Contents 1 Terminology 2 Reports 3 Effects on children 4 Effects on women of color 4.1 Black women 4.2 Dominican Women 4.3 Asian women 4.4 Native American women 4.5 Latina women 5 American Psychological Association view 5.1 Definition 5.2 Children 5.2.1 Cognitive and emotional consequences 6 Products for children 7 Culture and media 8 Criticism 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 12.1 Books 12.2 Journals 12.3 Reports 12.4 Online resources


Terminology[edit] The term "sexualization" itself only emerged in Anglophone discourse in recent decades. Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, the term was infrequently drawn upon by English writers to refer the assignation of a gendered frame to a particular object, such as the gendering of nouns (e.g., de Quincey [1839]1909, 195).[9] In contrast, the term "asexualization" saw greater use, as a synonym for sterilization in eugenics discourse from around the turn of the twentieth century (e.g., Lydston 1904).[10][11] The opposite or antonym to sexualization is desexualization.


Reports[edit] Name of report Country Year Reference Corporate paedophilia: sexualisation of children in Australia Australia 2006 [12] Sexualised goods aimed at children: Report for the Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Scotland, UK 2009 [13] Report of the American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls USA 2010 [8] Sexualisation of young people : review (Home Office) UK 2010 [14] Letting children be children : report of an independent review of the commercialisation and sexualisation of childhood ('The Bailey Review') UK 2011 [15]


Effects on children[edit] In 2006, an Australian report called Corporate paedophilia: sexualisation of children in Australia[12] was published. The Australian report summarises its conclusion as follows: Images of sexualised children are becoming increasingly common in advertising and marketing material. Children who appear aged 12 years and under are dressed, posed and made up in the same way as sexy adult models. Children that appear on magazines are seen older than they really are because of the sexualised clothes they are given to pose in. "Corporate paedophilia" is a metaphor used to describe advertising and marketing that sexualises children in these ways. In 2007, the American Psychological Association published a report titled Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls, discussed below. In 2010, the American Psychological Association published an additional report titled " Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls", which performed a study where college students were asked to try on and evaluate either a swimsuit or a sweater. While they waited for 10 minutes wearing the garment, they completed a math test. The results revealed that young women in swimsuits performed significantly worse on the math problems than did those wearing sweaters.The hypothesis is that individuals about to try on the sweaters had less pressure to look beautiful because they were not wearing revealing clothing therefore they performed better. In 2012, an American study found that self-sexualization was common among 6–9-year old girls. Girls overwhelmingly chose the sexualized doll over the non-sexualized doll for their ideal self and as popular. However other factors, such as how often mothers talked to their children about what is going on in TV shows and maternal religiosity, reduced those odds. Surprisingly, the mere quantity of girls' media consumption (TV and movies) was unrelated to their self-sexualization for the most part; rather, maternal self-objectification and maternal religiosity moderated its effects.[16] However, in 2010 the Scottish Executive released a report titled External research on sexualised goods aimed at children.[13] The report considers the drawbacks of the United States and Australian reviews, concluding: [T]here is no indication [in the APA report] that the media might contain any positive images about human relationships, or that children might critically evaluate what they see. The Scottish review also notes that: [s]uch accounts often present the sexualisation of children as a relatively recent development, but it is by no means a new issue … While the public visibility of the issue, and the terms in which it is defined, may have changed, sexualised representations of children cannot be seen merely as a consequence of contemporary consumerism. It also notes that previous coverage "rests on moral assumptions … that are not adequately explained or justified."[17] Letting Children be Children: Report of an Independent Review of the Commercialisation and Sexualisation of Childhood (UK) The report 'Letting Children Be Children',[15] also known as the Bailey Report, is a report commissioned by the UK government on the subject of the commercialisation and sexualisation of childhood. The report was published in June 2011 and was commissioned as a result of concerns raised as to whether children's lives are negatively affected by the effects of commercialisation and sexualisation.[18] The Bailey Report is so-called as it was researched and compiled by Reg Bailey, the Chief Executive of the Mothers' Union,[19] a "charity supporting parents and children in 83 countries in the world".[15] The report asked for contributions from parents; children; organisations; businesses and the general public in order to consider their views and inform their recommendations and identified four themes that were of particular concern to parents and the wider public. These themes were: 1) the "wallpaper" of children's lives 2) clothing, products and services for children 3) children as consumers 4) making parents' voices heard The report returned recommendations based on the research from interested parties, on each of the key themes, in the form of "what we would like to see". On the theme of "the wallpaper of children's lives" it said that it would like to see that sexualised images used in public places should be more in line with what parents find acceptable, to ensure that images in public spaces becomes more child friendly. On theme two "clothing, products and services for children" the Bailey report said that it would like to see retailers no longer selling or marketing inappropriate clothing, products or services for children. What they would like to see on theme three "children as consumers" is comprehensive regulation protecting children from excessive commercial pressures across all media in-line with parental expectations; that marketers are ethical and do not attempt to exploit gaps in the market to influence children into becoming consumers and to ensure that parents and children have an awareness of marketing techniques and regulations. Finally in terms of "making parents voices heard" it would like to see parents finding it easier to voice their concerns to, and be listened to by, businesses and regulators.