Contents 1 Overview 2 Businesses 3 Music and popular culture 3.1 "I Am Woman" 3.2 Olivia Records 3.3 Women's music 4 Beginning and conscious raising 4.1 The liberal feminist movement 4.2 The radical feminist movement 5 Social changes 5.1 Use of birth control 5.2 Domestic violence and sexual harassment 6 Education 6.1 Title IX 6.2 Coeducation 6.2.1 Seven Sisters Colleges 6.2.2 Mississippi University for Women 6.2.3 Mills College 6.2.4 Other colleges 7 Criticism 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading


Overview[edit] The second wave of feminism in North America came as a delayed reaction against the renewed domesticity of women after World War II: the late 1940s post-war boom, which was an era characterized by an unprecedented economic growth, a baby boom, a move to family-oriented suburbs, and the ideal of companionate marriages. This life was clearly illustrated by the media of the time; for example television shows such as Father Knows Best and Leave It to Beaver idealized domesticity.[4] Some important events laid the groundwork for the second wave. French writer Simone de Beauvoir had in the 1940s examined the notion of women being perceived as "other" in the patriarchal society. She went on to conclude in her 1949 treatise The Second Sex that male-centered ideology was being accepted as a norm and enforced by the ongoing development of myths, and that the fact that women are capable of getting pregnant, lactating, and menstruating is in no way a valid cause or explanation to place them as the "second sex".[5] This book was translated from French to English (with some of its text excised) and published in America in 1953.[6] In 1960 the Food and Drug Administration approved the combined oral contraceptive pill, which was made available in 1961.[7] This made it easier for women to have careers without having to leave due to unexpectedly becoming pregnant. External video Prospects of Mankind with Eleanor Roosevelt; What Status For Women?, 59:07, 1962. Eleanor Roosevelt, chair of the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women, interviews President John F. Kennedy, Secretary of Labor Arthur Goldberg and others, Open Vault from WGBH[8] The administration of President Kennedy made women's rights a key issue of the New Frontier, and named women (such as Esther Peterson) to many high-ranking posts in his administration.[9] Kennedy also established a Presidential Commission on the Status of Women, chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt and comprising cabinet officials (including Peterson and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy), senators, representatives, businesspeople, psychologists, sociologists, professors, activists, and public servants.[10] There were other actions by women in wider society, presaging their wider engagement in politics which would come with the second wave. In 1961, 50,000 women in 60 cities, mobilized by Women Strike for Peace, protested above ground testing of nuclear bombs and tainted milk.[11][12] In 1963 Betty Friedan, influenced by The Second Sex, wrote the bestselling book The Feminine Mystique. Discussing primarily white women, she explicitly objected to how women were depicted in the mainstream media, and how placing them at home limited their possibilities and wasted potential. She had helped conduct a very important survey using her old classmates from Smith College. This survey revealed that the women who played a role at home and the work force were more satisfied with their life compared to the women who stayed home. The women who stayed home showed feelings of agitation and sadness. She concluded that many of these unhappy women had emerged themselves in the idea that they should not have any ambitions outside their home.[13] Friedan described this as "The Problem That Has No Name".[14] The perfect nuclear family image depicted and strongly marketed at the time, she wrote, did not reflect happiness and was rather degrading for women.[15] This book is widely credited with having begun second-wave feminism.[16] Though it is widely accepted that the movement lasted from the 1960s into the early 1980s, the exact years of the movement are more difficult to pinpoint and are often disputed. The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963, when "Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality. The report revealed, that there was gender inequality, but also recommended changing it by giving paid maternity leave, greater access to education, and help with child care,[13] along with Friedan's book, which spoke to the discontent of many women (especially housewives), led to the formation of many local, state, and federal government women's groups as well as many independent feminist organizations. Friedan was referencing a "movement" as early as 1964.[17] The movement grew with legal victories such as the Equal Pay Act of 1963, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Griswold v. Connecticut Supreme Court ruling of 1965. In 1966 Friedan joined other women and men to found the National Organization for Women (NOW); Friedan would be named as the organization's first president.[18] Despite the early successes NOW achieved under Friedan's leadership, her decision to pressure the Equal Employment Opportunity to use Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act to enforce more job opportunities among American women met with fierce opposition within the organization.[18] Siding with arguments among several of the group's African-American members,[18] many of NOW's leaders were convinced that the vast number of male African-Americans who lived below the poverty line were in need of more job opportunities than women within the middle and upper class.[19] Friedan stepped down as president in 1969.[20] In 1963, freelance journalist Gloria Steinem gained widespread popularity among feminists after a diary she authored while working undercover as a Playboy Bunny waitress at the Playboy Club was published as a two-part feature in the May and June issues of Show.[21] In her diary, Steinem alleged the club was mistreating its waitresses in order to gain male customers and exploited the Playboy Bunnies as symbols of male chauvinism, noting that the club's manual instructed the Bunnies that "there are many pleasing ways they can employ to stimulate the club's liquor volume".[21] By 1968, Steinem had become arguably the most influential figure in the movement and support for legalized abortion and federally funded day-cares had become the two leading objectives for feminists.[22] Amongst the most significant legal victories of the movement after the formation of NOW were a 1967 Executive Order extending full affirmative action rights to women, a 1968 EEOC decision ruling illegal sex-segregated help wanted ads, Title IX and the Women's Educational Equity Act (1972 and 1974, respectively, educational equality), Title X (1970, health and family planning), the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (1974), the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, the outlawing of marital rape (although not outlawed in all states until 1993[23]), and the legalization of no-fault divorce (although not legalized in all states until 2010[24]), a 1975 law requiring the U.S. Military Academies to admit women, and many Supreme Court cases such as Reed v. Reed of 1971 and Roe v. Wade of 1973. However, the changing of social attitudes towards women is usually considered the greatest success of the women's movement. In January 2013, US Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta announced that the longtime ban on women serving in US military combat roles had been lifted.[25] The US Department of Defense plans to integrate women into all combat positions by 2016.[25] Second-wave feminism also affected other movements, such as the civil rights movement and the student's rights movement, as women sought equality within them. In 1965 Casey Hayden and Mary King published "Sex and Caste: A Kind of Memo"[26] detailing women's inequality within the civil rights organization SNCC.[27] In June 1967 Jo Freeman attended a "free school" course on women at the University of Chicago led by Heather Booth[28] and Naomi Weisstein. She invited them to organize a woman's workshop at the then-forthcoming National Conference of New Politics (NCNP), to be held over Labor Day weekend 1967 in Chicago. At that conference a woman's caucus was formed, and it (led by Freeman and Shulamith Firestone) tried to present its own demands to the plenary session.[29] However, the women were told their resolution was not important enough for a floor discussion, and when through threatening to tie up the convention with procedural motions they succeeded in having their statement tacked to the end of the agenda, it was never discussed.[30] When the National Conference for New Politics Director Willam F. Pepper refused to recognize any of the women waiting to speak and instead called on someone to speak about the American Indian, five women, including Firestone, rushed the podium to demand to know why.[30] But Willam F. Pepper patted Firestone on the head and said, "Move on little girl; we have more important issues to talk about here than women's liberation", or possibly, "Cool down, little girl. We have more important things to talk about than women's problems."[29][30] Freeman and Firestone called a meeting of the women who had been at the "free school" course and the women's workshop at the conference; this became the first Chicago women's liberation group. It was known as the Westside group because it met weekly in Freeman's apartment on Chicago's west side. After a few months Freeman started a newsletter which she called Voice of the women's liberation movement. It circulated all over the country (and in a few foreign countries), giving the new movement of women's liberation its name. Many of the women in the Westside group went on to start other feminist organizations, including the Chicago Women's Liberation Union. In 1968, an SDS organizer at the University of Washington told a meeting about white college men working with poor white men, and "[h]e noted that sometimes after analyzing societal ills, the men shared leisure time by 'balling a chick together.' He pointed out that such activities did much to enhance the political consciousness of poor white youth. A woman in the audience asked, 'And what did it do for the consciousness of the chick?'" (Hole, Judith, and Ellen Levine, Rebirth of Feminism, 1971, pg. 120).