Contents 1 Presociality 1.1 Subsociality 1.2 Solitary but social 1.3 Parasociality 2 Eusociality 2.1 Human eusociality 3 Comparison of sociality classifications 4 See also 5 References

Presociality[edit] The entomologist Charles D. Michener published a classification system for presociality in 1969, building on the earlier work of Suzanne Batra (who coined the words eusocial and quasisocial in 1966).[5][6] Michener used these terms in his study of bees, but also saw a need for additional classifications: subsocial, communal, and semisocial. In his use of these words, he did not generalize beyond insects. E. O. Wilson later refined Batra's definition of quasisocial.[7] Subsociality[edit] Subsociality is common in the animal kingdom. In subsocial taxa, parents care for their young for some length of time. Even if the period of care is very short, the animal is still described as subsocial. If adult animals associate with other adults, they are not called subsocial, but are ranked in some other classification according to their social behaviours. If occasionally associating or nesting with other adults is a taxon's most social behaviour, then members of those populations are said to be solitary but social. Solitary but social[edit] The mouse lemur is a nocturnal, solitary-but-social lemur native to Madagascar. See also: Solitary animal Solitary-but-social animals forage separately, but some individuals sleep in the same location or share nests. The home ranges of females usually overlap, whereas those of males do not. Males usually do not associate with other males, and male offspring are usually evicted upon maturity. Among primates, this form of social organization is most common among the nocturnal strepsirrhine species and tarsiers. Some examples of solitary-but-social species are mouse lemurs, lorises, and orangutans.[8] Parasociality[edit] Sociobiologists place communal, quasisocial, and semisocial animals into a meta-class: the parasocial. What parasocial taxa have in common is that they socialize in a single, cooperative dwelling.[3] Here is how communal, quasisocial, and semisocial taxa differ: In a communal group, adults cohabit in a single nest site, but they each care for their own young. Quasisocial animals, however, additionally share the responsibilities of brood care. Quasisocial behaviour has been observed in some Hymenoptera and spider taxa,[9] as well as in some other invertebrates.[3] Beyond parasociality is eusociality. Eusocial insect societies have all the characteristics of a semisocial one, except overlapping generations of adults cohabit and share in the care of young. This means that more than one adult generation is alive at the same time, and that the older generations also care for the newest offspring.

Eusociality[edit] Giant honey bees cover the honeycomb of their nest. Main articles: Eusociality and Evolution of eusociality Eusocial societies have overlapping adult generations, cooperative care of young, and division of reproductive labor. When organisms in a species are born with physical characteristics specific to a caste which never changes throughout their lives, this exemplifies the highest acknowledged degree of sociality. Eusociality has evolved in several orders of insects. Common examples of eusociality are from Hymenoptera (ants, bees, sawflies, and wasps) and Blattodea (infraorder Isoptera, termites), but some Coleoptera (such as the beetle Austroplatypus incompertus), Hemiptera (bugs such as Pemphigus spyrothecae), and Thysanoptera (thrips) are described as eusocial. Eusocial species that lack this criterion of morphological caste differentiation are said to be primitively eusocial.[3] Two potential examples of primitively eusocial mammals are the naked mole-rat and the Damaraland mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber & Fukomys damarensis, respectively).[10] Both species are diploid and highly inbred, and they aid in raising their siblings and relatives, all of whom are born from a single reproductive queen. They usually live in harsh or limiting environments. However, a study conducted by O’Riain and Faulkes in 2008 suggests that due to regular inbreeding avoidance, mole rats sometimes outbreed and establish new colonies when resources are sufficient.[11] Eusociality has arisen among some crustaceans that live in groups in a restricted area. Synalpheus regalis are parasitic shrimp that rely on fortress defense. They live in groups of closely related individuals, amidst tropical reefs and sponges.[12] Each group has one breeding female; she is protected by a large number of male defenders who are armed with enlarged snapping claws. As with other eusocial societies, there is a single shared living space for the colony members, and the non-breeding members act to defend it.[13] Human eusociality[edit] E. O. Wilson and Bert Hölldobler controversially[14] claimed in 2005 that humans exhibit sufficient sociality to be counted as a eusocial species, and that this enabled them to enjoy spectacular ecological success and dominance over ecological competitors.[15]