[15] There is a motion for a European Parliament resolution going through which gives the following definition of sexualization: [S]exualization consists of an instrumental approach to a person by perceiving that person as an object for sexual use disregarding the person's dignity and personality traits, with the person's worth being measured in terms of the level of sexual attractiveness; sexualization also involves the imposition of the sexuality of adult persons on girls, who are emotionally, psychologically and physically unprepared for this at their particular stage of development; sexualization[note 1] not being the normal, healthy, biological development of the sexuality of a person, conditioned by the individual process of development and taking place at the appropriate time for each particular individual.[20] Reporter: Joanna Skrzydlewska, Member of the European Parliament


Effects on women of color[edit] The sexualization of women of color is different than the sexualization of white women. The media plays a significant role in this sexualization. "The media are likely to have powerful effects if the information is presented persistently, consistently, and corroborated among forms. As a media affect, stereotypes rely on the repetition to perpetuate and sustain them."[21] According to Celine Parrenas Shimizu, "To see race is to see sex, and vice versa."[22] Black women[edit] In an NPR interview with Professor Herbert Samuels at LaGuardia Community College in New York and Mireille Miller-Young a professor at UC Santa Barbara they talk about sexual stereotypes of black bodies in America and how even in sex work, already a dangerous job, black women are treated much worse than their counterparts due to the effects of their oversexualization and objectification in society.[23] Black women's bodies are either invisible or hypervisible. In the 1800s, a South African woman named Sara Baartman was known as "Hottentot Venus" and her body was paraded around in London and Paris where they looked at her exotic features such as large breasts and behind. Her features were deemed lesser and oversexual. There is also the Jezebel stereotype that portrays black women as "hypersexual, manipulative, animalistic and promiscuous females who cannot be controlled."[24] Dominican Women[edit] In the Dominican Republic, women are frequently stereotyped as sultry and sexual as the reputation of Dominican sex workers grows.[25] Many poor women have resorted to sex work because the demand is high and the hours and pay are often dictated by the workers themselves.[25] White European and American men "exoticize dark-skinned 'native' bodies" because "they can buy sex for cut-rate prices".[25] This overgeneralizing of the sexuality of Dominican women can also carries back to the women's homes.[25] Even "women who...worked in Europe have become suspect..." even if they had a legal job.[25] They have become "exports" instead of people because of their sexualization.[25] Asian women[edit] The image of Asian women in Hollywood cinema is directly linked to sexuality as essential to any imagining about the roles they play as well as her actual appearance in popular culture. Asian female fatale's hypersexualized subjection is derived from her sexual behaviour that is considered as natural to her particular race and culture. Two types of Asian stereotypes that are commonly found in media are the Lotus Flower and the Dragon Lady. The Lotus Flower archetype is the "self-sacrificing, servile, and suicidal Asian women." The dragon lady archetype is the opposite of the lotus flower, a "self-abnegating Asian woman…[who] uses her 'Oriental' femininity, associated with seduction and danger to trap white men on behalf of conniving Asian males." According to film-maker and film scholar, Celine Shimizu, "The figure of the Asian American femme fatale signifies a particular deathly seduction. She attracts with her soft, unthreatening, and servile femininity while concealing her hard, dangerous, and domineering nature."[22] Native American women[edit] Starting from the time of white colonization of Native American land, some Native American women have been referred to as "squaw," an Algonquin word for vagina. "The 'squaw' [stereotype] is the dirty, subservient, and abused tribal female who is also haggard, violent, and eager to torture tribal captives." Another stereotype is the beautiful Indian princess who leaves her tribe and culture behind to marry a white man.[26] Latina women[edit] Latina characters that embody the hot Latina stereotype in film and television is marked by easily identifiable behavioral characteristics such as "'addictively romantic, sensual, sexual and even exotically dangerous',[27] self-sacrificing, dependent, powerless, sexually naive, childlike, pampered, and irresponsible".[28] Stereotypical Latina physical characteristics include "red lips, big bottoms, large hips, voluptuous bosoms, and small waists" and "high heels, huge hoop earrings, seductive clothing." Within the hot Latina stereotype lies three categories of representation: the Cantina Girl, the Faithful, self-sacrificing señorita, and the vamp. The Cantina Girl markers are "'great sexual allure,' teasing, dancing, and 'behaving in an alluring fashion.'" The faithful, self-sacrificing Señorita starts out as a good girl and turns bad by the end. The Señorita, in an attempt to save her Anglo love interest, utilizes her body to protect him from violence. The Vamp representation "uses her intellectual and devious sexual wiles to get what she wants." The media represents Latinas "as either [a] hot-blooded spitfire" or "[a] dutiful mother".