[30] After the meeting, a handful of women formed Seattle's first women's liberation group.[30] By the early 1980s, it was largely perceived that women had met their goals and succeeded in changing social attitudes towards gender roles, repealing oppressive laws that were based on sex, integrating the "boys' clubs" such as military academies, the United States armed forces, NASA, single-sex colleges, men's clubs, and the Supreme Court, and illegalizing gender discrimination. However, in 1982 adding the Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution failed, having been ratified by only 35 states, leaving it three states short of ratification. Second-wave feminism was largely successful, with the failure of the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment and Nixon's veto of the Comprehensive Child Development Bill of 1972 (which would have provided a multibillion-dollar national day care system) the only major legislative defeats. Efforts to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment have continued. Ten states have adopted constitutions or constitutional amendments providing that equal rights under the law shall not be denied because of sex, and most of these provisions mirror the broad language of the Equal Rights Amendment. Furthermore, many women's groups are still active and are major political forces. As of 2011[update], more women earn bachelor's degrees than men,[31] half of the Ivy League presidents are women, the numbers of women in government and traditionally male-dominated fields have dramatically increased, and in 2009 the percentage of women in the American workforce temporarily surpassed that of men.[32] The salary of the average American woman has also increased over time, although as of 2008 it is only 77% of the average man's salary, a phenomenon often referred to as the gender pay gap.[33] Whether this is due to discrimination is very hotly disputed, however economists and sociologists have provided evidence to that effect.[34][35][36] Second-wave feminism in the U.S. coincided in the early 1980s with the feminist sex wars and was overlapped by third-wave feminism in the early 1990s. The second wave of the feminist movement also marks the emergence of women's studies as a legitimate field of study. In 1970 San Diego State University was the first university in the United States to offer a selection of women's studies courses.[37]


Businesses[edit] Feminist activists have established a range of feminist businesses, including women's bookstores, feminist credit unions, feminist presses, feminist mail-order catalogs, feminist restaurants, and feminist record labels. These businesses flourished as part of the second and third waves of feminism in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.[38][39]


Music and popular culture[edit] Second-wave feminists viewed popular culture as sexist, and created pop culture of their own to counteract this. Australian artist Helen Reddy's song "I Am Woman" played a large role in popular culture and became a feminist anthem; Reddy came to be known as a "feminist poster girl" or a "feminist icon".[40] A few weeks after "I Am Woman" entered the charts, radio stations refused to play it. Helen Reddy then began performing the song on numerous television variety shows. As the song gained popularity, women began calling radio stations and requesting to hear "I Am Woman" played. The song re-entered the charts and reached number one in December 1972.[41][40][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49] "One project of second wave feminism was to create 'positive' images of women, to act as a counterweight to the dominant images circulating in popular culture and to raise women's consciousness of their oppressions."[40] "I Am Woman"[edit] In 1972, Helen Reddy released the single "I Am Woman". Reddy told interviewers that the song was a "song of pride about being a woman".[50] After entering the Billboard Top 100, the song soon fell off the charts because radio stations refused to play it. Music critics and radio stations believed the song represented "all that is silly in the Women's Lib Movement".[51] Reddy began performing the song on different variety shows. As the song became more popular, women called into radio stations and demanded that they play the song. After these calls, radio stations began playing the song and "I Am Woman" quickly climbed the Billboard Top 100 to number one.[50] "I Am Woman" also became a protest song that women sang at rallies and protests where they demanded equal rights.[52] Olivia Records[edit] In 1973, a group of five feminists created the first women's owned-and-operated record label, called Olivia Records.[53] They created the record label because they were frustrated that major labels were slow to add female artists to their rosters. One of Olivia's founders, Judy Dlugacz, said that, "It was a chance to create opportunities for women artists within an industry which at that time had few".[54] Initially, they had a budget of $4,000, and relied on donations to keep Olivia Records alive. With these donations, Olivia Records created their first LP, an album of feminist songs entitled I Know You Know.[55] The record label originally relied on volunteers and feminist bookstores to distribute their records, but after a few years their records began to be sold in mainstream record stores.[54] Olivia Records was so successful that the company relocated from Washington D.C. to Los Angeles in 1975.[55] Olivia Records released several records and albums, and their popularity grew.[53] As their popularity grew, an alternative, specialized music industry grew around it. This type of music was initially referred to as "lesbian music" but came to be known as "women's music".[53] However, although Olivia Records was initially meant for women, in the 1980s it tried to move away from that stereotype and encouraged men to listen to their music as well.[54] Women's music[edit] Women's music consisted of female musicians combined music with politics to express feminist ideals.[56] Cities throughout the United States began to hold Women's Music Festivals, all consisting of female artists singing their own songs about personal experiences.[57] The first Women's Music Festival was held in 1974 at the University of Illinois.[57] In 1979, Michigan held a Women's Music Festival that attracted 10,000 people from across America.[57] These festivals encouraged already-famous female singers, such as Laura Nyro and Ellen McIllwaine, to begin writing and producing their own songs instead of going through a major record label.[57] Many females began performing hard rock music, a traditionally male-dominated genre. One of the most successful examples included the sisters Ann and Nancy Wilson, who formed the famous hard rock band Heart.[13]


Beginning and conscious raising[edit] The beginnings of second-wave feminism can be studied by looking at the two branches that the movement formed in: the liberal feminists and the radical feminists. The liberal feminists, led by figures such as Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem advocated for federal legislation to be passed that would promote and enhance the personal and professional lives of women.[58] On the other hand, radical feminists, such as Sandra "Casey" Hayden and Mary King, adopted the skills and lessons that they had learned from their work with civil rights organizations such as the Students for a Democratic Society and Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and created a platform to speak on the violent and sexist issues women faced while working with the larger Civil Rights Movement.[59] The liberal feminist movement[edit] After being removed from the workforce, by either personal or social pressures, many women in the post-war America returned to the home or were placed into female only jobs in the service sector.[60] After the publication of Friedan's The Feminine Mystique in 1963, many women connected to the feeling of isolation and dissatisfaction that the book detailed. The book itself, however, was not a call to action, but rather a plea for self-realization and conscious raising among middle-class women throughout America.[61] Many of these women organized to form the National Organization for Women in 1966, whose "Statement of Purpose" declared that the right women had to equality was one small part of the nationwide civil rights revolution that was happening during the 1960s.[62] The radical feminist movement[edit] Women who favored radical feminism collectively spoke of being forced to remain silent and obedient to male leaders in New Left organizations. They spoke out about how they were not only told to do clerical work such as stuffing envelopes and typing speeches, but there was also an expectation for them to sleep with the male activists that they worked with.[63] While these acts of sexual harassment took place, the young women were neglected their right to have their own needs and desires recognized by their male cohorts.[63] Many radical feminists had learned from these organizations how to think radically about their self-worth and importance, and applied these lessons in the relationships they had with each other.[64]


