Contents 1 Terminology 2 Mammals 2.1 External and internal organs 2.2 Development 3 Other animals 3.1 Insects 3.2 Slugs and snails 3.3 Planaria 4 Plants 4.1 Flowering plants 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading


Terminology[edit] The Latin term genitalia, sometimes anglicized as genitals, is used to describe the externally visible sex organs, known as the primary sex organs: in male mammals, the penis and scrotum; and in female mammals, the clitoris and vulva. The other, hidden sex organs are referred to as the secondary sex organs or internal genitalia. The most important of these are the gonads, a pair of sex organs, specifically the testes in the male or the ovaries in the female. Gonads are the true sex organs, generating reproductive gametes containing inheritable DNA. They also produce most of the primary hormones that affect sexual development, and regulate other sexual organs and sexually differentiated behaviors. In general zoology, given the great variety in organs, physiologies, and behaviors involved in copulation, male genitalia are more strictly defined as "all male structures that are inserted in the female or that hold her near her gonopore during sperm transfer"; female genitalia are defined as "those parts of the female reproductive tract that make direct contact with male genitalia or male products (sperm, spermatophores) during or immediately after copulation".[5]


Mammals[edit] External and internal organs[edit] Further information: Mammalian reproductive system and Human reproductive system The visible portion of the mammalian genitals for males consists of the scrotum and penis; for females, it consists of the vulva (labia, clitoris, etc.) and vagina. In placental mammals, females have two genital orifices, the vagina and urethra, while males have only one, the urethra.[6] Male and female genitals have many nerve endings, resulting in pleasurable and highly sensitive touch.[7][8] In most human societies, particularly in conservative ones, exposure of the genitals is considered a public indecency.[9] In mammals, sex organs include: Male Female Bulbourethral glands Epididymis Penis Foreskin Frenulum of penis Glans penis Prostate Scrotum Seminal vesicles Testicles An image of human male external sex organs Bartholin's glands Fallopian tubes Ovaries Skene's gland Uterus Cervix Vagina Vulva Hymen Clitoris Clitoral frenulum Clitoral glans (glans clitoridis) Clitoral hood Labia Labia majora Labia minora Frenulum of labia minora An image of human female external sex organs (shaved pubic hair) Development[edit] Main article: Development of the reproductive system In typical prenatal development, sexual organs originate from a common anlage anatomy during early gestation and differentiate into male or female variations. The SRY gene, usually located on the Y chromosome and encoding the testis determining factor, determines the direction of this differentiation. The absence of it allows the gonads to continue to develop into ovaries. Thereafter, the development of the internal reproductive organs and the external genitalia is determined by hormones produced by certain fetal gonads (ovaries or testes) and the cells' response to them. The initial appearance of the fetal genitalia (a few weeks after conception) looks basically feminine: a pair of "urogenital folds" with a small protuberance in the middle, and the urethra behind the protuberance. If the fetus has testes, and if the testes produce testosterone, and if the cells of the genitals respond to the testosterone, the outer urogenital folds swell and fuse in the midline to produce the scrotum; the protuberance grows larger and straighter to form the penis; the inner urogenital swellings grow, wrap around the penis, and fuse in the midline to form the penile urethra. Each sexual organ in one sex has a homologous counterpart in the other one. See a list of homologues of the human reproductive system. In a larger perspective, the whole process of sexual differentiation also includes development of secondary sexual characteristics such as patterns of pubic and facial hair and female breasts that emerge at puberty. Furthermore, differences in brain structure arise, affecting, but not absolutely determining, behavior. Intersex is the development of genitalia somewhere between typical male and female genitalia. Once the child is born, the parents are faced with decisions that are often difficult to make, such as whether or not to modify the genitalia, assign the child as male or female, or leave the genitalia as is. Some parents allow their doctors to choose. If they do decide to modify the genitalia, they have approximately a 50% chance of getting genitalia that will match the child's gender identity. If they pick the wrong one, their child may begin to show symptoms of transsexualism, which can lead them to a life of discomfort until they are able to remedy the issue.[10] Because of the strong sexual selection affecting the structure and function of genitalia, they form an organ system that evolves faster than any other.[11] A great variety of genital form and function may therefore be found among animals.


Other animals[edit] In many other animals a single posterior orifice, called the cloaca, serves as the only opening for the reproductive, digestive, and urinary tracts (if present). All amphibians, birds, reptiles, some fish, and a few mammals (monotremes, tenrecs, golden moles, and marsupial moles) have this orifice, from which they excrete both urine and feces in addition to serving reproductive functions. Excretory systems with analogous purpose in certain invertebrates are also sometimes referred to as cloacae. Insects[edit] Main article: Insect reproductive system The female genitalia of Lepidoptera The organs concerned with insect mating and the deposition of eggs are known collectively as the external genitalia, although they may be largely internal; their components are very diverse in form. Slugs and snails[edit] Main article: Reproductive system of gastropods The reproductive system of gastropods (slugs and snails) varies greatly from one group to another. Planaria[edit] Main article: Reproductive system of planarians Planaria are flat worms widely used in biological research. There are sexual and asexual planaria. Sexual planaria are hermaphrodites, possessing both testicles and ovaries. Each planarian transports its excretion to the other planarian, giving and receiving sperm.