[29] The sexual implications of the "hot-blooded" Latina has become an overgeneralized representation of Latin people. This has led many to see the Latin people as "what is morally wrong" with the United States. Some believe it to be wrong simply because the interpretation of this culture seems to go against white, Western culture.[29] Culturally, the Latina is expected to dress "as a proper señorita" in order to be respected as a woman which conflicts with the Western ideals that a girl is sexual if she dresses "too 'mature' for [her] age".[30] Even in the business world this stereotype continues; "tight skirts and jingling bracelets [are misinterpreted] as a come-on". This sexualization can also be linked to certain stereotypical jobs. The image of the Latina woman often is not in the business world but in the domestic.[30] The sexualization of Latina women sexualizes the positions that they are expected to occupy. Domestic servants, maids, and waitresses are the typical "media-engendered" roles that make it difficult for Latinas to gain "upward mobility" despite the fact that many hold PhDs.[30]


American Psychological Association view[edit] Definition[edit] The American Psychological Association (APA) in its 2007 Report looked at the cognitive and emotional consequences of sexualization and the consequences for mental and physical health, and impact on development of a healthy sexual self-image.[8] The report considers that a person is sexualized in the following situations: a person's value comes only from his or her sexual appeal or sexual behavior, to the exclusion of other characteristics; a person is held to a standard that equates physical attractiveness (narrowly defined) with being sexy; a person is sexually objectified—that is, made into a thing for others' sexual use, rather than seen as a person with the capacity for independent action and decision making; and/or sexuality is inappropriately imposed upon a person.[8] Children[edit] Some cultural critics have postulated that over recent decades children have evidenced a level of sexual knowledge or sexual behaviour inappropriate for their age group.[31] The causes of this premature sexualization that have been cited include portrayals in the media of sex and related issues, especially in media aimed at children; the marketing of products with sexual connotations to children, including clothing;[32] the lack of parental oversight and discipline; access to adult culture via the internet; and the lack of comprehensive school sex education programs.[8][33] For girls and young women in particular, the APA reports that studies have found that sexualization has a negative impact on their "self-image and healthy development".[8] The APA cites the following as advertising techniques that contribute to the sexualization of girls:[8] Including girls in ads with sexualized women wearing matching clothing or posed seductively, Dressing girls up to look like adult women. Such as child beauty pageants that encourage girls as young as toddlers to wear tight fitted clothing, high heels, and fake eyelashes.[34] Dressing women down to look like young girls. This is also known as the infantilization of women. The employment of youthful celebrity adolescents in highly sexual ways to promote or endorse products. The APA additionally further references the teen magazine market by citing a study by Roberts et al that found that "47% of 8- to 18-year-old [girls] reported having read at least 5 minutes of a magazine the previous day."[8][35] A majority of these magazines focused on a theme of presenting oneself as sexually desirable to men, a practice which is called "costuming for seduction" in a study by Duffy and Gotcher.[8][36] Cognitive and emotional consequences[edit] Studies have found that thinking about the body and comparing it to sexualized cultural ideals may disrupt a girl's mental concentration, and a girl's sexualization or objectification may undermine her confidence in and comfort with her own body, leading to emotional and self-image problems, such as shame and anxiety.[8] Research has linked sexualization with three of the most common mental health problems diagnosed in girls and women: eating disorders, low self-esteem, and depression or depressed mood.[8] Research suggests that the sexualization of girls has negative consequences on girls' ability to develop a healthy sexual self-image.[8] A result of the sexualization of girls in the media is that young girls are "learning how to view themselves as sex objects".[3] When girls fail to meet the thin ideal and dominant culture's standard of beauty they can develop anxieties.[3] Sexualization is problematic for young children who are developing their sexual identity as they may think that turning themselves into sex objects is empowering and related to having sexual agency.[6]


Products for children[edit] Some commercial products seen as promoting the sexualization of children have drawn considerable media attention: Bratz Baby Dolls marketed at 6-year-old girls that feature sexualized clothing, like fishnet stockings, feather boas, and miniskirts[3] Highly sexualized and gendered Halloween costumes marketed at young girls, such as the "sexy firefighter", a costume that consists of a tight fitted mini dress and high heeled boots.[37] Girls aged 10 and 11 wearing thongs in primary school.[38] Clothing such T-shirts being marketed for young children in preschool and elementary school with printed slogans like "So Many Boys So Little Time"[6] Padded bras on bikinis aimed at seven-year-old girls.[39] Some people regard training bras similarly. However, there is also evidence that with the mean age of puberty declining in Western cultures, functional brassieres are required by a higher percentage of preteen girls than before.[40] The Scottish Executive report[13] surveyed 32 High street UK retailers and found that many of the larger chains, including Tesco, Debenhams, JJ Sports, and Marks & Spencer did not offer sexualized goods aimed at children. The report noted that overall prevalence was limited but this was based on a very narrow research brief. Whilst this shows that not all High street retailers were aiming products deemed sexualized by the researchers, the research cannot be taken out of context and used to say that there is not an issue of sexualization.[original research?]