Social changes[edit] Use of birth control[edit] Finding a need to talk about the advantage of the Food and Drug Administration passing their approval for the use of birth control in 1960, liberal feminists took action in creating panels and workshops with the goal to promote conscious raising among sexually active women. These workshops also brought attention to issues such as venereal diseases and safe abortion.[65] Radical feminists also joined this push to raise awareness among sexually active women. While supporting the "Free Love Movement" of the late 1960s and early 1970s, young women on college campuses distributed pamphlets on birth control, sexual diseases, abortion, and cohabitation.[66] While white women were concerned with obtaining birth control for all, women of color were at risk of sterilization because of these same medical and social advances: "Native American, African American, and Latina groups documented and publicized sterilization abuses in their communities in the 1960s and 70s, showing that women had been sterilized without their knowledge or consent... In the 1970s, a group of women... founded the Committee to End Sterilization Abuse (CESA) to stop this racist population control policy begun by the federal government in the 1940s – a policy that had resulted in the sterilization of over one-third of all women of child-bearing age in Puerto Rico."[67] Domestic violence and sexual harassment[edit] The second-wave feminist movement also took a strong stance against physical violence and sexual assault in both the home and the workplace. In 1968, NOW successfully lobbied the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to pass an amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prevented discrimination based on sex in the workplace.[68] This attention to women's rights in the workplace also prompted the EEOC to add sexual harassment to its "Guidelines on Discrimination", therefore giving women the right to report their bosses and coworkers for acts of sexual assault. Domestic violence, such as battery and rape, were rampant in post-war America. Women were often abused as a result of daily frustration in their husband's lives, and as late as 1975 domestic battery and rape were both socially acceptable and legal as women were seen to be the possessions of their husbands.[69] Because of activists in the second-wave feminist movement, and the local law enforcement agencies that they worked with, by 1982 three hundred shelters and forty-eight state coalitions had been established to provide protection and services for women who had been abused by male figures in their lives.[70]


Education[edit] Title IX[edit] Main article: Title IX Coeducation[edit] One debate which developed in the United States during this time period revolved around the question of coeducation. Most men's colleges in the United States adopted coeducation, often by merging with women's colleges. In addition, some women's colleges adopted coeducation, while others maintained a single-sex student body. Seven Sisters Colleges[edit] Two of the Seven Sister colleges made transitions during and after the 1960s. The first, Radcliffe College, merged with Harvard University. Beginning in 1963, students at Radcliffe received Harvard diplomas signed by the presidents of Radcliffe and Harvard and joint commencement exercises began in 1970. The same year, several Harvard and Radcliffe dormitories began swapping students experimentally and in 1972 full co-residence was instituted. The departments of athletics of both schools merged shortly thereafter. In 1977, Harvard and Radcliffe signed an agreement which put undergraduate women entirely in Harvard College. In 1999 Radcliffe College was dissolved and Harvard University assumed full responsibility over the affairs of female undergraduates. Radcliffe is now the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study in Women's Studies at Harvard University. The second, Vassar College, declined an offer to merge with Yale University and instead became coeducational in 1969. The remaining Seven Sisters decided against coeducation. Mount Holyoke College engaged in a lengthy debate under the presidency of David Truman over the issue of coeducation. On November 6, 1971, "after reviewing an exhaustive study on coeducation, the board of trustees decided unanimously that Mount Holyoke should remain a women's college, and a group of faculty was charged with recommending curricular changes that would support the decision."[71] Smith College also made a similar decision in 1971.[72] In 1969, Bryn Mawr College and Haverford College (then all male) developed a system of sharing residential colleges. When Haverford became coeducational in 1980, Bryn Mawr discussed the possibly of coeducation as well, but decided against it.[73] In 1983, Columbia University began admitting women after a decade of failed negotiations with Barnard College for a merger along the lines of Harvard and Radcliffe (Barnard has been affiliated with Columbia since 1900, but it continues to be independently governed). Wellesley College also decided against coeducation during this time. Mississippi University for Women[edit] In 1982, in a 5–4 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan that the Mississippi University for Women would be in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause if it denied admission to its nursing program on the basis of gender. Mississippi University for Women, the first public or government institution for women in the United States, changed its admissions policies and became coeducational after the ruling.[74] In what was her first opinion written for the Supreme Court, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor stated, "In limited circumstances, a gender-based classification favoring one sex can be justified if it intentionally and directly assists members of the sex that is disproportionately burdened." She went on to point out that there are a disproportionate number of women who are nurses, and that denying admission to men "lends credibility to the old view that women, not men, should become nurses, and makes the assumption that nursing is a field for women a self-fulfilling prophecy".[75] In the dissenting opinions, Justices Harry A. Blackmun, Warren E. Burger, Lewis F. Powell, Jr., and William H. Rehnquist suggested that the result of this ruling would be the elimination of publicly supported single-sex educational opportunities. This suggestion has proven to be accurate as there are no public women's colleges in the United States today and, as a result of United States v. Virginia, the last all-male public university in the United States, Virginia Military Institute, was required to admit women. The ruling did not require the university to change its name to reflect its coeducational status and it continues a tradition of academic and leadership development for women by providing liberal arts and professional education to women and men.[76] Mills College[edit] On May 3, 1990, the Trustees of Mills College announced that they had voted to admit male students.[77] This decision led to a two-week student and staff strike, accompanied by numerous displays of nonviolent protests by the students.[78][79] At one point, nearly 300 students blockaded the administrative offices and boycotted classes.[80] On May 18, the Trustees met again to reconsider the decision,[81] leading finally to a reversal of the vote.[82] Other colleges[edit] Sarah Lawrence College declined an offer to merge with Princeton University, becoming coeducational in 1969.[citation needed] Connecticut College also adopted coeducation during the late 1960s. Wells College, previously with a student body of women only, became co-educational in 2005. Douglass College, part of Rutgers University, was the last publicly funded women's only college until 2007 when it became coed.


Criticism[edit] Alice Paul wrote the Equal Rights Amendment, whose passage became an unachieved goal of the feminist movement in the 1970s Beginning in the late 20th century, numerous feminist scholars[who?] have critiqued the second wave in the United States as reducing feminist activity into a homogenized and whitewashed chronology of feminist history that ignores the voices and contributions of many women of color, working-class women, and LGBT women.[83][84] The historiography of the United States' second-wave feminism has been criticized for failing to acknowledge and analyze the multiple sites of feminist insurgencies of women of color, silencing and ignoring the diverse pre-political and political developments that occurred during this time.[clarification needed][83] It has been suggested that the dominant historical narratives of the feminist movement focuses on white, East Coast, and predominantly middle-class women and women's consciousness-raising groups, disregarding the experiences and contributions of lesbians, women of color, and working-class and lower-class women. Chela Sandoval called the dominant narratives of the women's liberation movement "hegemonic feminism" because it essentializes the feminist historiography to an exclusive population of women, which assumes that all women experience the same oppressions as the white, East Coast, and predominantly middle-class women.[85] This restricting view purportedly ignored the oppressions women face determined by their race, class, and sexuality, and gave rise to women-of-color feminisms that separated from the women's liberation movement, such as Black feminism, Africana womanism, and the Hijas de Cuauhtémoc that emerged at California State University, Long Beach, which was founded by Anna NietoGomez, due to the Chicano Movement's sexism.[citation needed] Many feminist scholars see the generational division of the second wave as problematic.[citation needed] Second wavers are typically essentialized as the Baby Boomer generation, when in actuality many feminist leaders of the second wave were born before World War II ended. This generational essentialism homogenizes the group that belongs to the wave and asserts that every person part of a certain demographic generation shared the same ideologies, because ideological differences were considered to be generational differences.[86] Feminist scholars, particularly those from the late 20th and early 21st centuries to the present day, have revisited diverse writings, oral histories, artwork, and artifacts of women of color, working-class women, and lesbians during the early 1960s to the early 1980s to decenter what they view as the dominant historical narratives of the second wave of the women's liberation movement, allowing the scope of the historical understanding of feminist consciousness to expand and transform. By recovering histories that they believe have been erased and overlooked, these scholars purport to establish what Maylei Blackwell termed "retrofitted memory".[87] Blackwell describes this as a form of "countermemory" that creates a transformative and fluid "alternative archive" and space for women's feminist consciousness within "hegemonic narratives".[87] For Blackwell, looking within the gaps and crevices of the second wave allows fragments of historical knowledge and memory to be discovered, and new historical feminist subjects as well as new perspectives about the past to emerge, forcing existing dominant histories that claim to represent a universal experience to be decentered and refocused.[88]


See also[edit] Feminism portal American philosophy Civil rights movements Counterculture of the 1960s Feminism in 1950s Britain First-wave feminism History of feminism List of feminists List of women's rights activists Pro-life feminism Sexual revolution Third-wave feminism Timeline of reproductive rights legislation Timeline of second-wave feminism Timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting) Timeline of women's suffrage


