Contents 1 Tables 1.1 Ancient Greek 1.2 Modern Greek 1.3 Diacritical marks 1.4 Numerals 1.5 Punctuation marks 1.6 Uncommon letters 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

Tables[edit] The following tables list several romanization schemes from the Greek alphabet to modern English. For the romanization of Greek into other languages, see the corresponding articles in our sister wikis, such as "Romanisation du grec" on the French Wikipedia. Note, however, that the ELOT, UN, and ISO formats for Modern Greek intend themselves as translingual and may be applied in any language using the Latin alphabet. Ancient Greek[edit] The American Library Association and Library of Congress romanization scheme employs its "Ancient or Medieval Greek" system for all works and authors up to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453,[3] although Byzantine Greek was pronounced distinctly and some have considered "Modern" Greek to have begun as early as the 12th century.[11] For treatment of polytonic Greek letters—for example, ᾤ—see also the section on romanizing Greek diacritical marks below. Greek Classical ALA-LC [3] (2010) Beta Code [12] Α α A a A a *A A Αι αι Æ æ Ai ai *AI AI Β β ϐ B b B b *B B Γ γ G g G g *G G γγ ng ng GG γκ nc nk GK γξ nx nx GC γχ nch nch GX Δ δ D d D d *D D Ε ε ϵ E e E e *E E Ει ει E e Ei ei *EI EI I i Ζ ζ Z z Z z *Z Z Η η E e Ē ē *H H Θ θ ϑ Th th Th th *Q Q Ι ι I i I i *I I Κ κ ϰ C c K k *K K Λ λ L l L l *L L Μ μ M m M m *M M Ν ν N n N n *N N Ξ ξ X x X x *C C Ο ο O o O o *O O Οι οι Œ œ Oi oi *OI OI Ου ου U u Ou ou *OU OU O o Π π P p P p *P P Ρ ρ ϱ Rh [n. 1] rh [n. 1] Rh [n. 1] rh [n. 1] *R R R r R r Σ σ S s S s *S S / S1 ς s s S / S2 / J Τ τ T t T t *T T Υ υ Y y Y y *U U u [n. 2] Υι υι Ui ui Ui ui *UI UI Yi yi Φ Ph ph Ph ph *F F Χ χ Ch ch Ch ch *X X Ψ ψ Ps ps Ps ps *Y Y Ω ω O o Ō ō *W W ^ a b c d In ancient Greek, word-initial rho—a rho at the beginning of a word or name—and the second in a pair of medial rhos were always considered to involve rough breathing whether marked or not. ^ In the diphthongs αυ, ευ, ηυ, ου, υι, ωυ. Modern Greek[edit] The ISO, UN, and Greek, British, and American governments have all approved an essentially equivalent standard for transcription of Modern Greek into Latin letters; there remain minor differences in how they approach reversible transliteration. The American Library Association and Library of Congress romanization scheme employs its "Modern Greek" system for all works and authors following the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.[3] For treatment of accents and diaereses—for example, ΐ—also see the section on romanizing Greek diacritical marks below. Note that adjacent vowels including an accent over the first letter or a diaeresis ( ¨ ) over the second letter are not a digraph and should be romanized separately. (For example, while the word αυλός starts with the digraph αυ and should be romanized as "avlos" or "aulos", depending on the system chosen, the first two letters of the word άυλο are separate syllables, and an appropriate romanization is "aÿlo", where the diaeresis over the letter "y" serves to indicate it is a separate vowel here.) Greek Standard Reversible Obsolete ELOT [13] (2001) UN [4][15] (1987) ISO [5][10] (1997) ALA-LC [3] (2010) BGN/PCGN [10] (1962) Α α A a A a A a A a A a A a Αι αι Ai ai Ai ai Ai ai Ai ai Ai ai E e Αυ αυ Av [n. 1] av [n. 1] Au au Av̱ [n. 1] av̱ [n. 1] Au au Au au Av av Af [n. 2][n. 3] af [n. 2][n. 3] Af̱ [n. 2][n. 3] af̱ [n. 2][n. 3] Ay [n. 4] ay [n. 4] Ay [n. 4] ay [n. 4] Β β ϐ V v V v V v V v V v V v Γ γ G g G g