Culture and media[edit] For more on the mainstreaming of sex in media and culture, see pornographication. Sexualization has also been a subject of debate for academics who work in media and cultural studies. Here, the term has not been used to simply to label what is seen as a social problem, but to indicate the much broader and varied set of ways in which sex has become more visible in media and culture.[41] These include; the widespread discussion of sexual values, practices and identities in the media;[42] the growth of sexual media of all kinds; for example, erotica, slash fiction, sexual self-help books and the many genres of pornography; the emergence of new forms of sexual experience, for example instant message or avatar sex made possible by developments in technology; a public concern with the breakdown of consensus about regulations for defining and dealing with obscenity; the prevalence of scandals, controversies and panics around sex in the media.[43][44] The terms "pornification" and "pornographication" have also been used to describe the way that aesthetics that were previously associated with pornography have become part of popular culture, and that mainstream media texts and other cultural practices "citing pornographic styles, gestures and aesthetics" have become more prominent.[45] This process, which Brian McNair has described as a "pornographication of the mainstream".[46] has developed alongside an expansion of the cultural realm of pornography or "pornosphere" which itself has become more accessible to a much wider variety of audiences. According to McNair, both developments can be set in the context of a wider shift towards a "striptease culture" which has disrupted the boundaries between public and private discourse in late modern Western culture, and which is evident more generally in cultural trends which privilege lifestyle, reality, interactivity, self-revelation and public intimacy.[46] Children and adolescents spend more time engaging with media than any other age group. This is a time in their life that they are more susceptible to information that they receive. Children are getting sex education from the media, little kids are exposed to sexualized images and more information than ever before in human history but are not able to process the information, they are not developmentally ready to process it, and this impacts their development and behavior.[6] Sexualization of young girls in the media and infantilization of women creates an environment where it becomes more acceptable to view children as "seductive and sexy".[6] It makes having healthy sexual relationships more difficult for people and creates sexist attitudes. Sexualization also contributes to sexual violence and childhood sexual abuse "where 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys are sexually abused during childhood".[6]


Criticism[edit] The Australian writers, Catharine Lumby and Kath Albury (2010)[47] have suggested that sexualization is "a debate that has been simmering for almost a decade" and concerns about sex and the media are far from new. Much of the recent writing on sexualization has been the subject of criticism that because of the way that it draws on "one-sided, selective, overly simplifying, generalizing, and negatively toned" evidence[48] and is "saturated in the languages of concern and regulation".[49] In these writings and the widespread press coverage that they have attracted, critics state that the term is often used as "a non-sequitur causing everything from girls flirting with older men to child sex trafficking"[50] They believe that the arguments often ignore feminist work on media, gender and the body and present a very conservative and negative view of sex in which only monogamous heterosexual sexuality is regarded as normal.[51] They say that the arguments tend to neglect any historical understanding of the way sex has been represented and regulated, and they often ignore both theoretical and empirical work on the relationship between sex and media, culture and technology.[13][50] The sexualization of women being influenced by society is a problem that should be avoided due to its impact on how women value and present themselves. The way society shapes ones personal interest is presented in a book review of Girls Gone Skank by Patrice Oppliger,[52] Amanda Mills states that "consequently, girls are socialized to participate in their own abuse by becoming avid consumers of and altering their behavior to reflect sexually exploitative images and goods."[53] The belief that women are powerful and fully capable as men is stated in the text "Uses Of The Erotic: The Erotic As Power" by Audre Lorde stating that the suppression of the erotic of women has led them feeling superior to men "the superficially, erotic had been encouraged as a sign of female inferiority on the other hand women have been made to suffer and to feel opposed contemptible and suspect by virtue of its existence".[54]


See also[edit] Sexuality portal Social and political philosophy portal Politics portal Feminism portal Child sexuality Sexualism Bratz Miss Bimbo Rosalind Gill Rape culture Sexual objectification Pornographication Social impact of thong underwear Sexualization in the video games industry Pornified Female Chauvinist Pigs: Women and the Rise of Raunch Culture


Notes[edit] ^ As opposed to its meaning in relation to human sexuality.