References[edit] ^ "women's movement (political and social movement)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2012-07-20.  ^ Davis, Joshua Clark (2017-08-08). From Head Shops to Whole Foods: The Rise and Fall of Activist Entrepreneurs. Columbia University Press. pp. 129–175. ISBN 9780231543088.  ^ As noted in: Duggan, Lisa; Hunter, Nan D. (1995). Sex wars: sexual dissent and political culture. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-91036-6.  Hansen, Karen Tranberg; Philipson, Ilene J. (1990). Women, class, and the feminist imagination: a socialist-feminist reader. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 0-87722-630-X.  Gerhard, Jane F. (2001). Desiring revolution: second-wave feminism and the rewriting of American sexual thought, 1920 to 1982. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11204-1.  Leidholdt, Dorchen; Raymond, Janice G (1990). The Sexual liberals and the attack on feminism. New York: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-037457-3.  Vance, Carole S. Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality. Thorsons Publishers. ISBN 0-04-440593-6.  ^ Murray Knuttila, Introducing Sociology: A Critical Approach (4th ed. 2008 Oxford University Press) ^ Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, 1949. ^ Moi, Toril (2002). "While we wait: The English translation of The Second Sex". Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 27 (4): 1005–1035. doi:10.1086/339635. JSTOR 10.1086/339635.  ^ Tone, Andrea (2001). Devices & Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang. ^ "Prospects of Mankind with Eleanor Roosevelt; What Status For Women?". National Educational Television. Open Vault at WGBH. 1962. Retrieved September 19, 2016.  ^ "Esther Eggertsen Peterson (1906–1997)". AFL-CIO. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011.  ^ "President's Commission on the Status of Women 1961–1963". Womenshistory.about.com. 1961-12-14. Retrieved 2012-07-20.  ^ Woo, Elaine (January 30, 2011). "Dagmar Wilson dies at 94; organizer of women's disarmament protesters". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Laurie Ouellette (1999-05-01). "Inventing the Cosmo Girl: class identity and girl-style American dreams". Mcs.sagepub.com. Retrieved 2012-07-20.  ^ a b c Hunt, Michael (2014). The World Transformed: 1945 to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 220, 221. ISBN 978-0-19-937102-0.  ^ DuBois and Dumenil. Through Women's Eyes: An American History Since 1865. (Bedford; St Martin's, New York) ^ Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs (1988). Deceptive Distinctions: Sex, Gender, and the Social Order. New Haven: Yale University Press.  ^ Sweet, Corinne (February 7, 2006). "Betty Friedan". The Independent. London.  ^ CBCtv. "Betty Friedan: Women". YouTube. Retrieved 2012-07-20.  ^ a b c Farber, David (2004). The Sixties Chronicle. Legacy Publishing. p. 256. ISBN 141271009X.  ^ Farber (2004), p. 257. ^ NOW statement on Friedan's death Archived 2013-12-08 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Farber (2004), p. 150. ^ Farber (2004), p. 377. ^ "Resources – Marital Rape". Refuge House. Archived from the original on 10 November 2006.  ^ "NY becomes 50th state with no-fault divorce". Newsday. AP. August 15, 2010.  ^ a b A History of Women in the U.S. Military Accessed December 28, 2013 ^ "Sex and Caste: A Kind of Memo". The CWLU Herstory Website. Archived from the original on 31 March 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017.  ^ Baxandall, Rosalyn; Gordon, Linda, eds. (2000). Dear Sisters: Dispatches From The Women's Liberation Movement. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01707-X.  ^ "Feminism". Jewish Women's Archive.  ^ a b Hall, Simon (2011). American Patriotism, American Protest: Social Movements Since the Sixties. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-8122-4295-9.  ^ a b c d e Freeman, Jo (1999). "On the Origins of Social Movements".  ^ "Demographics of Working Moms". Mibn.org. Retrieved 2012-07-20.  ^ Rampell, Catherine (February 6, 2009). "As Layoffs Surge, Women May Pass Men in Job Force". The New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2010.  ^ Fitzpatrick, Laura (April 20, 2010). "Why Do Women Still Earn Less Than Men?". Time.  ^ Kanter, Rosabeth Moss (1977). Men and Women of the Corporation. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-04452-2.  ^ "Office of the White House, Council of Economic Advisors, 1998, IV. Discrimination". Clinton4.nara.gov. Retrieved 2012-07-20.  ^ Levine, Linda (21 April 2003). "The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?" (PDF). Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress. Retrieved 2012-07-20.  ^ Women's voices, feminist visions : classic and contemporary readings. Shaw, Susan M. (Susan Maxine), 1960-, Lee, Janet, 1954- (Sixth ed.). New York, NY. ISBN 9780078027000. OCLC 862041473.  ^ Echols, Alice (1989). Daring to be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967–1975. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 269–278.  ^ Hogan, Kristen (2016). The Feminist Bookstore Movement: Lesbian Antiracism and Feminist Accountability. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.  ^ a b c Arrow, Michelle (2007). "'It Has Become My Personal Anthem': 'I Am Woman', Popular Culture and 1970s Feminism". Australian Feminist Studies. 22 (53): 213–230. doi:10.1080/08164640701361774.  ^ Wollman, Elizabeth L. (3 July 2012). "Women and the Music Industry in the 1970s". The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History.  ^ "Overview I Am Woman (1972)". ASO – Australia's audio and visual heritage online. Retrieved 2012-07-20.  ^ "The Anthem and the Angst", Sunday Magazine, Melbourne Sunday Herald Sun/Sydney Sunday Telegraph, June 15, 2003, Page 16. ^ Betty Friedan, "It Changed My Life" (1976), pp. 257 ^ "Reddy to sing for the rent", Sunday Telegraph (Sydney), November 13, 1981 ^ "Helen still believes, it's just that she has to pay the rent too", by John Burns of the Daily Express, reprinted in Melbourne Herald, December 16, 1981 ^ Chicago Sun-Times http://southtownstar.suntimes.com/southtown/columns/vickroy/x07-dvy2.htm.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link] ^ Wollman, Elizabeth. "Women and the Music Industry in the 1970s". History Now.  ^ Gourley, Catherine. Ms. and the Material Girls: Perceptions of Women from the 1970s to 1990s. p. 26.  ^ a b Gourley, Catherine (2008). Ms. and the Material Girls: Perceptions of Women from the 1970s through the 1990s. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century. p. 26.  ^ Gaar, Gillian (1992). She's a Rebel: The History of Women in Rock & Roll. Seattle: Seal Press.  ^ Harvey, Steve (January 28, 1973). "Radical Chic: How Protest Became Saleable". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 April 2017.  ^ a b c Wollman, Elizabeth. "Women and the Music Industry in the 1970s". The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Retrieved March 9, 2017.  ^ a b c Liveton, Sharon (May 14, 1988). "Olivia Records: A Healthy Gain in 15 Years". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 18, 2017.  ^ a b McKenna, Kristine (December 11, 1977). "Feminist Record Company: Women Who Love the Spin They're In". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 18, 2017.  ^ "The Women's Liberation Music Archive". The Women's Liberation Music Archive. Retrieved March 9, 2017.  ^ a b c d Japenga, Ann (September 21, 1980). "Women's Music Festival: Alternative in Yosemite". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 18, 2017.  ^ Bloom, Alexander; Brines, Wini, eds. (2015). Takin' it to the Streets. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 81.  ^ Rosen, Ruth (2000). The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America. New York: The Penguin Group. p. 100.  ^ Patterson, James T. (2000). Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945–1974. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 33.  ^ Rosen (2000), p. 8. ^ Rosen (2000), p. 78. ^ a b Shulman, Alix Kates (1980). "Sex and Power: Sexual Bases of Radical Feminism". Signs. 5 (4, Women: Sex and Sexuality): 592. JSTOR 3173832.  ^ Bloom & Brines (2015), p. 44. ^ Rosen (2000), p. 176. ^ Bloom & Brines (2015), p. 66. ^ Shaw, Susan; Lee, Janet (September 2008). Women's Voices, Feminist Visions (4 ed.). McGraw Hill. p. 342. ISBN 978-0073512280.  ^ Patterson, James T. (1996). Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945–1974. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 646.  ^ Rosen (2000), pp. 186, 183. ^ Rosen (2000), p. 186. ^ "Mount Holyoke:A Detailed History". mtholyoke.edu.  ^ "Smith Tradition". smith.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-01-01.  ^ "A Brief history of Bryn Mawr College". brynmawr.edu. Archived from the original on 2008-01-20.  ^ "Mississippi Public Universities – Mississippi's University System". Mississippi.edu. 1925-09-15. Retrieved 2012-07-20.  ^ Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan, 458 U.S. 718 (1982) ^ MUW – Planning and Institutional Effectiveness Archived October 17, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Venerable School for Women Is Going Co-ed". The New York Times. 1990-05-04.  ^ "Mills Students Protesting Admission of Men". The New York Times. 1990-05-05.  ^ Bishop, Katherine (1990-05-06). "Disbelieving and Defiant, Students Vow: No Men". The New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2010.  ^ "Protest Continues at College Over Decision to Admit Men". The New York Times. 1990-05-08.  ^ "College to Reconsider Decision to Admit Men". The New York Times. 1990-05-12.  ^ Bishop, Katherine (1990-05-19). "Women's College Rescinds Its Decision to Admit Men". The New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2010.  ^ a b Blackwell, Maylei (2011). ¡Chicana Power!: Contested Histories of Feminism in the Chicano Movement. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 11, 14. ISBN 9780292726901.  ^ Henry, Astrid (2012). "Chapter 6: Waves". In Orr, Catherine M.; Braithwaite, Ann; Lichtenstein, Diane. Rethinking Women's and Gender Studies (Kindle). New York: Routledge. p. 2071. ISBN 978-0415808316.  ^ Blackwell (2011), p. 16. ^ Henry, Astrid (2012). "Chapter 6: Waves". In Orr, Catherine M.; Braithwaite, Ann; Lichtenstein, Diane. Rethinking Women's and Gender Studies (Kindle). New York: Routledge. pp. 2134 & 2180. ISBN 978-0415808316.  ^ a b Blackwell (2011), pp. 2–3. ^ Blackwell (2011), p. 101.


