In artificial intelligence[edit] Roger Schank, Robert P. Abelson and their research group, extended Tomkins' scripts and used them in early artificial intelligence work as a method of representing procedural knowledge. In their work, scripts are very much like frames, except the values that fill the slots must be ordered. A script is a structured representation describing a stereotyped sequence of events in a particular context. Scripts are used in natural language understanding systems to organize a knowledge base in terms of the situations that the system should understand. The classic example of a script involves the typical sequence of events that occur when a person drinks in a restaurant: finding a seat, reading the menu, ordering drinks from the waitstaff... In the script form, these would be decomposed into conceptual transitions, such as MTRANS and PTRANS, which refer to mental transitions [of information] and physical transitions [of things]. Schank, Abelson and their colleagues tackled some of the most difficult problems in artificial intelligence (i.e., story understanding), but ultimately their line of work ended without tangible success. This type of work received little attention after the 1980s, but it is very influential in later knowledge representation techniques, such as case-based reasoning. Scripts can be inflexible. To deal with inflexibility, smaller modules called memory organization packets (MOP) can be combined in a way that is appropriate for the situation.[citation needed]

References[edit] This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (November 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Nathanson, Donald L. Shame and Pride: Affect, Sex, and the Birth of the Self. London: W.W. Norton, 1992 Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky and Adam Frank, eds. 1995. Shame and Its Sisters: A Silvan Tomkins Reader. Durham and London: Duke University Press. Tomkins, Silvan. "Script Theory". The Emergence of Personality. Eds. Joel Arnoff, A. I. Rabin, and Robert A. Zucker. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1987. 147–216. Tomkins, Silvan. "Script Theory: Differential Magnification of Affects". Nebraska Symposium On Motivation 1978. Ed. Richard A. Deinstbier. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1979. 201–236. Retrieved from "" Categories: History of artificial intelligenceKnowledge representationPsychological theoriesHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from February 2012Articles lacking in-text citations from November 2014All articles lacking in-text citations

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