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Norton & Co. ISBN 9780393704792.  ^ Shari Cookson (writer/director) and Linda Otto (producer) (2001). Living dolls: the making of a child beauty queen (Video)|format= requires |url= (help) (TV documentary). New York: HBO.  Details. ^ Roberts, Donald F.; Foehr, Ulla G.; Rideout, Victoria (March 2005). Generation M: media in the lives of 8-18 year olds (Report). Menlo Park, California: Kaiser Family Foundation.  Pdf. ^ Duffy, Margaret; Gotcher, J. Micheal (April 1996). "Crucial advice on how to get the guy: the rhetorical vision of power and seduction in the teen magazine YM". Journal of Communication Inquiry. Sage. 20 (1): 38.  ResearchGate pdf. ^ Delisle, Riana (18 October 2014). "Halloween costumes are sexualizing our youngest trick-or-treaters". The Huffington Post. Canada: AOL.  ^ Staff writer (28 May 2003). "Pupils warned not to wear thongs". BBC News. UK: BBC. Retrieved 22 February 2007. Parents have been urged by a head teacher to stop their daughters wearing thongs to a primary school.  ^ Barr, Robert (in London) (16 April 2010). "Outrage at girls' padded bikinis". The Age. Melbourne, Australia: Fairfax Media.  ^ Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar; Petersen, Jørgen H.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Juul, Anders (May 2009). "Recent decline in age at breast development: the Copenhagen Puberty Study". Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. 123 (5): e932–e939. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2491. PMID 19403485.  ^ Attenborough, Frederick T. (November 2011). "Complicating the sexualization thesis: The media, gender and 'sci-candy'". Discourse & Society. Sage. 22 (6): 659–675. doi:10.1177/0957926511411693.  Online. ^ Attenborough, Frederick T. (2013). "Discourse analysis and sexualisation: a study of scientists in the media". Critical Discourse Studies. Taylor and Francis. 10 (2): 223–236. doi:10.1080/17405904.2012.736704.  Online. ^ Attwood, Feona (February 2006). "Sexed up: theorizing the sexualization of culture". Sexualities. Sage. 9 (1): 77–94. doi:10.1177/1363460706053336.  Pdf. ^ Attwood, Feona (2009). Mainstreaming sex the sexualization of Western culture. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 9781845118273.  ^ Paasonen, Susanna; Nikunen, Kaarina; Saarenmaa, Laura (2007). Pornification: sex and sexuality in media culture. Oxford New York: Berg. ISBN 9781845207045.  ^ a b McNair, Brian (2002). Striptease culture sex, media and the democratization of desire. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415237345.  ^ Lumby, Catharine; Albury, Kath (May 2010). "Introduction: children, young people, sexuality and the media". Media International Australia. Sage. 135 (1): 56–60. doi:10.1177/1329878X1013500108.  ^ Vanwesenbeeck, Ine (July 2009). "The risks and rights of sexualization: an appreciative commentary on Lerum and Dworkin's "Bad Girls Rule"". Journal of Sex Research. Taylor and Francis. 46 (4): 268–270. doi:10.1080/00224490903082694.  A commentary on: Lerum, Kari; Dworkin, Shari L. (July 2009). ""Bad Girls Rule": an interdisciplinary feminist commentary on the Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls". Journal of Sex Research. Taylor and Francis. 46 (4): 250–263. doi:10.1080/00224490903079542.  ^ Smith, Clarissa (January 2010). "Pornographication: a discourse for all seasons". International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics. Ingentaconnect. 6 (1): 103–108. doi:10.1386/macp.6.1.103/3.  ^ a b Egan, R. Danielle; Hawkes, Gail L. (December 2008). "Endangered girls and incendiary objects: unpacking the discourse on sexualization". Sexuality & Culture, special issue: Sexuality, Sexualization and the Contemporary Child. Springer. 12 (4): 291–311. doi:10.1007/s12119-008-9036-8.  ^ Lerum, Kari; Dworkin, Shari L. (July 2009). ""Bad Girls Rule": an interdisciplinary feminist commentary on the Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls". Journal of Sex Research. Taylor and Francis. 46 (4): 250–263. doi:10.1080/00224490903079542.  ^ Oppliger, Patrice (2008). Girls gone skank: the sexualization of girls in American culture. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company Inc. ISBN 9780786435227.  ^ Mills, Amanda (November 2011). "Book review: "Girls gone skank: the sexualization of girls in American culture" by Patrice Oppliger". Feminist Review. Palgrave Macmillan. 99 (1): e16–e17. doi:10.1057/fr.2011.45.  ^ Lorde, Audre (2000) [1984]. Uses of the erotic: the erotic as power. Tucson, Arizona: Kore Press. ISBN 9781888553109.  Also available as: Lorde, Audre (2010), "Uses of the erotic: the erotic as power", in Kirk, Gwyn; Okazawa-Rey, Margo, Women's lives: multicultural perspectives, New York, New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 168–172, ISBN 9780073512303. 