Plants[edit] Main articles: Alternation of generations and Plant reproductive morphology The life cycle of land plants involves alternation of generations between a sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte. The gametophyte produces sperm or egg cells by mitosis. The sporophyte produces spores by meiosis which in turn develop into gametophytes. Any sex organs that are produced by the plant will develop on the gametophyte. The seed plants, which include conifers and flowering plants have small gametophytes that develop inside the pollen grains (male) and the ovule (female). Flowering plants[edit] Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves the union of the male and female germ cells, sperm and egg cells respectively. Pollen is produced in stamens, and is carried to the pistil, which has the ovary at its base where fertilization can take place. Within each pollen grain is a male gametophyte which consists of only three cells. In most flowering plants the female gametophyte within the ovule consists of only seven cells. Thus there are no sex organs as such.


See also[edit] Andrology Genital modification and mutilation Hermaphrodite Human sexuality Hysterectomy Intimate part Obstetrics and gynaecology Oophorectomy Orchiectomy Emasculation


References[edit] ^ "Sex organ (sɛks ˈɔːɡən)". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved September 14, 2013.  ^ P. R. Ashalatha, G. Deepa (2012). Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses. JP Medical Ltd. pp. 252–274. ISBN 9350254239. Retrieved September 14, 2013.  ^ "Mosses and Ferns". Biology.clc.uc.edu. 16 March 2001. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2012.  ^ "Flowering Plant Reproduction". Emc.maricopa.edu. 2010-05-18. Retrieved 2012-08-01.  ^ Eberhard, W.G., 1985. Sexual Selection and Animal Genitalia. Harvard University Press ^ Marvalee H. Wake (15 September 1992). Hyman's Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. University of Chicago Press. p. 583. ISBN 978-0-226-87013-7. Retrieved 6 May 2013.  ^ Sexual Intimacy in Marriage William Cutrer ^ Daphne's Dance: True Tales in the Evolution of Woman's Sexual Awareness Brigitta Olsen ^ Unpopular Privacy: What Must We Hide? retrieved 9 February 2012 ^ Fausto Sterling, Anne (2000). Sexing The Body. New York: New York. pp. 44–77.  ^ Schilthuizen, M. 2014. Nature's Nether Regions: What the Sex Lives of Bugs, Birds, and Beasts Tell Us About Evolution, Biodiversity, and Ourselves. Penguin USA


Further reading[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sexual anatomy. Look up Wikisaurus:genitalia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Leonard, Janet L. and Alex Córdoba-Aguilar (2010). The Evolution of Primary Sexual Characters in Animals. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199717036. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) v t e Sex Biological terms Sexual dimorphism Male Female Sexual differentiation Feminization Virilization Sex-determination system XY ZW XO Temperature-dependent Haplodiploidy Heterogametic sex Homogametic sex Sex chromosome X chromosome Y chromosome Testis-determining factor Hermaphrodite Sequential hermaphroditism Intersex Sexual reproduction Evolution of sexual reproduction Anisogamy Isogamy Germ cell Reproductive system Sex organ Meiosis Gametogenesis Spermatogenesis Oogenesis Gamete spermatozoon ovum Fertilization External Internal Sexual selection Plant reproduction Fungal reproduction Sexual reproduction in animals Sexual intercourse Human reproduction Sexuality Plant sexuality Animal sexuality Human sexuality Mechanics Differentiation Activity Sex portal Biology portal v t e Human regional anatomy Head Ear Face Cheek Chin Eye Mouth Nose Forehead Jaw Occiput Scalp Temple Neck Adam's apple Throat Trunk Abdomen Waist Midriff Navel Back Thorax Breast Pelvis Sex organs Limbs Arm Shoulder Axilla Brachium Elbow Forearm Wrist Hand Finger Thumb Index Middle Ring Little Leg Buttocks Hip Thigh Knee Calf Foot Ankle Heel Sole Toe Other Écorché General anatomy: systems and organs, regional anatomy, planes and lines, superficial axial anatomy, superficial anatomy of limbs Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sex_organ&oldid=817371694" Categories: Sexual anatomySex organsHidden categories: Use dmy dates from July 2012All articles with failed verificationArticles with failed verification from December 2017Pages using div col with deprecated parametersCommons category with local link different than on WikidataCS1 maint: Uses authors parameter