G g G g G g G g Y [n. 5] y [n. 5] γγ ng gg ṉg gg ng ng Γκ γκ Gk gk Gk gk Gk gk Gk gk Gk gk [n. 6][n. 3] G g [n. 6] nk [n. 7] ng [n. 7][n. 3] γξ nx gx ṉx gx nx nx γχ nch gch ṉch gch nch nkh Δ δ D d D d D d D d D d Dh dh d [n. 8] Ε ε ϵ E e E e E e E e E e E e Ει ει Ei ei Ei ei Ei ei Ei ei Ei ei I i Ευ ευ Ev [n. 1] ev [n. 1] Eu eu Ev̱ [n. 1] ev̱ [n. 1] Eu eu Eu eu Ev ev Ef [n. 2][n. 3] ef [n. 2][n. 3] Ef̱ [n. 2][n. 3] ef̱ [n. 2][n. 3] Ey [n. 4] ey [n. 4] Ey [n. 4] ey [n. 4] Ζ ζ Z z Z z Z z Z z Z z Z z Η η I i Ī I¯ ī i¯ I̱ i̱ Ī ī Ē ē I i Ηυ ηυ Iv [n. 1] iv [n. 1] Īy I¯y īy i¯y I̱v̱ [n. 1] i̱v̱ [n. 1] Īy īy Ēu ēu Iv iv If [n. 2][n. 3] if [n. 2][n. 3] I̱f̱ [n. 2][n. 3] i̱f̱ [n. 2][n. 3] Iy [n. 4] iy [n. 4] I̱y [n. 4] i̱y [n. 4] Θ θ ϑ Th th Th th Th th Th th Th th Th th Ι ι I i I i I i I i I i I i Κ κ ϰ K k K k K k K k K k K k Λ λ L l L l L l L l L l L l Μ μ M m M m M m M m M m M m Μπ μπ B b [n. 6][n. 3] Mp mp B b [n. 6][n. 3] Mp mp B b [n. 6] B b [n. 6] mp [n. 7] mp [n. 7] mp [n. 7][n. 3] mp [n. 7][n. 3] Ν ν N n N n N n N n N n N n Ντ ντ Nt nt Nt nt Nt nt Nt nt Ḏ D_ ḏ [n. 6] d_ D d [n. 6] nt [n. 7][n. 3] nd [n. 7][n. 3] nt [n. 9] Ξ ξ X x X x X x X x X x X x Ο ο O o O o O o O o O o O o Οι οι Oi oi Oi oi Oi oi Oi oi Oi oi I i Ου ου Ou ou Ou ou Ou ou Ou ou Ou ou Ou ou Oy [n. 4] oy [n. 4] Oy [n. 4] oy [n. 4] Oy [n. 4] oy [n. 4] Oy [n. 4] oy [n. 4] Oi [n. 4] oi [n. 4] Π π P p P p P p P p P p P p Ρ ρ ϱ R r R r R r R r R r R r Σ σ S s S s S s S s S s S s ς s s s s s s Τ τ T t T t T t T t T t T t Υ υ Y y Y y Y y Y y Y y I i u [n. 10] u [n. 10] u [n. 10] u [n. 10] Υι υι Yi yi Yi yi Yi yi Yi yi Ui ui I i Φ F f F f F f F f Ph ph F f Χ χ Ch ch Ch ch Ch ch Ch ch Ch ch Kh kh Ψ ψ Ps ps Ps ps Ps ps Ps ps Ps ps Ps ps Ω ω O o Ō O¯ ō o¯ O̱ o̱ Ō ō Ō ō O o Ωυ ωυ Oy oy Ōy O¯y ōy o¯y O̱y o̱y Ōu ōu Ōu ōu Ou ou ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Before any vowel or before β, γ, δ, ζ, λ, μ, ν, or ρ. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Before θ, κ, ξ, π, σ, τ, φ, χ, or ψ. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Finally: as the last letters of a word or name. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v When the two vowels are separated owing to stress on the first letter or a diaeresis on the υ. ^ a b Before αι, ε, ει, η, ι, οι, υ, or υι. ^ a b c d e f g h Initially: at the beginning of a word or name. ^ a b c d e f g h Medially: in the middle of a word or name. ^ In the combination νδρ. ^ In the combination ντζ. ^ a b c d In some vowel combinations, as noted elsewhere in the chart. Diacritical marks[edit] Main article: Greek diacritics The traditional polytonic orthography of Greek uses several distinct diacritical marks to render what was originally the pitch accent of Ancient Greek and the presence or absence of word-initial /h/. In 1982, monotonic orthography was officially introduced for modern Greek. The only diacritics that remain are the acute accent (indicating stress) and the diaeresis (indicating that two consecutive vowels should not be combined). When a Greek diphthong is accented, the accent mark is placed over the second letter of the pair. This means that an accent over the first letter of the pair indicates vowels which should be taken (and romanized) separately. Although the second vowel is not marked with a superfluous diaeresis in Greek, the first-edition ELOT 743 and the UN systems place a diaeresis on the Latin vowel for the sake of clarity.