Further reading[edit] Books[edit] Attwood, Feona (2009). Mainstreaming sex the sexualization of Western culture. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 9781845118273.  Buckingham, David; Bragg, Sara (2004). Young people, sex and the media: the facts of life. Houndmills England New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403918222.  Carey, Tanith (2011). Where has my little girl gone? How to protect your daughter from growing up too soon. London: Lion. ISBN 9780745955421.  A guide for parents on girls' body image and other issues. Charles, Claire (2014). Elite girls' schooling, social class and sexualised popular culture. New York, New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781136195884.  Durham, Meenakshi G. (2008). The Lolita effect: the media sexualization of young girls and what we can do about it. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press. ISBN 9781590200636.  Looks at media messges and suggests that it promotes early maturation and sexualisation of pre-adolescent girls. Egan, R. Danielle (2013). Becoming sexual: a critical appraisal of the sexualization of girls. Cambridge Malden, MA: Polity Press. ISBN 9780745650739.  Egan, R. Danielle; Hawkes, Gail (2010). Theorizing the sexual child in modernity. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403972576.  Gil, Eliana; Johnson, Toni Cavanagh (1993). Sexualized children: assessment and treatment of sexualized children and children who molest. Rockville, Maryland: Launch Press. ISBN 9781877872075.  Lamb, Sharon (2006). Sex, therapy, and kids: addressing their concerns through talk and play. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 9780393704792.  Levy, Ariel (2006). Female chauvinist pigs: women and the rise of raunch culture. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0743284283.  A review of what Levy regards as a highly sexualized American culture in which women are objectified, objectify one another, and are encouraged to objectify themselves. Liebau, Carol P. (2007). Prude: how the sex-obsessed culture damages girls (and America too!). New York: Center Street. ISBN 9781599956831.  Looks at sex in contemporary culture and the impact it has on young girls. Lorde, Audre (2000) [1984]. Uses of the erotic: the erotic as power. Tucson, Arizona: Kore Press. ISBN 9781888553109.  Also available as: Lorde, Audre (2010), "Uses of the erotic: the erotic as power", in Kirk, Gwyn; Okazawa-Rey, Margo, Women's lives: multicultural perspectives, New York, New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 168–172, ISBN 9780073512303.  McNair, Brian (2002). Striptease culture sex, media and the democratization of desire. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415237345.  Oppliger, Patrice (2008). Girls gone skank: the sexualization of girls in American culture. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company Inc., Publishers. ISBN 9780786435227.  Discusses issues women face in American society and how those issues reflect on young girls and teens. See also: Mills, Amanda (November 2011). "Book review: "Girls gone skank: the sexualization of girls in American culture" by Patrice Oppliger". Feminist Review. Palgrave Macmillan. 99 (1): e16–e17. doi:10.1057/fr.2011.45.  Paasonen, Susanna; Nikunen, Kaarina; Saarenmaa, Laura (2007). Pornification: sex and sexuality in media culture. Oxford New York: Berg. ISBN 9781845207045.  Paul, Pamela (2005). Pornified: how pornography is transforming our lives, our relationships, and our families. New York: Times Books. ISBN 9780805081329.  Pamela Paul discusses the impact of ready access to pornography on Americans. Sarracino, Carmine; Scott, Kevin M. (2008). The porning of America: the rise of porn culture, what it means, and where we go from here. Boston, Mass: Beacon Press. ISBN 9780807061541.  Argues that pornography has become a mainstream part of American culture. Journals[edit] Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Olsen, Lina W.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A. (2009). Tena-Sempere, Manuel, ed. "Age at puberty and the emerging obesity epidemic". PLoS ONE. 4 (12 e8450): 1–6. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008450. PMC 2793517 . PMID 20041184.  Attenborough, Frederick T. (November 2011). "Complicating the sexualization thesis: The media, gender and 'sci-candy'". Discourse & Society. Sage. 22 (6): 659–675. doi:10.1177/0957926511411693.  Online. Attenborough, Frederick T. (2013). "Discourse analysis and sexualisation: a study of scientists in the media". Critical Discourse Studies. Taylor and Francis. 10 (2): 223–236. doi:10.1080/17405904.2012.736704.  Online. Attenborough, Frederick T. (2014). "Jokes, pranks, blondes and banter: recontextualising sexism in the British print press". Journal of Gender Studies. Taylor and Francis. 23 (2): 137–154. doi:10.1080/09589236.2013.774269.  Online. Attwood, Feona (February 2006). "Sexed up: theorizing the sexualization of culture". Sexualities. 9 (1): 77–94. doi:10.1177/1363460706053336.  Coy, Maddy; Garner, Maria (May 2012). "Definitions, discourses and dilemmas: policy and academic engagement with the sexualisation of popular culture". Gender and Education, special issue: Making Sense of the Sexualisation Debates: Schools and Beyond. Taylor and Francis. 