Further reading[edit] Boxer, Marilyn J. and Jean H. Quataert, eds. Connecting Spheres: European Women in a Globalizing World, 1500 to the Present (2000) Cott, Nancy. No Small Courage: A History of Women in the United States (2004) Freedman, Estelle B. No Turning Back: The History of Feminism and the Future of Women (2003) Harnois, Catherine (2008). "Re-presenting feminisms: Past, present, and future". NWSA Journal. Johns Hopkins University Press. 20 (1): 120–145. doi:10.1353/nwsa.0.0010. JSTOR 40071255.  MacLean, Nancy. The American Women's Movement, 1945–2000: A Brief History with Documents (2008) Offen, Karen; Pierson, Ruth Roach; and Rendall, Jane, eds. Writing Women's History: International Perspectives (1991) Prentice, Alison and Trofimenkoff, Susan Mann, eds. The Neglected Majority: Essays in Canadian Women's History (2 vol 1985) Ramusack, Barbara N., and Sharon Sievers, eds. Women in Asia: Restoring Women to History (1999) Rosen, Ruth. The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America (2nd ed. 2006) Roth, Benita. Separate Roads to Feminism: Black, Chicana, and White Feminist Movements in America's Second Wave. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press (2004) Stansell, Christine. The Feminist Promise: 1792 to the Present (2010) Thébaud, Françoise (Spring 2007). "Writing women's and gender history in France: A national narrative?". Journal of Women's History. 19 (1): 167–172. doi:10.1353/jowh.2007.0026.  Zophy, Angela Howard, ed. Handbook of American Women's History (2nd ed. 2000) v t e Second-wave feminism The Feminine Mystique (1963) The personal is political Consciousness raising Sex-positive feminism (1979) Feminist sex wars Ellen Willis v t e Feminism Women Girls Femininity History Social Women's history Feminist history Timeline of women's rights (other than voting) Suffrage Women's suffrage Timeline Majority-Muslim countries In the United States Australia Canada Japan Kuwait New Zealand Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom Wales United States In states Utah General First-wave Second-wave Third-wave Fourth-wave Timeline Timeline of second-wave Variants Analytical Anarchist Anti-abortion Atheist Conservative Cultural Cyber Democratic Confederalism Difference Eco Vegetarian Equality Fat French French post-structuralist Gender Global Graffiti Hip-hop/Hip hop Individualist Labor Lesbian Liberal Equity Lipstick Material Maternal Neo New Post Postcolonial Postmodern Post-structural Multicultural Black Chicana Indigenous Kurdish Native American White Radical Radical lesbian Religious Buddhist Christian Hindu Islamic Jewish Orthodox Mormon Neopagan Dianic Wicca Reclaiming Sikh Separatist Sex-positive Social Socialist Marxist Standpoint Third world Trans Transnational Womanism Africana Concepts Anti-feminism Bicycling and feminism Children's literature Embedded feminism Female education Femicide Feminazi Feminism and equality Feminism and media Feminist effects on society Feminism in culture Feminist movement African-American woman suffrage movement Art movement In hip hop Feminist stripper Feminist theory in composition studies Gender equality Girl power Language reform Male gaze Matriarchal religion Men and feminism Meninism Networked feminism Political lesbianism Lesbian separatism Pro-feminism Protofeminism Reproductive justice Second-generation gender bias Sexism in Medicine Sexual harassment State feminism Straw feminism Transgender and transexual Triple oppression Victim feminism Views on BDSM Views on pornography Views on prostitution War on Women Women's health Women's rights Theory Gender studies Gender mainstreaming Gynocentrism Matriarchy Women's studies Men's studies Kyriarchy Patriarchy Écriture féminine Economics FPDA Method Oedipus complex Political theory Theology Thealogy Womanist theology Sexology Sociology Legal theory Art Art crit Literary crit Film theory Biology Political ecology Architecture Anthropology Archaeology Criminology Pathways perspective Geography Pedagogy Philosophy Aesthetics Empiricism Epistemology Ethics Justice ethics Existentialism Metaphysics Pornography Psychology International relations Existentialism Revisionist mythology Technoscience Science fiction Composition studies By country Albania Australia Bangladesh Canada China Republic of the Congo Denmark Egypt Ethiopia Finland France Germany Ghana Greece Hong Kong India Indonesia Iran Iraq Republic of Ireland Israel Italy Japan Latin America Argentina Brazil Chile Haiti Honduras Mexico Paraguay Trinidad and Tobago Lebanon Malaysia Mali Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nigeria Northern Cyprus Norway Pakistan Philippines Poland Russia Syria South Africa South Korea Sweden Taiwan Thailand Turkey Vietnam Ukraine United Kingdom United States Feminist movement History of women Lists Indexes Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books Conservative feminisms Countries by women's average years in school Ecofeminist authors Feminist art critics Feminist economists Feminist philosophers Feminist poets Feminist rhetoricians Jewish feminists Muslim feminists Feminist parties Suffragists and suffragettes Women's rights activists Women's studies journals Women's suffrage organizations Feminism portal v t e United States articles History By event Timeline of U.S. history Pre-Columbian era Colonial era Thirteen Colonies military history Continental Congress American Revolution War American frontier America's Critical Period Drafting and ratification of Constitution Federalist Era War of 1812 Territorial acquisitions Territorial evolution Mexican–American War Civil War Reconstruction Era Indian Wars Gilded Age Progressive Era African-American civil rights movement 1865–1896 / 1896–1954 / 1954–1968 Spanish–American War Imperialism World War I Roaring Twenties Great Depression World War II home front Nazism in the United States American Century Cold War Korean War Space Race Feminist Movement Vietnam War Post-Cold War (1991–2008) War on Terror War in Afghanistan Iraq War Recent events (2008–present) By topic Outline of U.S. history Demographic Discoveries Economic debt ceiling Inventions before 1890 1890–1945 1946–91 after 1991 Military Postal Technological and industrial Geography Territory counties federal district federal enclaves Indian reservations insular zones minor outlying islands populated places states Earthquakes Extreme points Islands Mountains peaks ranges Appalachian Rocky National Park Service National Parks Regions East Coast West Coast Great Plains Gulf Mid-Atlantic Midwestern New England Pacific Central Eastern Northern Northeastern Northwestern Southern Southeastern Southwestern Western Rivers Colorado Columbia Mississippi Missouri Ohio Rio Grande Yukon Time Water supply and sanitation Politics Federal Executive Cabinet Civil service Executive departments Executive Office Independent agencies Law enforcement President of the United States Public policy Legislative House of Representatives current members Speaker Senate current members President pro tempore Vice President Judicial Courts of appeals District courts Supreme Court Law Bill of Rights civil liberties Code of Federal Regulations Constitution federalism preemption separation of powers Federal Reporter United States Code United States Reports Intelligence Central Intelligence Agency Defense Intelligence Agency Federal Bureau of Investigation National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency National Reconnaissance Office National Security Agency Office of the Director of National Intelligence Uniformed Armed Forces Army Marine Corps Navy Air Force Coast Guard National Guard NOAA Corps Public Health Service Corps 51st state political status of Puerto Rico District of Columbia statehood movement Elections Electoral College Foreign relations Foreign policy Hawaiian sovereignty movement Ideologies anti-Americanism exceptionalism nationalism Local government Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Red states and blue states Purple America Scandals State government governor state legislature state court Uncle Sam Economy By sector Agriculture Banking Communications Energy Insurance Manufacturing Mining Tourism Trade Transportation Companies by state Currency Exports Federal budget Federal Reserve System Financial position Labor unions Public debt Social welfare programs Taxation Unemployment Wall Street Society Culture Americana Architecture Cinema Cuisine Dance Demography Education Family structure Fashion Flag Folklore Languages American English Indigenous languages ASL Black American Sign Language HSL Plains Sign Talk Arabic Chinese French German Italian Russian Spanish Literature Media Journalism Internet Newspapers Radio Television Music Names People Philosophy Public holidays Religion Sexuality Sports Theater Visual art Social class Affluence American Dream Educational attainment Homelessness Home-ownership Household income Income inequality Middle class Personal income Poverty Professional and working class conflict Standard of living Wealth Issues Ages of consent Capital punishment Crime incarceration Criticism of government Discrimination affirmative action antisemitism intersex rights islamophobia LGBT rights racism same-sex marriage Drug policy Energy policy Environmental movement Gun politics Health care abortion health insurance hunger obesity smoking Human rights Immigration illegal International rankings National security Mass surveillance Terrorism Separation of church and state Outline Index Book Category Portal Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second-wave_feminism&oldid=820748589" Categories: Counterculture of the 1960sFeminism and historyWomen in historyFeminist movements and ideologiesHistory of the United States (1964–80)History of women in the United StatesHistory of women's rights in the United StatesSecond-wave feminismWomen's rightsHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksPages with citations lacking titlesPages with citations having bare URLsAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from April 2012Articles with limited geographic scope from January 2018USA-centricArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2011All articles containing potentially dated statementsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from July 2007All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrasesArticles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2017Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2017Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017Articles with unsourced statements from July 2016Pages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersPages using Columns-list with deprecated parameters


