Contents 1 Description and ecology 2 Use by humans 3 Tribes, with selected genera and species 4 Notes 5 Further reading 6 External links

Description and ecology[edit] Oryctes rhinoceros[verification needed] (Oryctes) – three stages from larva to adult: Larva (back), pupa (center), imago (front) The Dynastinae are among the largest of beetles, reaching more than 150 mm (6 in) in length, but are completely harmless to humans because they cannot bite or sting. Some species have been anecdotally claimed to lift up to 850 times their own weight.[1] Their common names refer to the characteristic horns borne only by the males of most species in the group. Each has a horn on the head and another horn pointing forward from the center of the thorax. The horns are used in fighting other males during mating season, and for digging. The size of the horn is a good indicator of nutrition and physical health.[2] The body of an adult rhinoceros beetle is covered by a thick exoskeleton. A pair of thick wings lie atop another set of membranous wings underneath, allowing the rhinoceros beetle to fly, although not very efficiently, owing to its large size. Their best protection from predators is their size and stature. Additionally, since they are nocturnal, they avoid many of their predators during the day. When the sun is out, they hide under logs or in vegetation to camouflage themselves from the few predators big enough to want to eat them. If rhinoceros beetles are disturbed, some can release very loud, hissing squeaks. The hissing squeaks are created by rubbing their abdomens against the ends of their wing covers. Rhinoceros beetles are relatively resilient; a healthy adult male can live up to 2-3 years. The females rarely live long after they mate.[citation needed] These beetles' larval stages can be several years long. The larvae feed on rotten wood and the adults feed on nectar, plant sap and fruit. First, the larvae hatch from eggs and later develop into pupae before they reach adult status (see picture at left). The females lay 50 eggs on average. Contrary to what their size may imply, adult rhinoceros beetles do not eat large amounts, unlike their larvae, which eat a significant amount of rotting wood.

Use by humans[edit] Rhinoceros beetles have become popular pets in parts of Asia,[3] due to being relatively clean, easy to maintain, and safe to handle. Also in Asia, male beetles are used for gambling fights.[4] Since males naturally have the tendency to fight each other for the attention of females, they are the ones used for battle. To get the two male beetles to lock in combat, a female beetle is used, or a small noisemaker duplicating the female's mating call. Entomologist Séverin Tchibozo suggests the larvae contain much more protein (40%), than chicken (20%) and beef (approximately 18%) and they could become a protein source for a large human population.[5] In fact, they are used as such in most of the world, with the exception of industrialized countries. Some species can become major pests, e.g., in tree plantations. Usually though, beetle population densities are not as high as in some other pest insects, and food trees which are typically already sick or dying from some other cause are preferred. Some species' larvae, however, will attack healthy trees or even root vegetables, and when they occur in large numbers, can cause economically significant damage. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is a proven biocontrol agent for beetle infestation in crops. Dr. MinJun Kim, leading a team of engineers in National Science Foundation-funded research, examined the function and aerodynamics of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle, with the help of researchers in Drexel University's Mechanical Engineering Department and in collaboration with Konkuk University in South Korea. Rhinoceros beetles could play a big part in the next generation of aircraft design.[6]

Tribes, with selected genera and species[edit] Eupatorus gracilicornis (Dynastini) Pentodon idiota (Pentodontini) Xylotrupes sp. - From Kerala, India Xylotrupes sp. - From Kerala, India Agaocephalini Burmeister, 1847 (disputed) Aegopsis Agaocephala Cyclocephalini Laporte, 1840 Cyclocephala Dynastini MacLeay, 1819 Allomyrina Arrow, 1911 (including Trypoxylus) Allomyrina dichotoma – Japanese rhinoceros beetle Chalcosoma Hope, 1837 Chalcosoma atlas – Atlas beetle Chalcosoma moellenkampi - Moellenkampi beetle Chalcosoma caucasus - Caucasus beetle Dynastes Kirby, 1825 Dynastes hercules - Hercules beetle Eupatorus Burmeister, 1847 Eupatorus gracilicornis - five-horned rhinoceros beetle Eupatorus siamensis - Siamese eupatorus beetle Megasoma Kirby, 1825 Megasoma mars Xylotrupes Hope, 1837 Xylotrupes gideon - Siamese rhinoceros beetle Xylotrupes ulysses Hexodontini (disputed) Hexodon Hyboschema Oryctini Mulsant, 1842 Coelosis Hope, 1837 Enema Hope,1837 Heterogomphus Burmeister, 1847 Megaceras Hope, 1837 Megaceras briansaltini Oryctes Illiger, 1798 Oryctes nasicornis – European rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros – Asiatic rhinoceros beetle Strategus Hope, 1837 Strategus aloeus – ox beetle Trichogomphus Burmeister, 1847 Oryctoderini Chalcocrates Oryctoderus Pentodontini Mulsant, 1842 Bothynus Hope, 1837 Pentodon Hope, 1837 Pericoptus Burmeister, 1847 Thronistes Burmeister, 1847 Tomarus Erichson, 1847 Phileurini Burmeister, 1847 Homophileurus Kolbe, 1910 Phileurus Latreille, 1807