24 (3): 285–301. doi:10.1080/09540253.2012.667793.  Duits, Linda; van Zoonen, Liesbet (2006). "Headscarves and porno-chic: disciplining girls' bodies in the European multicultural society". European Journal of Women's Studies. 13 (2): 103–110. doi:10.1177/1350506806062750.  Duschinsky, Robbie (Spring 2013). "The emergence of sexualization as a social problem: 1981–2010". Social Politics. Sage. 20 (1): 137–156. doi:10.1093/sp/jxs016.  Pdf. Egan, R. Danielle; Hawkes, Gail (2009). "The problem with protection: or, why we need to move towards recognition and the sexual agency of children". Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies. 23 (3): 389–400. doi:10.1080/10304310902842975.  Evans, Adrienne; Riley, Sarah; Shankar, Avi (2010). "Technologies of sexiness: theorizing women's engagement in the sexualization of culture". Feminism & Psychology. 20: 114–131. doi:10.1177/0959353509351854.  Gill, Rosalind (2003). "From sexual objectification to sexual subjectification: the resexualization of women's bodies in the media, in Editors' Introduction". Feminist Media Studies. 3 (1): 100–106. doi:10.1080/1468077032000080158.  Hawkes, Gail L.; Egan, R. Danielle (2008). "Landscapes of Erotophobia: the sexual(ized) child in the postmodern Anglophone West". Sexuality & Culture. 12 (4): 193–203. doi:10.1007/s12119-008-9038-6.  Hawkes, Gail L.; Egan, R. Danielle (May 2012). "Sexuality, youth and the perils of endangered innocence: how history can help us get past the panic". Gender and Education, special issue: Making Sense of the Sexualisation Debates: Schools and Beyond. Taylor and Francis. 24 (3): 269–284. doi:10.1080/09540253.2012.666232.  Kehily, Mary Jane (May 2012). "Contextualising the sexualisation of girls debate: innocence, experience and young female sexuality". Gender and Education, special issue: Making Sense of the Sexualisation Debates: Schools and Beyond. Taylor and Francis. 24 (3): 255–268. doi:10.1080/09540253.2012.670391.  Reports[edit] Buckingham, D.; Bragg, S.; Russell, R.; Willett, R. (2009). Sexualised goods aimed at children. Report for the Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. The Scottish Parliament (Report). Archived from the original on 26 August 2011.  Rush, Emma; La Nauze, Andrea (2006). Corporate paedophilia: the sexualisation of children in Australia (discussion paper number 90). Canberra: The Australian Institute. ISSN 1322-5421. OCLC 156752334.  Pdf version. APA Task Force (2010). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. OCLC 123130352.  Pdf. Papadopoulos, L. (2010). Sexualisation of young people : review. Great Britain: UK Home Office. ISBN 9781849871860.  Bailey, Reg (2011). Letting children be children: report of an independent review of the commercialisation and sexualisation of childhood. London: The Stationery Office. ISBN 9780101807821.  Online resources[edit] Various authors. "Posts on the subject of sexualization". onscenity.org. Onscenity Research Network based at Sheffield Hallam University.  Friedman, Jaclyn (29 October 2011). "Cultural Trends/Popular Culture: Women of color seen as always sexually available". Women's eNews. Women's eNews, Inc. Retrieved 7 December 2015.  Lledin, Shantyana C. (guest contributor) (28 April 2012). "I'm not your spicy Latina (blog)". thefeministwire.com. The Feminist Wire. Retrieved 9 December 2015.  v t e Pornography Pornography portal Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wiktionary Pornography Types Amateur pornography Cartoon pornography Hentai Tijuana bible Child pornography Erotica Simulated Feminist pornography Hardcore pornography Internet pornography Mobile porn Revenge porn Sexting Softcore pornography Genres Alt porn Babysitter pornography Bisexual pornography Bondage pornography Imagery of nude celebrities Celebrity sex tape Clothed female, naked male Clothed male, naked female Convent pornography Ethnic pornography Gang bang pornography Gay pornography Gonzo pornography Incest pornography Lesbianism in erotica Mormon pornography Queer pornography Rape pornography Reality pornography Tentacle erotica Transsexual pornography Women's pornography Related History of erotic depictions Pornographic film actor Organizations Adult Film Association of America Critics Adult Film Association Fans of X-Rated Entertainment Free Speech Coalition X-Rated Critics Organization Opposition to pornography Movements Anti-pornography movement in the United Kingdom Anti-pornography movement in the United States Antipornography Civil Rights Ordinance Organizations Churchmen's Committee for Decent Publications Feminists Fighting Pornography Fight the New Drug The Marriage Vow No More Page 3 Stop Bild Sexism Stop Child Trafficking Now Stop Porn Culture Women Against Pornography Women Against Violence in Pornography and Media XXXchurch.com Pornography overuse Support groups NoFap The "S-fellowships" See also Content-control software Accountability software Parental controls Employee monitoring software Views Feminist views on pornography Religious views on pornography Media Pornographic