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EnlargeGreen AlgaeChara (alga)AntheridiumArchegoniumSexual ReproductionReproductive SystemWikipedia:VerifiabilityPubertyPubic HairFacial HairSecondary Sex CharacteristicMossFernGametangiaGametophyteFlowerFlowering PlantPollenEgg CellOvuleConiferConifer ConeLatinPenisScrotumClitorisVulvaGonadTestisOvaryGameteDNACopulationGonoporeSpermatophoresMammalian Reproductive SystemHuman Reproductive SystemScrotumMammalian PenisVulvaLabiaClitorisVaginaPlacental MammalsExternal Urethral Orifice (male)Social ConservatismPublic IndecencyMammalsMaleFemaleBulbourethral GlandEpididymisPenisForeskinFrenulum Of PenisGlans PenisProstateScrotumSeminal VesicleTesticleEnlargeBartholin's GlandFallopian TubeOvarySkene's GlandUterusCervixVaginaVulvaHymenClitorisClitoral FrenulumClitoral GlansClitoral HoodLabiaLabia MajoraLabia MinoraFrenulum Of Labia MinoraEnlargeDevelopment Of The Reproductive SystemPrenatal DevelopmentAnlage (biology)GestationSRYGeneY ChromosomeTestis Determining FactorFetal GenitaliaUrogenital FoldsUrethraHomology (biology)List Of Homologues Of The Human Reproductive SystemSexual DifferentiationSecondary Sexual CharacteristicsIntersexSex AssignmentGender IdentityTranssexualismSexual SelectionCloacaInsect Reproductive SystemEnlargeLepidoptera GenitaliaInsectReproductive System Of GastropodsReproductive System Of PlanariansPlanariaAlternation Of GenerationsPlant Reproductive MorphologyBiological Life CycleLand PlantAlternation Of GenerationsSporophyteHaploidGametophyteMitosisMeiosisSeed PlantConiferFlowering PlantOvuleFlowering PlantsStamenPistilOvary (botany)FertilizationAndrologyGenital Modification And MutilationHermaphroditeHuman SexualityHysterectomyIntimate PartObstetrics And GynaecologyOophorectomyOrchiectomyEmasculationCollins English DictionaryInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9350254239Marvalee H. WakeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-226-87013-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0199717036Category:CS1 Maint: Uses Authors ParameterTemplate:Sex (biology)Template Talk:Sex (biology)SexSexual DimorphismMaleFemaleSexual DifferentiationFeminization (biology)VirilizationSex-determination SystemXY Sex-determination SystemZW Sex-determination SystemX0 Sex-determination SystemTemperature-dependent Sex DeterminationHaplodiploidyHeterogametic SexHeterogametic SexAllosomeX ChromosomeY ChromosomeTestis-determining FactorHermaphroditeSequential HermaphroditismIntersexSexual ReproductionEvolution Of Sexual ReproductionAnisogamyIsogamyGerm CellReproductive SystemMeiosisGametogenesisSpermatogenesisOogenesisGameteSpermatozoonEgg CellFertilisationExternal FertilizationInternal FertilizationSexual SelectionPlant ReproductionMating In FungiSexual Reproduction In AnimalsSexual IntercourseHuman ReproductionHuman SexualityPlant Reproductive MorphologyAnimal Sexual BehaviourHuman SexualityMechanics Of Human SexualitySexual Differentiation In HumansHuman Sexual ActivityPortal:SexualityPortal:BiologyTemplate:Human Regional AnatomyTemplate Talk:Human Regional AnatomyHuman BodyHuman HeadEarFaceCheekChinHuman EyeHuman MouthHuman NoseForeheadMandibleOccipital BoneScalpTemple (anatomy)NeckAdam's AppleThroatTorsoAbdomenWaistMidriffNavelHuman BackThoraxBreastPelvisLimb (anatomy)ArmShoulderAxillaArmElbowForearmWristHandFingerThumbIndex FingerMiddle FingerRing FingerLittle FingerHuman LegButtocksHipThighKneeCalf (leg)FootAnkleHeelSole (foot)ToeÉcorchéHuman BodyTemplate:Human Systems And OrgansTemplate:Human Regional AnatomyTemplate:Anatomical Planes And LinesTemplate:Superficial Axial AnatomyTemplate:Superficial Anatomy Of LimbsHelp:CategoryCategory:Sexual AnatomyCategory:Sex OrgansCategory:Use Dmy Dates From July 2012Category:All Articles With Failed VerificationCategory:Articles With Failed Verification From December 2017Category:Pages Using Div Col With Deprecated ParametersCategory:Commons Category With Local Link Different Than On WikidataCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Authors ParameterDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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