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages العربيةবাংলাCatalàDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEspañolفارسیFrançais한국어Bahasa IndonesiaItalianoעבריתМакедонскиNederlandsPolskiPortuguêsРусскийСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиதமிழ்Türkçe中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 16 January 2018, at 11:12. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.912","walltime":"1.786","ppvisitednodes":{"value":6013,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":456383,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":74251,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":13,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":30,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 1071.453 1 -total"," 53.94% 577.982 12 Template:Navbox"," 34.59% 370.576 1 Template:Reflist"," 32.50% 348.186 1 Template:United_States_topics"," 32.21% 345.081 1 Template:Country_topics"," 9.15% 98.080 19 Template:Cite_web"," 8.97% 96.155 26 Template:Cite_book"," 6.51% 69.735 19 Template:Cite_news"," 5.71% 61.182 5 Template:Fix"," 5.06% 54.236 3 Template:Citation_needed"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.412","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":6906842,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1279","timestamp":"20180116111234","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":92,"wgHostname":"mw1269"});});


Second-wave_feminism - Photos and All Basic Informations

Second-wave_feminism More Links

Wikipedia:WikiProject Countering Systemic BiasTalk:Second-wave FeminismHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalCategory:FeminismFeminismWomanGirlFemininityFeminist HistoryHistory Of FeminismWomen's HistoryHistory Of American WomenHistory Of Women In The United KingdomHistory Of Canadian WomenHistory Of German WomenTimeline Of Women's SuffrageTimeline Of First Women's Suffrage In Majority-Muslim CountriesTimeline Of Women's Suffrage In The United StatesTimeline Of Women's Rights (other Than Voting)Women's SuffrageSuffrage In AustraliaWomen's Suffrage In CanadaWomen's Suffrage In JapanWomen's Suffrage In KuwaitWomen's Suffrage In New ZealandWomen's Suffrage In SwedenWomen's Suffrage In SwitzerlandWomen's Suffrage In The United KingdomWomen's Suffrage In WalesWomen's Suffrage In The United StatesWomen's Suffrage In States Of The United StatesWomen's Suffrage In UtahFirst-wave FeminismThird-wave FeminismFourth-wave FeminismFeminist Movements And IdeologiesAnalytical FeminismAnarcha-feminismAtheist FeminismList Of Conservative FeminismsCultural FeminismCyberfeminismDifference FeminismEcofeminismVegetarian EcofeminismEquality FeminismFat FeminismFeminism In FranceFrench Post-structuralist FeminismGender FeminismGlobal FeminismHip-hop FeminismHip Hop FeminismIndividualist FeminismJineologyLabor FeminismLesbian FeminismRadical LesbiansLiberal FeminismEquity FeminismLipstick FeminismMarxist FeminismMaterial FeminismMaternal FeminismNeofeminismNew FeminismPostfeminismPostcolonial FeminismPostmodern FeminismAnti-abortion FeminismPost-structural FeminismBlack FeminismChicana FeminismWhite FeminismIndigenous FeminismNative American FeminismRadical FeminismSeparatist FeminismSex-positive FeminismSocial FeminismSocialist FeminismStandpoint FeminismPostcolonial FeminismTransfeminismTransnational FeminismWomanismAfricana WomanismBuddhist FeminismChristian FeminismGoddess MovementDianic WiccaReclaiming (Neopaganism)Feminism In IndiaIslamic FeminismJewish FeminismOrthodox Jewish FeminismMormon FeminismSikh FeminismAntifeminismBicycling And FeminismCriticism Of MarriageFeminist Children's LiteratureFeminist Effects On SocietyFeminism And EqualityEmbedded FeminismFemale EducationFemale Genital MutilationFemicideFeminaziFeminism In CultureFeminist StripperGender EqualityGirl PowerHonor KillingInternational Women's DayFeminist Language ReformMale GazeMatriarchal ReligionFeminism And MediaMen And FeminismMeninismFeminist MovementAfrican-American Woman Suffrage MovementFeminist Art MovementFeminist Activism In Hip HopNetworked FeminismFeminism And The Oedipus ComplexPolitical LesbianismSeparatist FeminismPro-feminismProtofeminismReproductive JusticeSex Workers' RightsSexual HarassmentSexual ObjectificationState FeminismStraw FeminismFeminist TheoryFeminist Theory In Composition StudiesTriple OppressionVictim FeminismViolence Against WomenFeminist Views On BDSMFeminist Views On PornographyFeminist Views On ProstitutionFeminist Views On Sexual OrientationFeminist Views On SexualityFeminist Views On Transgender And Transsexual PeopleWar On WomenWomen's HealthWomen's RightsFeminist TheoryFeminist MethodGender StudiesGender MainstreamingGynocentrismKyriarchyMatriarchyWomen's StudiesMen's StudiesPatriarchyÉcriture FéminineFeminist AnthropologyFeminist ArchaeologyFeminism And Modern ArchitectureFeminist ArtFeminist Art CriticismFeminist Literary CriticismFeminist Film TheoryFeminist BiologyFeminist Theory In Composition StudiesFeminist School Of CriminologyFeminist Pathways PerspectiveFeminist EconomicsFeminist Post-structuralist Discourse AnalysisFeminist GeographyFeminism (international Relations)Feminist ConstructivismFeminist Legal TheoryFeminist PedagogyFeminist PhilosophyFeminist AestheticsFeminist EmpiricismFeminist EpistemologyFeminist EthicsFeminist Justice EthicsFeminist ExistentialismFeminist MetaphysicsFeminist Political EcologyFeminist Political TheoryFeminist PornographyFeminist PsychologyFeminist Revisionist MythologyFeminist Science FictionFeminist Sex WarsFeminist SexologyFeminist SociologyFeminist TechnoscienceFeminist TheologyThealogyWomanist TheologyWomen In AlbaniaFeminism In AustraliaFeminism In BangladeshFeminism In CanadaFeminism In ChinaWomen In The Democratic Republic Of The CongoWomen In DenmarkFeminism In EgyptWomen In EthiopiaWomen In FinlandFeminism In FranceFeminism In GermanyWomen In GhanaFeminism In GreeceWomen In Hong KongFeminism In IndiaGerwaniFeminism In IranWomen's Rights In IraqFeminism In The Republic Of IrelandWomen In IsraelFeminism In ItalyFeminism In JapanFeminism In Latin AmericaFeminism In ArgentinaWomen's Rights In BrazilFeminism In ChileWomen's Rights In HaitiGender Inequality In HondurasFeminism In MexicoWomen In ParaguayWomen In Trinidad And TobagoWomen In LebanonFeminism In MalaysiaWomen In MaliFeminism In NepalFeminism In The NetherlandsFeminism In New ZealandWomen In NigeriaWomen In Northern CyprusFeminism In NorwayWomen In PakistanViolence Against Women In The PhilippinesFeminism In PolandFeminism In RussiaWomen In SyriaFeminism In South AfricaFeminism In South KoreaFeminism In SwedenFeminism In TaiwanFeminism In ThailandWomen In TurkeyWomen In VietnamWomen's Rights In UkraineFeminism In The United KingdomFeminism In The United StatesFeminist Movement In The United StatesHistory Of Women In The United StatesIndex Of Feminism ArticlesList Of FeministsCategory:Feminists By NationalityList Of Feminist LiteratureList Of American Feminist LiteratureList Of Feminist Comic BooksList Of Conservative FeminismsList Of Countries By Women's Average Years In SchoolList Of Ecofeminist AuthorsList Of Feminist Art CriticsList Of Feminist EconomistsList Of Feminist PhilosophersList Of Feminist PoetsList Of Feminist RhetoriciansList Of Jewish FeministsList Of Muslim FeministsList Of Feminist PartiesList Of Suffragists And SuffragettesList Of Women's Rights ActivistsList Of Women's Studies JournalsList Of Suffragists And SuffragettesCategory:Women's Rights By CountryCategory:Feminists By NationalityPortal:FeminismTemplate:Feminism SidebarTemplate Talk:Feminism SidebarFeminismFirst-wave FeminismWomen's SuffrageGender EqualityWomen's Suffrage In The United StatesProperty RightsReproductive RightsDomestic ViolenceMarital RapeFeminist Sex WarsThird-wave FeminismBaby BoomFather Knows BestLeave It To BeaverSimone De BeauvoirThe Second SexFood And Drug Administration (United States)Combined Oral Contraceptive PillEleanor RooseveltJohn F. KennedyArthur GoldbergWGBH Educational FoundationJohn F. KennedyNew FrontierEsther PetersonPresidential Commission On The Status Of WomenEleanor RooseveltUnited States Attorney GeneralRobert F. KennedyWomen Strike For PeaceBetty FriedanThe Second SexThe Feminine MystiqueNuclear FamilyBetty FriedanThe Feminine MystiqueJohn F. KennedyPresidential Commission On The Status Of WomenHomemakerEqual Pay Act Of 1963Civil Rights Act Of 1964Griswold V. ConnecticutSupreme Court Of The United StatesNational Organization For WomenGloria SteinemPlayboy BunnyPlayboy ClubAffirmative ActionTitle IXWomen's Educational Equity ActTitle XEqual Credit Opportunity ActPregnancy Discrimination Act Of 1978Spousal RapeNo-fault DivorceReed V. ReedRoe V. WadeMary King (political Scientist)SNCCJo FreemanHeather BoothNaomi WeissteinShulamith FirestoneWomen's LiberationWomen's Liberation MovementChicago Women's Liberation UnionMilitary AcademyUnited States Armed ForcesNASASupreme Court Of The United StatesEqual Rights AmendmentUnited States ConstitutionEqual Rights AmendmentComprehensive Child Development Bill Of 1972Bachelor's DegreeIvy LeagueGender Pay GapThird-wave FeminismWomen's StudiesFeminist BusinessesHelen ReddyI Am WomanPoster ChildLiberal FeministsBetty FriedanGloria SteinemMary King (political Scientist)Students For A Democratic SocietyStudent Nonviolent Coordinating CommitteeCivil Rights