film Parody Cartoon pornography Pornographic magazine List Pornographic video game Eroge Newspaper features Page 3 in The Sun (United Kingdom) By region Asia Bangladesh India Japan History Middle East North Korea Pakistan Philippines Turkey Europe Denmark Hungary Italy United Kingdom Americas Canada Latin America United States Possible effects Internet sex addiction Pornography addiction Pornophobia STDs in the porn industry Other effects Laws General Adult film industry regulations Legal objections to pornography in the United States Legal status of Internet pornography Legislation and cases Legislation United Kingdom Audiovisual Media Services Regulations 2014 British Board of Film Classification Committee on Obscenity and Film Censorship Obscene Publications Act 1959 Possession of Extreme Pornographic Images Video Recordings Act 2010 United States Antipornography Civil Rights Ordinance Child Online Protection Act Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act Custodian of Records Child Protection Restoration and Penalties Enhancement Act of 1990 Communications Decency Act Pornography Victims Compensation Act Europe (excluding UK) Bulgaria Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Spain Sweden Ukraine Asia China India Indonesia Hong Kong Kazakhstan Japan Malaysia Maldives Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Turkey United Arab Emirates Latin America Brazil Chile Colombia Mexico African Nigeria South Africa Oceania Australia New Zealand Other countries Canada Jamaica Russia Cases American Booksellers v. Hudnut California v. Freeman Jacobellis v. Ohio Miller v. California R v Butler R v Glad Day Bookshops Inc R v Peacock Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union Renton v. Playtime Theatres, Inc. Stanley v. Georgia United States v. Extreme Associates United States v. Playboy Entertainment Group Other Meese Report President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography Child pornography laws By country Australia Canada India Japan Netherlands Philippines Portugal United Kingdom United States Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 New York v. Ferber Osborne v. Ohio PROTECT Act of 2003 United States v. Williams Other COPINE scale Debate regarding child pornography laws Dost test Legal status of drawn pornography depicting minors Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography United States v. X-Citement Video, Inc. People Actors Actresses by decade African-American Asian AVN Hall of Fame members British Gay male List of pornographic actors who appeared in mainstream films List of mainstream actors who have appeared in pornographic films Directors By genre Bisexual Gay Lesbian Transsexual By country American British Canadian Czech French German Hungarian Italian Japanese Romanian Spanish Swedish Awards Adult Broadcasting Awards AVN Award Hall of Fame GayVN Awards AV Open Sexual Freedom Awards Fans of Adult Media and Entertainment Award Feminist Porn Award Grabby Awards Hot d'Or Japanese Adult Video Awards (1991–2008) PorYes SHAFTA Awards Transgender Erotica Awards UK Adult Film and Television Awards Urban X Award Venus Award XBIZ Award XRCO Award Hall of Fame members Events Adultcon AVN Adult Entertainment Expo Barcelona International Erotic Film Festival Brussels International Festival of Eroticism Exotic Erotic Ball Exxxotica HUMP Porn Sunday Miscellaneous Adult movie theater Adult video arcade Blue Movie Golden Age of Porn Panda pornography "Porno chic" Pornographication Pornotopia R18 certificate Rule 34 Sex shop Sexualization X rating See also Erotica Art Comics Film Literature Photography Ribaldry Pornography related articles Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sexualization&oldid=819965642" Categories: ConservatismFeminism and societyGender studiesHuman rightsPoliticsSexualizationWomen in societyWomen's rightsWomen's rights legislationHidden categories: Pages using citations with accessdate and no URLWebarchive template wayback linksPages using citations with format and no URLUse dmy dates from May 2013Articles with limited geographic scope from July 2017USA-centricAustralia-centricAll articles that may contain original researchArticles that may contain original research from September 2015


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V. HudnutPeople V. FreemanJacobellis V. OhioMiller V. CaliforniaR V ButlerR V Glad Day Bookshops IncR V PeacockReno V. American Civil Liberties UnionRenton V. Playtime Theatres, Inc.Stanley V. GeorgiaUnited States V. Extreme Associates, Inc.United States V. Playboy Entertainment Group, Inc.Meese ReportPresident's Commission On Obscenity And PornographyLegality Of Child PornographyChild Pornography Laws In AustraliaChild Pornography Laws In CanadaInformation Technology Act, 2000Child Pornography Laws In JapanChild Pornography Laws In The NetherlandsChild Pornography In The PhilippinesChild Pornography Laws In PortugalChild Pornography Laws In The United KingdomChild Pornography Laws In The United StatesChild Pornography Prevention Act Of 1996New York V. FerberOsborne V. OhioPROTECT Act Of 2003United States V. 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