . PMID 10760277.  ^ Bowe, L. M.; Michelle, L.; Coat, Gwénaële; Claude (2000). "Phylogeny of seed plants based on all three genomic compartments: Extant gymnosperms are monophyletic and Gnetales' closest relatives are conifers". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (8): 4092–4097. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.8.4092. PMC 18159 . PMID 10760278.  ^ Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Zanis, Michael J. (2002). "Phylogeny of seed plants based on evidence from eight genes". American Journal of Botany. 89 (10): 1670–1681. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.10.1670. PMID 21665594.  ^ Chung-Shien Wu, Ya-Nan Wang, Shu-Mei Liu and Shu-Miaw Chaw (2007). "Chloroplast Genome (cpDNA) of Cycas taitungensis and 56 cp Protein-Coding Genes of Gnetum parvifolium: Insights into cpDNA Evolution and Phylogeny of Extant Seed Plants". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 24 (6): 1366–1379. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm059. PMID 17383970. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Won, Hyosig; Renner, Susanne (August 2006). "Dating Dispersal and Radiation in the Gymnosperm Gnetum (Gnetales)—Clock Calibration When Outgroup Relationships Are Uncertain". Systematic Biology. 55 (4): 610–622. doi:10.1080/10635150600812619. PMID 16969937.  ^ Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni (2015). "Modern plant systematics". Liga-Pres: 685. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4745.6164. ISBN 978-966-397-276-3.  ^ Anderson, Anderson & Cleal (2007). "Brief history of the gymnosperms: classification, biodiversity, phytogeography and ecology". Strelitzia. SANBI. 20: 280. ISBN 978-1-919976-39-6. 


Bibliography[edit] Kron, Kathleen A; Chase, Mark W. Molecular systematics and seed plant phylogeny: a summary of a parsimony analysis of rbcL sequence data. pp. 243–252. , in Gibbs et al (1995) Gibbs, Adrian J.; Calisher, Charles H.; García-Arenal, Fernando, eds. (1995). Molecular basis of virus evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521022897.  Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S.; Zanis, M. J. (1 October 2002). "Phylogeny of seed plants based on evidence from eight genes". American Journal of Botany. 89 (10): 1670–1681. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.10.1670. PMID 21665594.  Taxon identifiers Wd: Q25814 Fossilworks: 55350 NCBI: 58024 v t e Classification of Archaeplastida / Plantae sensu lato Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Animal Fungi) Rhodophyta (red algae) Cyanidiophyceae Porphyridiophyceae Compsopogonophyceae Stylonematophyceae Rhodellophyceae Bangiophyceae Florideophyceae Glaucocystophyta (glaucophytes) Glaucocystophyceae Glaucocystis Cyanophora Gloeochaete Viridiplantae (green algae & land plants) Chlorophyta Palmophyllales Nephroselmidophyceae Prasinophyceae Pseudoscourfieldiales Pyramimonadophyceae Scourfieldiales Pedinophyceae Chlorodendrophyceae UTC clade Ulvophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Chlorophyceae Streptophyta (charophytes, & land plants) Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Phragmo- plastophyta Charophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Zygnematophyceae Embryophyta (land plants) Bryophytes (non-vascular) Marchantiophyta Anthocerotophyta Bryophyta "Moss" †Horneophytopsida Tracheophyta (vascular) Lycopodiophyta (microphylls) †Zosterophyllopsida †Sawdoniales Isoetopsida Lycopodiopsida Euphyllophyta (megaphylls) Moniliformopses (ferns) †Cladoxylopsida †Stauropteridales †Zygopteridales Equisetopsida Psilotopsida Marattiopsida Filicopsida Spermatophyta (seed plants) †Seed ferns Gymnosperms Gnetopsida Pinopsida Cycadopsida Ginkgoopsida Angiosperms or flowering plants Amborellales Nymphaeales Austrobaileyales Magnoliids Monocots Eudicots Other †Trimerophytopsida †Progymnosperm Other †Rhyniopsida † = extinct. See also the list of plant orders. v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Authority control GND: 4076988-4 NDL: 00565514 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spermatophyte&oldid=820762753" Categories: Bikont unranked cladesPlant taxonomyDevonian first appearancesHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listArticles with 'species' microformatsArticles containing Greek-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from January 2017Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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