MovementNational Organization For WomenRadical FeminismNew LeftFood And Drug AdministrationBirth ControlNational Organization For WomenEqual Employment Opportunity CommissionCivil Rights Act Of 1964Title IXUnited StatesCoeducationMen's Colleges In The United StatesWomen's Colleges In The United StatesSeven Sisters (colleges)Radcliffe CollegeHarvard UniversityCollege AthleticsWomen's StudiesVassar CollegeYale UniversityMount Holyoke CollegeDavid TrumanSmith CollegeBryn Mawr CollegeHaverford CollegeColumbia UniversityBarnard CollegeWellesley CollegeSupreme Court Of The United StatesMississippi University For Women V. HoganMississippi University For WomenFourteenth Amendment To The United States ConstitutionEqual Protection ClausePublic UniversityWomen's Colleges In The United StatesSupreme Court Of The United StatesSandra Day O'ConnorSelf-fulfilling ProphecyHarry A. BlackmunWarren E. BurgerLewis F. Powell, Jr.William H. RehnquistUnited States V. VirginiaVirginia Military InstituteMixed-sex EducationLiberal ArtsMills CollegeStrike ActionNonviolenceSarah Lawrence CollegePrinceton UniversityWikipedia:Citation NeededConnecticut CollegeWells CollegeRutgers UniversityEnlargeAlice PaulEqual Rights AmendmentWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Words To WatchFeminist HistoryWomen Of ColorHistoriographyWikipedia:Please ClarifyDominant NarrativeConsciousness RaisingChela SandovalHegemonyEssentialismWomen's Liberation MovementBlack FeminismWomanismAnna Nieto-GómezChicano MovementSexismWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Citation NeededBaby BoomersRetrofittingUniversality (philosophy)Portal:FeminismAmerican PhilosophyCivil Rights MovementsCounterculture Of The 1960sFeminism In 1950s BritainFirst-wave FeminismHistory Of FeminismList Of FeministsList Of Women's Rights ActivistsPro-life FeminismSexual RevolutionThird-wave FeminismTimeline Of Reproductive Rights LegislationTimeline Of Second-wave FeminismTimeline Of Women's Legal Rights (other Than Voting)Timeline Of Women's SuffrageInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780231543088International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-415-91036-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-87722-630-XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-231-11204-1Dorchen LeidholdtInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-08-037457-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-04-440593-6The Second SexDigital Object IdentifierJSTORNational Educational TelevisionWGBH Educational FoundationInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-937102-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/141271009XWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-465-01707-XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8122-4295-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-465-04452-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780078027000OCLCDigital Object IdentifierHelp:CS1 ErrorsWikipedia:Link RotRuth RosenThe World Split OpenJSTORInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0073512280Mississippi University For Women V. HoganWayback MachineThe New York TimesThe New York TimesThe New York TimesThe New York TimesThe New York TimesThe New York TimesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780292726901International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0415808316International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0415808316Nancy F. CottEstelle FreedmanJohns Hopkins University PressDigital Object IdentifierJSTORSusan MannBarbara N. RamusackRuth RosenThe World Split OpenDigital Object IdentifierTemplate:Second-wave FeminismTemplate Talk:Second-wave FeminismThe Feminine MystiqueThe Personal Is PoliticalConsciousness RaisingSex-positive FeminismFeminist Sex WarsEllen WillisTemplate:FeminismTemplate Talk:FeminismFeminismWomanGirlFemininityHistory Of FeminismWomen's HistoryFeminist HistoryTimeline Of Women's Legal Rights (other Than Voting)Women's SuffrageTimeline Of Women's SuffrageTimeline Of First Women's Suffrage In Majority-Muslim CountriesTimeline Of Women's Suffrage In The United StatesSuffrage In AustraliaWomen's Suffrage In CanadaWomen's Suffrage In JapanWomen's Suffrage In KuwaitWomen's Suffrage In New ZealandWomen's Suffrage In SwedenWomen's Suffrage In SwitzerlandWomen's Suffrage In The United KingdomWomen's Suffrage In WalesWomen's Suffrage In The United StatesWomen's Suffrage In States Of The United StatesWomen's Suffrage In UtahFirst-wave FeminismThird-wave FeminismFourth-wave FeminismTimeline Of FeminismTimeline Of Second-wave FeminismFeminist Movements And IdeologiesAnalytical FeminismAnarcha-feminismAnti-abortion FeminismAtheist FeminismList Of Conservative FeminismsCultural FeminismCyberfeminismDemocratic ConfederalismDifference FeminismEcofeminismVegetarian EcofeminismEquality FeminismFat FeminismFeminism In FranceFrench Post-structuralist FeminismGender FeminismGlobal FeminismFeminism In GraffitiHip-hop FeminismHip Hop FeminismIndividualist FeminismLabor FeminismLesbian FeminismLiberal FeminismEquity FeminismLipstick FeminismMaterial FeminismMaternal FeminismNeofeminismNew FeminismPostfeminismPostcolonial FeminismPostmodern FeminismPost-structural FeminismBlack FeminismChicana FeminismIndigenous FeminismJineologyNative American FeminismWhite FeminismRadical FeminismRadical FeminismBuddhist FeminismChristian FeminismFeminism In IndiaIslamic FeminismJewish FeminismOrthodox Jewish FeminismMormon FeminismGoddess MovementDianic WiccaReclaiming (Neopaganism)Sikh FeminismSeparatist FeminismSex-positive FeminismSocial FeminismSocialist FeminismMarxist FeminismStandpoint FeminismPostcolonial FeminismTransfeminismTransnational FeminismWomanismAfricana WomanismAntifeminismBicycling And FeminismFeminist Children's LiteratureEmbedded FeminismFemale EducationFemicideFeminaziFeminism And EqualityFeminism And MediaFeminist Effects On SocietyFeminism In CultureFeminist MovementAfrican-American Woman Suffrage MovementFeminist Art MovementFeminist Activism In Hip HopFeminist StripperFeminist TheoryFeminist Theory In Composition StudiesGender EqualityGirl PowerFeminist Language ReformMale GazeMatriarchal ReligionMen And FeminismMeninismNetworked FeminismPolitical LesbianismSeparatist FeminismPro-feminismProtofeminismReproductive JusticeSecond-generation Gender BiasSexism In MedicineSexual HarassmentState FeminismStraw FeminismFeminist Views On Transgender And Transsexual PeopleTriple OppressionVictim FeminismFeminist Views On BDSMFeminist Views On PornographyFeminist Views On ProstitutionWar On WomenWomen's HealthWomen's RightsFeminist TheoryGender StudiesGender MainstreamingGynocentrismMatriarchyWomen's StudiesMen's StudiesKyriarchyPatriarchyÉcriture FéminineFeminist EconomicsFeminist Post-structuralist Discourse AnalysisFeminist MethodFeminism And The Oedipus ComplexFeminist Political TheoryFeminist TheologyThealogyWomanist TheologyFeminist SexologyFeminist SociologyFeminist Legal TheoryFeminist ArtFeminist Art CriticismFeminist Literary CriticismFeminist Film TheoryFeminist BiologyFeminist Political EcologyFeminism And Modern ArchitectureFeminist AnthropologyFeminist ArchaeologyFeminist School Of CriminologyFeminist Pathways PerspectiveFeminist GeographyFeminist PedagogyFeminist PhilosophyFeminist AestheticsFeminist EmpiricismFeminist EpistemologyFeminist EthicsFeminist Justice EthicsFeminist ExistentialismFeminist MetaphysicsFeminist PornographyFeminist PsychologyFeminism (international Relations)Feminist ExistentialismFeminist Revisionist MythologyFeminist TechnoscienceFeminist Science FictionFeminist Theory In Composition StudiesCategory:Women's Rights By CountryWomen In AlbaniaFeminism In AustraliaFeminism In BangladeshFeminism In CanadaFeminism In ChinaWomen In The Democratic Republic Of The CongoWomen In DenmarkFeminism In EgyptWomen In EthiopiaWomen In FinlandFeminism In FranceFeminism In GermanyWomen In GhanaFeminism In GreeceWomen In Hong KongFeminism In IndiaGerwaniFeminism In IranWomen's Rights In IraqFeminism In The Republic Of IrelandWomen In IsraelFeminism In ItalyFeminism In JapanFeminism In Latin AmericaFeminism In ArgentinaWomen's Rights In BrazilFeminism In ChileWomen's Rights In HaitiGender Inequality In HondurasFeminism In MexicoWomen In ParaguayWomen In Trinidad And TobagoWomen In LebanonFeminism In MalaysiaWomen In MaliFeminism In NepalFeminism In The NetherlandsFeminism In New ZealandWomen In NigeriaWomen In Northern CyprusFeminism In NorwayWomen In PakistanViolence Against Women In The PhilippinesFeminism In PolandFeminism In RussiaWomen In SyriaFeminism In South AfricaFeminism In South KoreaFeminism In SwedenFeminism In TaiwanFeminism In ThailandWomen In TurkeyWomen In VietnamWomen's Rights In UkraineFeminism In The United KingdomFeminism In The United StatesFeminist Movement In The United StatesHistory Of Women In The United StatesIndex Of Feminism ArticlesList Of FeministsCategory:Feminists By NationalityList Of Feminist LiteratureList Of American Feminist LiteratureList Of Feminist Comic BooksList Of Conservative FeminismsList Of Countries By Women's Average Years In SchoolList Of Ecofeminist AuthorsList Of Feminist Art CriticsList Of Feminist EconomistsList Of Feminist PhilosophersList Of Feminist PoetsList Of Feminist RhetoriciansList Of Jewish FeministsList Of Muslim FeministsList Of Feminist PartiesList Of Suffragists And SuffragettesList Of Women's Rights ActivistsList Of Women's Studies JournalsList Of Suffragists And SuffragettesPortal:FeminismTemplate:United States TopicsTemplate Talk:United States TopicsUnited StatesHistory Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States HistoryPre-Columbian EraColonial History Of The United StatesThirteen ColoniesColonial American Military HistoryContinental CongressAmerican RevolutionAmerican Revolutionary WarAmerican FrontierAmerica's Critical PeriodTimeline Of Drafting And Ratification Of The United States ConstitutionFederalist EraWar Of 1812United States Territorial AcquisitionsTerritorial Evolution Of The United