Notes[edit] ^ Rodger Kram: Inexpensive Load Carrying By Rhinoceros Beetles. The Journal of Experimental Biology 199, 609–612 (1996) ^ "Why horn size matters when picking a mate". New Scientist.  ^ "WHO? KNEW" (May 6, 2005) Current Science Vol.90 No.16 ^ Rhinoceros beetle gambling in Thailand ^ Global Steak - Demain nos enfants mangeront des criquets (2010 French documentary) ^ "Engineers Unlock Secrets of Beetle Flight" (news story). ScienceDaily. April 11, 2012. ScienceDaily (Apr. 10, 2012) — Rhinoceros beetles could play a big part.... 

Further reading[edit] Endrödi S. 1985. The Dynastinae of the World. Dr. W. Junk Publishers Dechambre (R.-P.) & Lachaume (G.) The Beetles of the World, volume 27, The genus Oryctes (Dynastidae), Hillside Books, Canterbury [1]

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dynastinae. Wikispecies has information related to Dynastinae Family SCARABAEIDAE Subfamily Dynastinae Voila French site on Dynastinae, illustrated. v t e Insects in culture Aspects of insects in culture In the arts Insects in art Beetlewing Insects in film Insects in literature Insects in music List of insect-inspired songs Insects on stamps In fishing Fishing bait Fly fishing Artificial fly Fly tying Maggot Mayfly Mealworm In medicine Apitherapy Apitoxin Melittin Maggot Spanish fly Cantharidin In mythology Bee Butterfly Cicada Dragonfly Praying mantis Scarab Entomophagy (as food) Adults Ant Cicada Cricket Grasshopper Termite Larvae Bamboo worm Darkling beetle Mealworm Mopani worm Rhinoceros beetle Silkworm Waxworm Witchetty grub Other aspects Biomimicry Cricket fighting Entomological warfare Flea circus Insects in religion Jingzhe Economic entomology Beneficial insects Pest control Encarsia formosa Ichneumon wasp Ladybird Pollination Bees crops pollinated Bumblebee Honey bee western Beetles Flies Lepidoptera Products Beekeeping Bee pollen Beeswax Honey Propolis Royal jelly Other insects Carmine/Cochineal Polish Chitin Kermes Sericulture Silk Lac/Shellac Model organism Drosophila melanogaster Harmful insects Crop pests Aphid Boll weevil Colorado potato beetle Cottony cushion scale Japanese beetle Locust Phylloxera Western corn rootworm Livestock pests Botfly Horn fly Horse-fly Screwworm fly Tsetse fly Warble fly Biting/stinging Insect bites and stings Insect sting allergy Bed bug Bee sting Flea Horse-fly Louse Mosquito Wasp Wood-eating Deathwatch beetle Furniture beetle House longhorn beetle Termite Woodworm Other pests Home-stored product entomology Clothes moth Cockroach Housefly Pioneers Jan Swammerdam Alfred Russel Wallace Jean-Henri Fabre Hans Zinsser (Rats, Lice and History) Lafcadio Hearn (Insect Literature) Related Living things in culture Arthropods Birds Fish Fungi Mammals Microbes Molluscs Reptiles Plants Zoomusicology Retrieved from "" Categories: DynastinaeInsects as foodInsects in cultureHidden categories: Articles lacking in-text citations from November 2015All articles lacking in-text citationsArticles with 'species' microformatsAll pages needing factual verificationWikipedia articles needing factual verification from April 2011All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from August 2016

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Rhinoceros_beetle - Photos and All Basic Informations

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