Comparison of sociality classifications[edit] Degree of sociality Parental investment Members of an adult generation and their young cohabit Cooperative care of young Reproductive division of labour Caste system Overlapping adult generations Solitary Subsocial Yes No No No No No Solitary but social Yes Sometimes No No No No Parasocial Communal Yes Yes No No No No Quasisocial Yes Yes Yes No No No Semisocial Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Eusocial Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

See also[edit] Collectivism Group cohesiveness Group selection Individualism Interdependence Nesting instinct Prosocial behavior Reciprocal altruism Social behavior Stigmergy

References[edit] ^ Smelser, Neil J.; Baltes, Paul B., eds. (2001). "Evolution of Sociality". International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. New York: Elsevier. p. 14506. ISBN 9780080430768. OCLC 47869490.  ^ Ross, Kenneth G.; Matthews, Robert W. (1991). The Social Biology of Wasps. Ithaca: Comstock Publishing Associates. ISBN 9780801420351. OCLC 22184337.  ^ a b c d Gadagkar, Raghavendra (September 1987). "What are social insects?" (PDF). IUSSI Indian Chapter Newsletter. International Union for the Study of Social Insects. 1 (2).  ^ Nowak, Martin A.; Tamita, Corina E.; Wilson, Edward O. (2010). "The Evolution of Eusociality". Nature. 466 (7310): 1057–1062. doi:10.1038/nature09205. PMC 3279739 . PMID 20740005.  ^ Michener, C. D. (1969). "Comparative Social Behavior of Bees". Annual Review of Entomology. 14: 299–342. doi:10.1146/annurev.en.14.010169.001503.  ^ Batra, S. W. T. (1966). "Social behavior and nests of some nomiine bees in India (Hymenoptera, Halictidæ)". Insectes Sociaux. 13 (3): 145–153. doi:10.1007/BF02223020.  ^ Wilson, E. O. (1971). The Insect Societies. Cambridge: Belknap Press. ISBN 9780674454903. OCLC 199513.  ^ Sussman, R. W. (2003). "Ecology: General Principles". Primate Ecology and Social Structure. Pearson Custom Publishing. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-536-74363-3. OCLC 57408633.  ^ Furey, R. E. (1998). "Two cooperatively social populations of the theridiid spider Anelosimus studiosus in a temperate region". Animal Behaviour. 55 (3): 727–735. doi:10.1006/anbe.1997.0648. PMID 9515053.  ^ Burda, H. Honeycutt; Begall, S.; Locker-Grutjen, O; Scharff, A. (2000). "Are naked and common mole-rats eusocial and if so, why?". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 47 (5): 293–303. doi:10.1007/s002650050669.  ^ O'Riain, M.J.; Faulkes, C. G. (2008). "African mole rats: eusociality, relatedness and ecological constraints". Ecology of Social Evolution: 207–223. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-75957-7_10.  ^ Duffy, J. Emmett; Cheryl L. Morrison; Ruben Rios (2000). "Multiple origins of eusociality among sponge-dwelling shrimps (Synalpheus)". Evolution. 54 (2): 503–516. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2000.tb00053.x. PMID 10937227.  ^ Duffy, J. E (1998). "On the frequency of eusociality in snapping shrimps (Decapoda: Alpheidae), with description of a second eusocial species". Bulletin of Marine Science. 63 (2): 387–400.  ^ Angier, Natalie (2012). "Edward O. Wilson's New Take on Human Nature". Smithsonian Magazine (April 2012). Retrieved 19 December 2016.  ^ Wilson, E. O.; Hölldobler, Bert (2005). "Eusociality: Origin and consequences". PNAS. 102 (38): 13367–13371. doi:10.1073/pnas.0505858102. PMC 1224642 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) v t e Sociobiology Topics Behavioural genetics Challenge hypothesis Dual inheritance theory Ethology Evolutionary psychology Evolution of morality Evolutionary models of food sharing Group selection Kin recognition Kin selection Male Warrior hypothesis Reciprocal altruism Sexual selection in human evolution Sex and psychology Sociality (Eusociality, Evolution of eusociality, Presociality) Dunbar's number Supporters Anne Campbell Noam Chomsky Richard Dawkins Daniel Dennett Sarah Blaffer Hrdy Steven Pinker Frans de Waal E. O. Wilson Sociobiology: The New Synthesis Robert Wright Opponents Stephen Jay Gould Leon Kamin Richard Lewontin Steven Rose Not in Our Genes Evolutionary biology portal Retrieved from "" Categories: Behavioral ecologyEthologySociobiologyHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listPages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersPages using Columns-list with deprecated parameters

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