[14][4] Diacritical marks Greek Ancient Modern Name Classical ALA-LC [3] (2010) Beta Code [12] [n. 1] ELOT [13] (2001) UN [4] (1987) BGN/ PCGN [6] (1996) ISO [10] (1997) ALA-LC [3] (2010)   ́  / ´ [n. 2] accent acute accent   ̀  \ ` N/A ´ ` grave accent  ῾  h [n. 3] ( h[n. 3] N/A h [n. 3] h [n. 3] rough breathing  ᾿  ) ’ N/A ’ coronis smooth breathing  ˜    ̑  = ˆ N/A ´ ˆ circumflex  ¨  [n. 4] + ¨ [n. 4] [n. 4] diaeresis  ͺ  | ¸ N/A ¸ iota subscript ^ These marks are placed after the letter so that, e.g., Ἐν is written E)N and τῷ is written TW=|. ^ In systems where the υ in αυ, ευ, and ηυ is romanized as a consonant v or f, the stressed diphthongs αύ, εύ, and ηύ are romanized with the accent mark over the initial vowel. This should be distinguished from Greek άυ, έυ, and ήυ, which would be romanized as separate letters and not as diphthongs: áÿ, éÿ, and íÿ or ī́ÿ or í̱ÿ. ^ a b c d In the ALA-LC system, the h is supplied even where the rough breathing is not marked in ancient and medieval Greek (for example, initial ρ was always considered to possess rough breathing) but not in Greek after 1453. On a vowel: h before the vowel. On a diphthong: h before the first vowel. On ρ: h after the r. ^ a b c The diaeresis mark indicates that adjacent vowels should be taken separately and not as a single diphthong. Apart from the diacritical marks native to Greek itself or used to romanize its characters, linguists also regularly mark vowel length with macrons ( ¯ ) marking long vowels and rounded breves ( ˘ ) marking short vowels. Where these are romanized, it is common to mark the long vowels with macrons over the Latin letters and to leave the short vowels unmarked; such macrons should not be confused or conflated with those used by some systems to mark eta and omega as distinct from epsilon, iota, and omicron. Numerals[edit] Main articles: Greek numerals and Attic numerals Greece's early Attic numerals were based on a small sample of letters (including heta) arranged in multiples of 5 and 10, likely forming the inspiration for the later Etruscan and Roman numerals. This early system was replaced by Greek numerals which employed the entire alphabet, including the nonstandard letters digamma, stigma, or sigma-tau (placed between epsilon and zeta), koppa (placed between pi and rho), and sampi (placed after omega). As revised in 2001, ELOT 743 provides for the uncommon characters to be given (in Greek) as $ for stigma, + for koppa, and / for sampi. These symbols are not given lower-case equivalents.[13] When used as numbers, the letters are used in combination with the upper keraia numeral sign ⟨ʹ⟩ to denote numbers from 1 to 900 and in combination with the lower keraia ⟨͵⟩ to denote multiples of 1000. (For a full table of the signs and their values, see Greek numerals.) These values are traditionally romanized as Roman numerals, so that Αλέξανδρος Γ' ο Μακεδών would be translated as Alexander III of Macedon and transliterated as Aléxandros III o Makedṓn rather than Aléxandros G' or Aléxandros 3. Greek laws and other official documents of Greece which employ these numerals, however, are to be formally romanized using "decimal" (Arabic) numerals.[13] Punctuation marks[edit] Main articles: Greek punctuation and obelism Ancient Greek text did not mark word division with spaces or interpuncts, instead running the words together (scripta continua). In the Hellenistic period, a variety of symbols arose for punctuation or editorial marking; such punctuation (or the lack thereof) are variously romanized, inserted, or ignored in different modern editions. Modern Greek punctuation generally follows French with the notable exception of Greek's use of a separate question mark, the erotimatiko, which is shaped like the Latinate semicolon. Greek punctuation which has been given formal romanizations include: Punctuation marks Greek ELOT [13] (2001) ISO [10] (1997) Name  ;  ? ? Greek question mark (erotimatiko)  .  . . full stop (teleia)  ·  ; ; Greek semicolon (ano teleia)  :  : : colon (ano-kato teleia)  ,  , , comma (komma)  !  ! exclamation point (thavmastiko)  ’  ' ' apostrophe (apostrofos)  ‿  ͜ - - papyrological hyphen (enotikon) Uncommon letters[edit] Main articles: Archaic Greek alphabets and Greek ligatures There are many archaic forms and local variants of the Greek alphabet. Beta, for example, might appear as round Β or pointed throughout Greece but is also found in the forms (at Gortyn), and (Thera), (Argos), (Melos), (Corinth), (Megara and Byzantium), and even (Cyclades).[16] Well into the modern period, classical and medieval Greek was also set using a wide array of ligatures, symbols combining or abbreviating various sets of letters, such as those included in Claude Garamond's 16th-century grecs du roi. For the most part, such variants—as ϖ and for π, ϛ for στ, and ϗ for και—are just silently emended to their standard forms and transliterated accordingly. Letters with no equivalent in the classical Greek alphabet such as heta (Ͱ & ͱ), meanwhile, usually take their nearest English equivalent (in this case, h) but are too uncommon to be listed in formal transliteration schemes. Uncommon Greek letters which have been given formal romanizations include: Uncommon letters Greek ISO [10] ALA-LC [3] Beta Code [12] Name Ϝ ϝ Ͷ ͷ w w V digamma Ϙ ϙ Ϟ ϟ N/A ḳ #3 koppa Ϡ ϡ Ͳ ͳ N/A #5 sampi Ϻ ϻ N/A #711 san Ϲ ϲ s s S / S3 lunate sigma j j N/A #401 yot

See also[edit] ISO 843 and Beta Code Classical compound Greek orthography Cyrillization of Greek Lists of English words of Greek origin List of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names Wiktionary's articles on Ancient and Modern Greek romanization, numerals, and punctuation

References[edit] ^ Dubin, Marc. Rough Guide to the Dodecanese & East Aegean Islands, p. vi. Rough Guides (London), 2002. ^ Jeffery, Lilian H. The local scripts of archaic Greece, p. 79. Clarendon Press (Oxford), 1961. ^ a b c d e f g h i The Library of Congress. ALA-LC Romanization Tables: "Greek". 2010. ^ a b c d Department of Technical Co-operation for Development. "Fifth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names: Montreal, 18–31 August 1987", Vol. I. "Report of the Conference", pp. 42–43. United Nations (New York), 1987. ^ a b c d United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, Working Group on Romanization Systems. Report on the Current Status of United Nations Romanization Systems for Geographical Names: "Greek". United Nations (New York), 2003. Accessed 6 Oct 2014. ^ a b United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Romanization Systems and Policies: "Romanization System for Greek". 1996. Accessed 2 Oct 2014. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "ISO 843:1997 (Conversion of Greek characters into Latin characters)". 2010. ^ Συνήγορος του Πολίτη [Synī́goros tou Polítī, "The Greek Ombudsman".] "Λατινική γραφή κατά παρέκκλιση ΕΛΟΤ 743 στις ταυτότητες και τα διαβατήρια" [Latinikī́ grafī́ katá parékklisī ELOT 743 stis taftótītes kai ta diavatī́ria, "Latin Script Exceptions to ELOT 743 on Passports and ID Cards"]. Accessed 3 Oct 2014. (in Greek) ^ Hellenic National Passport Center. Press Releases: "Transliteration of the Passport Holder's Name in Latin". 12 Feb 2012. Accessed 3 Oct 2014. (in English) ^ a b c d e f Pedersen, Thomas T. Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts: "Greek". 31 July 2005. Accessed 2 Oct 2014. ^ "Greece" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. XI. 1880. ^ a b c Thesaurus Linguae Graecae. "The TLG® Beta Code Manual 2013". University of California (Irvine), 2013. ^ a b c d e f Ελληνικός Οργανισμός Τυποποίησης [Ellīnikós Organismós Typopoíīsīs, "Hellenic Organization for Standardization"]. ΕΛΟΤ 743, 2η Έκδοση [ELOT 743, 2ī Ekdosī, "ELOT 743, 2nd ed."]. ELOT (Athens), 2001. (in Greek). ^ a b Μπάμπης Κουτρούλης [Bámpīs Koutroúlīs, Babis G. Kutrulis]. Μετατροπή του ελληνικού αλφαβήτου με λατινικούς χαρακτήρες (ΕΛΟΤ 743) [Metatropī́ tou ellīnikoú alfavī́tou me latinikoús charaktī́res (ELOT 743), "Conversion of the Greek alphabet to Latin characters (ELOT 743)"]. Accessed 3 Oct 2014. 2008. (in Greek) ^ This system is identical to the first edition ELOT 743 promulgated in 1982,[14] but since superseded within Greece by the 2001 second edition.[13] ^ Jeffery, Lilian H. The local scripts of archaic Greece, p. 23. Clarendon Press (Oxford), 1961.

External links[edit] ELOT 743, a free online tool by the Greek government for official purposes using 2nd-edition ELOT transcription (in Greek) Google Translate, a free online tool providing UN transliteration of Modern Greek. Also comes as application, a free online tool providing transliteration of Ancient Greek Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts, tables in pdf format by Thomas T. Pedersen Greeklish converter Greeklish to Greek conversion and Greek transliteration with user-selectable options v t e Greek language Origin and genealogy Proto-Greek Pre-Greek substrate Graeco-Armenian Graeco-Aryan Graeco-Phrygian Hellenic languages Periods Mycenaean Greek (c. 1600–1100 BC) Ancient Greek (c. 800–300 BC) Koine Greek (c. 300 BC–AD 330) Jewish Koine Greek Medieval Greek (c. 330–1453) Modern Greek (since 1453) Varieties Ancient Aeolic Arcadocypriot Attic and Ionic Doric Homeric Locrian Pamphylian Macedonian Modern Cappadocian Misthiotika Cretan Cypriot Demotic Himariote Italiot Greco/Calabrian Griko/Apulian Katharevousa Maniot Mariupolitan Pontic Tsakonian Yevanic Phonology Ancient (accent/teaching) Koine Standard Modern Grammar Ancient (tables) Koine Greek grammar Standard Modern Writing systems Cypriot syllabary Linear B Greek alphabet History Archaic forms Attic numerals Greek numerals Orthography Diacritics Braille Cyrillization and Romanization Greeklish Literature Ancient Byzantine Modern Promotion and study Hellenic Foundation for Culture Center for the Greek Language Other Exonyms Morphemes in English Terms of endearment Place names Proverbs Greek language question v t e Romanization By publisher (for several languages) ALA–LC BGN/PCGN GOST ISO Yale By language or writing system Amharic Arabic Aramaic Armenian Bengali Berber Burmese Chinese in Taiwan in Singapore Cyrillic informal Belarusian Bulgarian Kyrgyz Macedonian Russian Serbian Ukrainian Georgian Greek Hebrew Inuktitut Japanese Khmer Korean Lao Malayalam Maldivian Persian Tibetan Telugu Thai Urdu Uyghur Vietnamese Retrieved from "" Categories: Greek languageRomanization of GreekHellenic scriptsHidden categories: Articles containing Ancient Greek-language textArticles containing Greek-language textArticles with Greek-language external linksWikipedia introduction cleanup from November 2017All pages needing cleanupArticles covered by WikiProject Wikify from November 2017All articles covered by WikiProject WikifyAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from August 2015

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