Contents 1 Sex determination system 2 Humans 3 Humans and other animals 3.1 Brain differentiation 4 References 4.1 Bibliography 5 External links


Sex determination system[edit] Main article: Sex determination system Humans, many mammals, insects and other animals have an XY sex-determination system. Humans have forty-six chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males. It is obvious that the Y chromosome must carry at least one essential gene which determines testicular formation (originally termed TDF). A gene in the sex-determining region of the short arm of the Y, now referred to as SRY, has been found to direct production of a protein, testis determining factor, which binds to DNA, inducing differentiation of cells derived from the genital ridges into testes. In transgenic XX mice (and some human XX males), SRY alone is sufficient to induce male differentiation.


Humans[edit] Main article: Sexual differentiation in humans The Human Y Chromosome showing the SRY gene which codes for a protein regulating sexual differentiation. Various processes are involved in the development of sex differences in humans. Sexual differentiation in humans includes development of different genitalia and the internal genital tracts, breasts, body hair, and plays a role in gender identification.[1] The development of sexual differences begins with the XY sex-determination system that is present in humans, and complex mechanisms are responsible for the development of the phenotypic differences between male and female humans from an undifferentiated zygote.[2] Atypical sexual development, and ambiguous genitalia, can be a result of genetic and hormonal factors.[3] The differentiation of other parts of the body than the sex organ creates the secondary sex characteristics. Sexual dimorphism of skeletal structure develops during childhood, and becomes more pronounced at adolescence. Sexual orientation has been demonstrated to correlate with skeletal characters that become dimorphic during early childhood (such as arm length to stature ratio) but not with characters that become dimorphic during puberty—such as shoulder width.[4]


Humans and other animals[edit] Brain differentiation[edit] Main article: Neuroscience of sex differences In most animals, differences of exposure of a fetal or infant brain to sex hormones produce significant differences of brain structure and function which correlate with adult reproductive behavior. This is the case in humans as well; sex hormone levels in male and female fetuses and infants differ, and both androgen receptors and estrogen receptors have been identified in brains. Several sex-specific genes not dependent on sex steroids are expressed differently in male and female human brains. Structural sex differences begin to be recognizable by 2 years of age, and in adult men and women include size and shape of corpus callosum (larger in women) and fasciculae connecting each hemisphere internally (larger in men), certain hypothalamic nuclei, and the gonadotropin feedback response to estradiol.[citation needed] The absence of the genes that generate male genitalia do not single handedly lead to a female brain. The male brain requires more hormones, such as testosterone, in order to properly differentiate.[5] These hormones are released due to a gene expressed during embryonic development.


References[edit] ^ http://www.gfmer.ch/Books/Reproductive_health/Human_sexual_differentiation.html[full citation needed] ^ Mukherjee, Asit B.; Parsa, Nasser Z. (1990). "Determination of sex chromosomal constitution and chromosomal origin of drumsticks, drumstick-like structures, and other nuclear bodies in human blood cells at interphase by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Chromosoma. 99 (6): 432–5. doi:10.1007/BF01726695. PMID 2176962.  ^ Kučinskas, Laimutis; Just, Walter (2005). "Human male sex determination and sexual differentiation: Pathways, molecular interactions and genetic disorders". Medicina. 41 (8): 633–40. PMID 16160410.  ^ Martin, James T; Nguyen, Duc Huu (2004). "Anthropometric analysis of homosexuals and heterosexuals: Implications for early hormone exposure". Hormones and Behavior. 45 (1): 31–9. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2003.07.003. PMID 14733889.  ^ Siiteri, PK; Wilson, JD (Jan 1974). "Testosterone formation and metabolism during male sexual differentiation in the human embryo". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 38 (1): 113–25. doi:10.1210/jcem-38-1-113. PMID 4809636.  Bibliography[edit] Baum, Michael J. (2006). "Mammalian animal models of psychosexual differentiation: When is 'translation' to the human situation possible?". Hormones and Behavior. 50 (4): 579–88. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2006.06.003. PMID 16876166.  Crouch, RA (1998). "Betwixt and between: The past and future of intersexuality". The Journal of clinical ethics. 9 (4): 372–84. PMID 10029838.  Hughes, I A; Houk, C; Ahmed, S. F.; Lee, P. A. (2005). "Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 91 (7): 554–63. doi:10.1136/adc.2006.098319. PMC 2082839 . PMID 16624884.  Phoenix, C. H.; Goy, R. W.; Gerall, A. A.; Young, W. C. (1959). "Organizing Action of Prenatally Administered Testosterone Propionate on the Tissues Mediating Mating Behavior in the Female Guinea Pig". Endocrinology. 65 (3): 369–382. doi:10.1210/endo-65-3-369.  Wallen, Kim (2005). "Hormonal influences on sexually differentiated behavior in nonhuman primates". Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 26 (1): 7–26. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2005.02.001. PMID 15862182.  Wilson, BE; Reiner, WG (1998). "Management of intersex: A shifting paradigm". The Journal of clinical ethics. 9 (4): 360–9. PMID 10029837. 


