Contents 1 Definitions and identity 1.1 Unlabeled sexuality 2 Development 2.1 General 2.2 Models of sexual identity development 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading


Definitions and identity[edit] Sexual identity has been described as a component of an individual's identity that reflects their sexual self-concept. The integration of the respective identity components (e.g. moral, religious, ethnic, occupational) into a greater overall identity is essential to the process of developing the multi-dimensional construct of identity.[4] Sexual identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation.[5][6][7] For example, gay, lesbian, and bisexual people may not openly identify as such in a homophobic/heterosexist setting or in areas whose record on LGBT rights is poor. In a 1990 study by the Social Organization of Sexuality, only 16% of women and 36% of men who reported some level of same-sex attraction had a homosexual or bisexual identity.[8] Sexual identity is more closely related to sexual behavior than sexual orientation is. The same survey found that 96% of women and 87% of men with a homosexual or bisexual identity had engaged in sexual activity with someone of the same sex, contrasted to 32% of women and 43% of men who had same-sex attractions. Upon reviewing the results, the organization commented: "Development of self-identification as homosexual or gay is a psychological and socially complex state, something which, in this society, is achieved only over time, often with considerable personal struggle and self-doubt, not to mention social discomfort."[8] Unlabeled sexuality[edit] Unlabeled sexuality is when an individual chooses to not label their sexual identity. This identification could stem from one's uncertainty about their sexuality or their unwillingness to conform to a sexuality because they don't necessarily like labels, or they wish to feel free in their attractions instead of feeling forced into same, other, both, or pan attractions because of their sexual identity. Identifying as unlabeled could also be because of one's "unwillingness to accept their sexual minority status."[9] Because being unlabeled is the purposeful decision of no sexual identity, it is different from bisexuality or any other sexual identity. Those who are unlabeled are more likely to view sexuality as less stable and more fluid and tend to focus more on the “person, not the gender.”[10] It is reported that some women who identify as unlabeled did so because they are unable or uncertain about the types of relationships they will have in the future. As such, this divergence from sexual labels could provide for a person to be able to more fully realize their "true" sexuality because it frees them from the pressure of liking and being attracted to who their sexual identification dictates they should like.[9][10]


Development[edit] See also: Coming out and Homosexuality and psychology General[edit] Most of the research on sexual orientation identity development focuses on the development of people who are attracted to the same sex. Many people who feel attracted to members of their own sex come out at some point in their lives. Coming out is described in three phases. The first phase is the phase of "knowing oneself," and the realization emerges that one is sexually and emotionally attracted to members of one's own sex. This is often described as an internal coming out and can occur in childhood or at puberty, but sometimes as late as age 40 or older. The second phase involves a decision to come out to others, e.g. family, friends, and/or colleagues, while the third phase involves living openly as an LGBT person.[11] In the United States today, people often come out during high school or college age. At this age, they may not trust or ask for help from others, especially when their orientation is not accepted in society. Sometimes they do not inform their own families. According to Rosario, Schrimshaw, Hunter, Braun (2006), "the development of a lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) sexual identity is a complex and often difficult process. Unlike members of other minority groups (e.g., ethnic and racial minorities), most LGB individuals are not raised in a community of similar others from whom they learn about their identity and who reinforce and support that identity" and "[r]ather, LGB individuals are often raised in communities that are either ignorant of or openly hostile toward homosexuality."