StatesMexican–American WarAmerican Civil WarReconstruction EraAmerican Indian WarsGilded AgeProgressive EraAfrican-American Civil Rights Movement (1865–1896)African-American Civil Rights Movement (1896–1954)African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954–1968)Spanish–American WarAmerican ImperialismHistory Of The United States (1865–1918)Roaring TwentiesGreat DepressionMilitary History Of The United States During World War IIUnited States Home Front During World War IIGerman American BundAmerican CenturyCold WarKorean WarSpace RaceVietnam WarHistory Of The United States (1991–2008)War On TerrorWar In Afghanistan (2001–present)Iraq WarHistory Of The United States (2008–present)Outline Of The United StatesDemographic History Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States DiscoveriesEconomic History Of The United StatesHistory Of United States Debt CeilingTimeline Of United States InventionsTimeline Of United States Inventions (before 1890)Timeline Of United States Inventions (1890–1945)Timeline Of United States Inventions (1946–91)Timeline Of United States Inventions (after 1991)Military History Of The United StatesPostage Stamps And Postal History Of The United StatesTechnological And Industrial History Of The United StatesGeography Of The United StatesUnited States TerritoryCounty (United States)Washington, D.C.Federal EnclaveIndian ReservationTerritories Of The United StatesUnited States Minor Outlying IslandsLists Of Populated Places In The United StatesU.S. StateList Of Earthquakes In The United StatesList Of Extreme Points Of The United StatesList Of Islands Of The United StatesList Of Mountains Of The United StatesList Of Mountain Peaks Of The United StatesList Of Mountain RangesAppalachian MountainsRocky MountainsNational Park ServiceList Of Areas In The United States National Park SystemList Of Regions Of The United StatesEast Coast Of The United StatesWest Coast Of The United StatesGreat PlainsGulf Coast Of The United StatesMid-Atlantic (United States)Midwestern United StatesNew EnglandPacific StatesCentral United StatesEastern United StatesNorthern United StatesNortheastern United StatesNorthwestern United StatesSouthern United StatesSoutheastern United StatesSouthwestern United StatesWestern United StatesList Of Rivers Of The United StatesColorado RiverColumbia RiverMississippi RiverMissouri RiverOhio RiverRio GrandeYukon RiverTime In The United StatesDrinking Water Supply And Sanitation In The United StatesPolitics Of The United StatesFederal Government Of The United StatesCabinet Of The United StatesUnited States Federal Civil ServiceUnited States Federal Executive DepartmentsExecutive Office Of The President Of The United StatesIndependent Agencies Of The United States GovernmentFederal Law Enforcement In The United StatesPresident Of The United StatesPublic Policy Of The United StatesUnited States CongressUnited States House Of RepresentativesCurrent Members Of The United States House Of RepresentativesSpeaker Of The United States House Of RepresentativesUnited States SenateCurrent Members Of The United States SenatePresident Pro Tempore Of The United States SenateVice President Of The United StatesFederal Judiciary Of The United StatesUnited States Courts Of AppealsUnited States District CourtSupreme Court Of The United StatesLaw Of The United StatesUnited States Bill Of RightsCivil Liberties In The United StatesCode Of Federal RegulationsUnited States ConstitutionFederalism In The United StatesFederal PreemptionSeparation Of Powers Under The United States ConstitutionFederal ReporterUnited States CodeUnited States ReportsUnited States Intelligence CommunityCentral Intelligence AgencyDefense Intelligence AgencyFederal Bureau Of InvestigationNational Geospatial-Intelligence AgencyNational Reconnaissance OfficeNational Security AgencyDirector Of National IntelligenceUniformed Services Of The United StatesUnited States Armed ForcesUnited States ArmyUnited States Marine CorpsUnited States NavyUnited States Air ForceUnited States Coast GuardNational Guard Of The United StatesNOAA Commissioned Officer CorpsUnited States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps51st StatePolitical Status Of Puerto RicoDistrict Of Columbia Statehood MovementElections In The United StatesElectoral College (United States)Foreign Relations Of The United StatesForeign Policy Of The United StatesHawaiian Sovereignty MovementPolitical Ideologies In The United StatesAnti-AmericanismAmerican ExceptionalismAmerican NationalismLocal Government In The United StatesPolitical Parties In The United StatesDemocratic Party (United States)Republican Party (United States)Third Party (United States)Red States And Blue StatesPurple AmericaList Of Federal Political Scandals In The United StatesState Governments Of The United StatesGovernor (United States)State Legislature (United States)State Court (United States)Uncle SamEconomy Of The United StatesEconomy Of The United States By SectorAgriculture In The United StatesBanking In The United StatesCommunications In The United StatesEnergy In The United StatesInsurance In The United StatesManufacturing In The United StatesMining In The United StatesTourism In The United StatesForeign Trade Of The United StatesTransportation In The United StatesList Of Companies Of The United StatesList Of Companies Of The United States By StateUnited States DollarList Of Exports Of The United StatesUnited States Federal BudgetFederal Reserve SystemFinancial Position Of The United StatesLabor Unions In The United StatesNational Debt Of The United StatesSocial Programs In The United StatesTaxation In The United StatesUnemployment In The United StatesWall StreetSociety Of The United StatesCulture Of The United StatesAmericanaArchitecture Of The United StatesCinema Of The United StatesCuisine Of The United StatesDance In The United StatesDemography Of The United StatesEducation In The United StatesFamily Structure In The United StatesFashion In The United StatesFlag Of The United StatesFolklore Of The United StatesLanguages Of The United StatesAmerican EnglishIndigenous Languages Of The AmericasAmerican Sign LanguageBlack American Sign LanguageHawai'i Sign LanguagePlains Indian Sign LanguageArabic Language In The United StatesChinese Language And Varieties In The United StatesFrench Language In The United StatesGerman Language In The United StatesItalian Language In The United StatesRussian Language In The United StatesSpanish Language In The United StatesAmerican LiteratureMedia Of The United StatesHistory Of American JournalismInternet In The United StatesHistory Of American NewspapersRadio In The United StatesTelevision In The United StatesMusic Of The United StatesNaming In The United StatesAmericansAmerican PhilosophyPublic Holidays In The United StatesReligion In The United StatesSexuality In The United StatesSports In The United StatesTheater In The United StatesVisual Art Of The United StatesSocial Class In The United StatesAffluence In The United StatesAmerican DreamEducational Attainment In The United StatesHomelessness In The United StatesHome-ownership In The United StatesHousehold Income In The United StatesIncome Inequality In The United StatesAmerican Middle ClassPersonal Income In The United StatesPoverty In The United StatesProfessional And Working Class Conflict In The United StatesStandard Of Living In The United StatesWealth In The United StatesSocial Issues In The United StatesAges Of Consent In The United StatesCapital Punishment In The United StatesCrime In The United StatesIncarceration In The United StatesCriticism Of The United States GovernmentDiscrimination In The United StatesAffirmative Action In The United StatesAntisemitism In The United StatesIntersex Rights In The United StatesIslamophobia In The United StatesLGBT Rights In The United StatesRacism In The United StatesSame-sex Marriage In The United StatesFederal Drug Policy Of The United StatesEnergy Policy Of The United StatesEnvironmental Movement In The United StatesGun Politics In The United StatesHealth Care In The United StatesAbortion In The United StatesHealth Insurance In The United StatesHunger In The United StatesObesity In The United StatesTobacco In The United StatesHuman Rights In The United StatesImmigration To The United StatesIllegal Immigration To The United StatesInternational Rankings Of The United StatesNational Security Of The United StatesMass Surveillance In The United StatesTerrorism In The United StatesSeparation Of Church And State In The United StatesOutline Of The United StatesIndex Of United States-related ArticlesBook:United StatesCategory:United StatesPortal:United StatesHelp:CategoryCategory:Counterculture Of The 1960sCategory:Feminism And HistoryCategory:Women In HistoryCategory:Feminist Movements And IdeologiesCategory:History Of The United States (1964–80)Category:History Of Women In The United StatesCategory:History Of Women's Rights In The United StatesCategory:Second-wave FeminismCategory:Women's RightsCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Pages With Citations Lacking TitlesCategory:Pages With Citations Having Bare URLsCategory:All Articles With Dead External LinksCategory:Articles With Dead External Links From April 2012Category:Articles With Limited Geographic Scope From January 2018Category:USA-centricCategory:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2011Category:All Articles Containing Potentially Dated StatementsCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From July 2007Category:All Articles With Specifically Marked Weasel-worded PhrasesCategory:Articles With Specifically Marked Weasel-worded Phrases From August 2017Category:Wikipedia Articles Needing Clarification From August 2017Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From August 2017Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From July 2016Category:Pages Using Div Col Without Cols And Colwidth ParametersCategory:Pages Using Columns-list With Deprecated ParametersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link