External links[edit] Human Sexual Differentiation by P. C. Sizonenko The Ciba Collection of Medical Illustrations: Vol.2, Reproductive System by Frank H. Netter, M.D. comparing female and male reproductive systems development and anatomy Development of the Female Sexual & Reproductive Organs – illustrations comparing female and male genitalia during the early development v t e Sex determination and differentiation Overview Sexual differentiation humans Development of the reproductive system gonads Mesonephric duct Paramesonephric duct Genetic basis Sex-determination system XY X0 ZW Temperature-dependent Haplodiploidy Sex chromosome X chromosome Y chromosome Testis-determining factor See also Hermaphrodite Intersex Disorders of sex development v t e Development of the reproductive system Precursors Mesoderm intermediate lateral plate Endoderm Cloaca Urogenital sinus Ectoderm Cloacal membrane Internal Development of the gonads Gonadal ridge Pronephric duct Mesonephric duct Paramesonephric duct Vaginal plate Definitive urogenital sinus External Genital tubercle Labioscrotal swelling Primordial phallus Gubernaculum Peritoneum Vaginal process Canal of Nuck See also List of related male and female reproductive organs Prenatal development Embryogenesis v t e Sex Biological terms Sexual dimorphism Male Female Sexual differentiation Feminization Virilization Sex-determination system XY ZW XO Temperature-dependent Haplodiploidy Heterogametic sex Homogametic sex Sex chromosome X chromosome Y chromosome Testis-determining factor Hermaphrodite Sequential hermaphroditism Intersex Sexual reproduction Evolution of sexual reproduction Anisogamy Isogamy Germ cell Reproductive system Sex organ Meiosis Gametogenesis Spermatogenesis Oogenesis Gamete spermatozoon ovum Fertilization External Internal Sexual selection Plant reproduction Fungal reproduction Sexual reproduction in animals Sexual intercourse Human reproduction Sexuality Plant sexuality Animal sexuality Human sexuality Mechanics Differentiation Activity Sex portal Biology portal v t e Human physiology of sexual reproduction Menstrual cycle Menarche Menstruation Follicular phase Ovulation Luteal phase Gametogenesis Spermatogenesis (spermatogonium spermatocyte spermatid sperm) Oogenesis (oogonium oocyte ootid ovum) Germ cell (gonocyte gamete) Human sexual behavior Sexual arousal Sexual intercourse Masturbation Erection Orgasm Ejaculation Insemination Fertilisation/Fertility Implantation Pregnancy Postpartum period Mechanics of sex Life span Prenatal development/Sexual dimorphism/Sexual differentiation (Feminization Virilization) Puberty (Gonadarche Pubarche Menarche Spermarche Adrenarche) Maternal age / Paternal age Climacteric (Menopause Late-onset hypogonadism) Tanner scale Egg Ovum Oviposition Oviparity Ovoviviparity Vivipary Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis Hypothalamic–pituitary–prolactin axis Andrology Hormone Breast Thelarche Breast development Lactation Breastfeeding v t e Intersex topics Human rights and legal issues Compulsory sterilization Discrimination Human rights reports Legal recognition Malta declaration Medical interventions Sex assignment Sex characteristics (legal term) Yogyakarta Principles Medicine and biology Disorders of sex development Genetic diagnosis Hermaphrodite Medical interventions history Orchidometer Phall-O-Meter Prader scale Quigley scale Sexual differentiation more... Society and culture Civil society organizations Fictional characters‎ Films Flag Intersex and LGBT Literature People Religion Researchers Sex verification in sports Television History and events History of surgery timeline Intersex Awareness Day Intersex Day of Remembrance International Intersex Forum Rights by country Argentina Australia Chile China Colombia France Germany India Kenya Malta Mexico Nepal New Zealand South Africa Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States See also Children's rights Disability rights Gender LGBT Androgyny Non-binary Non-binary recognition Queer theory Third gender Transgender Sex differences in humans Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sexual_differentiation&oldid=775896488" Categories: Biology of genderGenderSexHidden categories: Articles needing more detailed referencesArticles lacking in-text citations from August 2012All articles lacking in-text citationsArticles which use infobox templates with no data rowsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from October 2010


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