[6] Some individuals with unwanted sexual attractions may choose to actively dis-identify with a sexual minority identity, which creates a different sexual orientation identity from their actual sexual orientation. Sexual orientation identity, but not sexual orientation, can change through psychotherapy, support groups, and life events.[2] A person who has homosexual feelings can self-identify in various ways. An individual may come to accept an LGB identity, to develop a heterosexual identity, to reject an LGB identity while choosing to identify as ex-gay, or to refrain from specifying a sexual identity.[12] In a The Wall Street Journal article on reconciling faith and homosexuality, researcher Judith Glassgold, who chaired the task force, stated, "We're not trying to encourage people to become ex-gay’" and "there has been little research on the long-term effects of rejecting a gay identity, but there is 'no clear evidence of harm' and 'some people seem to be content with that path'".[13] Models of sexual identity development[edit] Several models have been created to describe coming out as a process for gay and lesbian identity development (e.g. Dank, 1971; Cass, 1984; Coleman, 1989; Troiden, 1989). These historical models have taken a view of sexual identity formation as a sexual-minority process only.[14] However, not every LGBT person follows such a model. For example, some LGBT youth become aware of and accept their same-sex desires or gender identity at puberty in a way similar to which heterosexual teens become aware of their sexuality, i.e. free of any notion of difference, stigma or shame in terms of the gender of the people to whom they are attracted.[15] More contemporary models take the stance that it is a more universal process.[3][16] Current models for the development of sexual identity attempt to incorporate other models of identity development, such as Marcia’s ego-identity statuses.[17] The Cass identity model, established by Vivienne Cass, outlines six discrete stages transited by individuals who successfully come out: (1) identity confusion, (2) identity comparison, (3) identity tolerance, (4) identity acceptance, (5) identity pride, and (6) identity synthesis.[18] Fassinger's model of gay and lesbian identity development contains four stages at the individual and group level: (1) awareness, (2) exploration, (3) deepening/commitment, and (4) internalization/synthesis.[19] Some models of sexual identity development do not use discrete, ordered stages, but instead conceptualize identity development as consisting of independent identity processes. For example, D'Augelli's model describes six unordered independent identity processes: (1) exiting heterosexual identity, (2) Developing personal LGB identity status, (3) Developing a LGB social identity, (4) Becoming a LGB offspring, (5) Developing a LGB intimacy status, and (6) Entering a LGB community.[20] The Unifying Model of Sexual Identity Development is currently the only model that incorporates heterosexual identity development within its statuses to include compulsory heterosexuality, active exploration, diffusion, deepening and commitment to status, and synthesis.[21] Contemporary models view sexual identity formation as a universal process, rather than a sexual minority one, in that it is not only sexual minorities that undergo sexual identity development, but heterosexual populations as well.[3] More recent research has supported these theories, having demonstrated that heterosexual populations display all of Marcia’s statuses within the domain of sexual identity.[16][22]


See also[edit] Androphilia and gynephilia Asexuality Bi-curious Erikson's stages of psychosocial development Men who have sex with men Pansexuality Polysexuality Questioning (sexuality and gender) Situational sexual behavior Women who have sex with women


References[edit] ^ a b Reiter L (1989). "Sexual orientation, sexual identity, and the question of choice". Clinical Social Work Journal. 17: 138–50. [1] ^ a b "Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation" (PDF). American Psychological Association. 2009: 63, 86. Retrieved February 3, 2015. Sexual orientation identity—not sexual orientation—appears to change via psychotherapy, support groups, and life events.  ^ a b c Dillon, F. R., Worthington, R. L., & Moradi, B. (2011). Sexual identity as a universal process In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles (Eds), Handbook of identity theory and research (Vols 1 and 2), (pp.649-670). