Contents 1 AxR1 2 Apple rootstock 3 See also 4 Notes 5 Bibliography 6 External links

AxR1[edit] AxR1 is a grape rootstock once widely used in California viticulture. Its name is an abbreviation for "Aramon Rupestris Ganzin No. 1", which in turn is based on its parentage: a cross (made by a French grape hybridizer named Ganzin) between Aramon, a Vitis vinifera cultivar, and Rupestris, an American grape species, Vitis rupestris—also used on its own as rootstock, "Rupestris St. George" or "St. George," referring to a town in the South of France, Saint Georges d'Orques, where it was popular. It achieved a degree of notoriety in California when, after decades of recommendation as a preferred rootstock—despite repeated warnings from France and South Africa about its susceptibility (it had failed in Europe in the early 1900s), it ultimately succumbed to phylloxera in the 1980s, requiring the replanting of most of Napa and Sonoma, with disastrous financial consequences. Most current day grape rootstocks were and are originally imported from Texas. These were taken from the native wild mustang grapes that grow across Texas. This rootstock also saved France's grape industry in the early 1900s when phylloxera decimated the wine and vineyards of Europe.

Apple rootstock[edit] Apple rootstocks are used for apple trees and are often the deciding factor of the size of the tree that is grafted on to the root. Dwarfing, semi-dwarf, semi-standard and standard are the size benchmarks for the different sizes of roots that will be grown, with standard being the largest and dwarf being the smallest.[3] Much of the world's apple production is now using dwarf rootstocks to improve efficiency, increase density and increase yields of fruit per/acre.[3] The following is a list of the dwarfing rootstock that are commonly used today in apple production: Malling 9 rootstock is the most common and well known dwarfing rootstock. This rootstock should be planted in a well drained site, and requires staking for the duration of its life.[4] This rootstock is also very susceptible to fireblight and burr knots.[4] There have been many clones made of this rootstock, including M.9 NAKB 337, M.9EMLA and M.9. Pajam.[4] Malling 26 rootstock will grow a larger tree than the M9 rootstock will, and is about 40-50% the size of a standard tree.[5] This root is considered very productive and early bearing, and requires staking in the first few years of its life.[6] Malling 7 rootstock is slightly bigger than an M26 rootstock, and also requires staking in the first several years to establish a centre leader.[7] This rootstock is moderately susceptible to blight and collar rot.[7] The fruit size that M7 produces is good but not as large as an M26, or M9 rootstock.[7] This root is highly susceptible to suckering and leaning over in its later years of life, which is very annoying and causes issues for the producer.[7] Malling 111 rootstock is one of the biggest and vigorous rootstock that is used today in commercial orchards, and is about 80-90% the size of a standard sized tree.[8] It is generally quite winter hardy and produces few burr knots and root suckers.[8] This rootstock is much less popular than it once was, because many commercial producers are now planting higher density orchards, which M111 is not conducive to.[8] Malling 106 rootstock is slightly smaller than M111, but is a very productive tree and early fruiting abilities.[9] It is a great rootstock to be used in a variety of soil conditions because it is very hardy with moderate vigour.[9] This rootstock must be planted in well drained soils as it is susceptible to collar rot.[9]

See also[edit] Propagation of grapevines Fruit tree propagation Apple rootstocks Cherry rootstocks Pear rootstocks Plum rootstocks Citrus rootstock

Notes[edit] ^ Hickey, M.; King, C. (2001). The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79080-8.  ^ Mudge, K.; Janick, J.; Scofield, S.; Goldschmidt, E. E. (2009). "A history of grafting". In Janick, J. Horticultural Reviews (PDF). 35. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 437–493.  ^ a b "Apple Rootstocks". Retrieved 2016-12-01.  ^ a b c "Apple Rootstocks (Tree Fruit Production)". Tree Fruit Production (Penn State Extension). Retrieved 2016-12-01.  ^ "Fruit Tree Nursery Van Well Trees Nursery East Wenatchee Washington - Apple Rootstocks". Retrieved 2016-12-01.  ^ "Rootstocks for Fruit Trees". Retrieved 2016-12-01.  ^ a b c d "Apple Rootstocks". Retrieved 2016-12-01.  ^ a b c "Apple Rootstock Info: MM.111 EMLA - eXtension". Retrieved 2016-12-01.  ^ a b c "Rootstock Information". Retrieved 2016-12-01. 

Bibliography[edit] Jancis Robinson (2006). The Oxford companion to wine. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198609902. 

External links[edit] Rootstocks as an Element of Terroir, in Sommelier Journal v t e Viticulture Biology and horticulture Ampelography Annual growth cycle of grapevines Grape varieties Grapes Hybrid grape International Grape Genome Program Ripening (Veraison) Rootstock Vineyard Vitis Vitis vinifera Environmental variation Climate categories Diurnal temperature variation Drainage Microclimate Regional climate levels Soil types Terroir Topography aspect elevation slope Vineyard planting Grapevine planting Propagation Row orientation Trellis design Vine training Yield Vineyard management Canopy Clos Coulure Erosion control Fertilizer Frost damage prevention Green harvest (Vendange verte) Integrated pest management Irrigation Klopotec Millerandage Pruning Weed control Harvest Brix Festivals Noble rot Ripeness Vintage Weather Pests and diseases Birds Black rot Botrytis bunch rot Bot canker Dead arm Downy mildew Grapevine yellows Great French Wine Blight Lepidoptera Nematodes Phylloxera Pierce's disease Powdery mildew Uncinula necator Red spider mite Vine moth Approaches and issues Adaptive management Biodynamic wine Climate change Effects of climate change on wine production Environmental stewardship Organic farming Sustainable agriculture See also Glossary of viticulture terms Glossary of wine terms Glossary of winemaking terms Oenology Wine Winemaking Retrieved from "" Categories: Horticulture and gardeningPlant reproductionPlant rootsHidden categories: Articles lacking in-text citations from October 2012All articles lacking in-text citationsArticles needing cleanup from April 2011All pages needing cleanupCleanup tagged articles without a reason field from April 2011Wikipedia pages needing cleanup from April 2011Articles with multiple maintenance issues

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