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media ^ Luyckx, K., Schwartz, S. J., Goossens, L., Beyers, W., & Missotten, L. (2011). Processes of personal identity formation and evaluation. In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles(Eds), Handbook of identity theory and research (Vols 1 and 2) (pp.77-98). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media ^ Sinclair, Karen, About Whoever: The Social Imprint on Identity and Orientation, NY, 2013 ISBN 9780981450513 ^ a b Rosario, M.; Schrimshaw, E.; Hunter, J.; Braun, L. (2006). "Sexual identity development among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: Consistency and change over time". Journal of Sex Research. 43 (1): 46–58. doi:10.1080/00224490609552298.  ^ Ross, Michael W.; Essien, E. James; Williams, Mark L.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia. (2003). "Concordance Between Sexual Behavior and Sexual Identity in Street Outreach Samples of Four Racial/Ethnic Groups". Sexually Transmitted Diseases. American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association. 30 (2): 110–113. doi:10.1097/00007435-200302000-00003. PMID 12567166.  ^ a b Laumann, Edward O. (1994). The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. University of Chicago Press. pp. 298–301.  ^ a b Diamond, Lisa M (2007). "A dynamical systems approach to the development and expression of female same-sex sexuality". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2 (2): 142–161. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00034.x.  ^ a b Brooks, Kelly D.; Quina, Kathryn (2009). "Women's sexual identity patterns: Differences among lesbians, bisexuals, and unlabeled women". Journal of Homosexuality. 56 (8): 1030–1045. doi:10.1080/00918360903275443.  ^ "The Coming Out Continuum". Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original on 2007-11-02. Retrieved 2007-05-04.  ^ Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation, pp. 60-61. ^ A New Therapy on Faith and Sexual Identity: Psychological Association Revises Treatment Guidelines to Allow Counselors to Help Clients Reject Their Same-Sex Attractions ^ Savin-Williams, R. (2011) Identity development among sexual-minority youth. In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles(Eds), Handbook of identity theory and research (Vols 1 and 2) (pp.671-689). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media ^ Savin-Williams, R. (2005). The new gay teenager. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press ^ a b Morgan, E. M. (2012). "Not always a straight path: College students' narratives of heterosexual identity development". Sex Roles. 66 (1–2): 79–93. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-0068-4.  ^ Worthington, R. L.; Navarro, R. L.; Savoy, H. B.; Hampton, D. (2008). "Development, reliability, and validity of the measure of sexual identity exploration and commitment (MOSIEC)". Developmental Psychology. 44 (1): 22–33. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.22. PMID 18194002.  ^ Cass, V. C. (1979). "Homosexuality identity formation: A theoretical model". Journal of Homosexuality. 4 (3): 219–235. doi:10.1300/j082v04n03_01.  ^ Fassinger, R. E.; Miller, B. A. (1997). "Validation of an Inclusive Modelof Sexual Minority Identity Formation on a Sample of Gay Men". Journal of Homosexuality. 32 (2): 53–78. doi:10.1300/j082v32n02_04.  ^ D'Augelli, A. R. (1994). Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development. ^ Dillion, F. R., Worthington, R. L., & Moradi, B. (2011). Sexual identity as a universal process. In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research (pp. 649-670). New York: Springer. ^ Worthington, R. L.; Savoy, H. B.; Dillon, F. R.; Vernaglia, E. R. (2002). "Heterosexual identity development. A multidimensional model of individual and social identity". Counseling Psychologist. 30 (4): 496–531. doi:10.1177/00100002030004002. 


Further reading[edit] The End of Sexual Identity: Why Sex Is Too Important to Define Who We Are (2011) Jenell Williams Paris Links to related articles v t e Human sexuality and sexology Sexual relationship phenomena Asexuality Gray asexuality Bisexuality Casual relationship Casual sex Celibacy Celibacy syndrome Committed relationship Free love Foreplay Herbivore men Heterosexuality Homosexuality Hypersexuality Marriage One-night stand Polyamory Promiscuity Female Romantic love Romantic orientation Flirting Sex life Sexual abstinence Sexual partner Single person Swinging Sexual dynamics Hypergamy Intersex Physical attractiveness Sexual attraction Sexual ethics See also Sexual addiction Sex Addicts Anonymous Sexual surrogate v t e Gender and sexual identities Gender identities Gender Man Woman Male Female Androgyne Bigender Boi Cisgender Cross-dresser Gender bender Genderqueer Gender neutrality Postgenderism Gender variance Pangender Transgender Trans man Trans woman Transmasculine Transfeminine Transsexual Trigender Third gender, third sex Akava'ine Bakla Bissu Calabai Eunuch Fa'afafine Fakaleiti Femminiello Galli Hijra Kathoey Khanith Köçek Koekchuch Māhū Maknyah Mukhannathun Muxe Nullo Sworn virgin Takatāpui Third gender Travesti Tumtum Two-Spirit Winkte Other Skoptsy Sexual orientation, identities Gender binary Asexual Bisexual Heterosexual Homosexual Non-binary Ambiphilia, Androphilia, Gynephilia Monosexuality Pansexuality Polysexuality Third gender Two-Spirit Social Antisexuality Monogamous Polyamorous Other Attraction to transgender people Banjee Bi-curious Ex-gay Ex-ex-gay Gay Gray asexuality Heteroflexible Lesbian Kinsey scale Non-heterosexual Queer Questioning Romantic orientation Same gender loving See also Disorders of sex development Ego-dystonic sexual orientation Erotic target location error Gender roles Hermaphrodite Human female sexuality Human male sexuality Intersex Sex and gender distinction Sex assignment Sex change Sex reassignment surgery Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures Social construction of gender The NeuroGenderings Network Violence against women and men (gendercide) Gender studies portal Sexuality portal LGBT portal v t e Psychology History Philosophy Portal Psychologist Basic psychology Abnormal Affective science Affective neuroscience Behavioral genetics Behavioral neuroscience Behaviorism Cognitive/Cognitivism Cognitive neuroscience Comparative Cross-cultural Cultural Developmental Differential Ecological Evolutionary Experimental Gestalt Intelligence Mathematical Neuropsychology Personality Positive Psycholinguistics Psychophysics Psychophysiology Quantitative Social Theoretical Applied psychology Anomalistic Applied behavior analysis Assessment Clinical Community Consumer Counseling Critical Educational Ergonomics Feminist Forensic Health Industrial and organizational Legal Media Military Music Occupational health Pastoral Political Psychometrics Psychotherapy Religion School Sport and exercise Suicidology Systems Traffic Methodologies Animal testing Archival research Behavior epigenetics Case study Content analysis Experiments Human subject research Interviews Neuroimaging Observation Qualitative research Quantitative research Self-report inventory Statistical surveys Psychologists William James (1842–1910) Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) Edward Thorndike (1874–1949) Carl Jung (1875–1961) John B. Watson (1878–1958) Clark L. Hull (1884–1952) Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Gordon Allport (1897–1967) J. P. Guilford (1897–1987) Carl Rogers (1902–1987) Erik Erikson (1902–1994) B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) Donald O. Hebb (1904–1985) Ernest Hilgard (1904–2001) Harry Harlow (1905–1981) Raymond Cattell (1905–1998) Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) Neal E. Miller (1909–2002) Jerome Bruner (1915–2016) Donald T. Campbell (1916–1996) Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001) David McClelland (1917–1998) Leon Festinger (1919–1989) George Armitage Miller (1920–2012) Richard Lazarus (1922–2002) Stanley Schachter (1922–1997) Robert Zajonc (1923–2008) Albert Bandura (b. 1925) Roger Brown (1925–1997) Endel Tulving (b. 1927) Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987) Noam Chomsky (b. 1928) Ulric Neisser (1928–2012) Jerome Kagan (b. 1929) Walter Mischel (b. 1930) Elliot Aronson (b. 1932) Daniel Kahneman (b. 1934) Paul Ekman (b. 1934) Michael Posner (b. 1936) Amos Tversky (1937–1996) Bruce McEwen (b. 1938) Larry Squire (b. 1941) Richard E. Nisbett (b. 1941) Martin Seligman (b. 1942) Ed Diener (b. 1946) Shelley E. Taylor (b. 1946) John Anderson (b. 1947) Ronald C. Kessler (b. 1947) Joseph E. LeDoux (b. 1949) Richard Davidson (b. 1951) Susan Fiske (b. 1952) Roy Baumeister (b. 1953) Lists Counseling topics Disciplines Important publications Organizations Outline Psychologists Psychotherapies Research methods Schools of thought Timeline Topics Wiktionary definition Wiktionary category Wikisource Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikinews Wikibooks Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sexual_identity&oldid=819674236" Categories: GenderSelfBiology of genderHuman sexualityIdentity


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