Contents 1 Methods of establishment 2 Record colonies 3 Examples 4 References 5 Further reading

Methods of establishment[edit] With most woody plants, clonal colonies arise by wide-ranging roots that at intervals send up new shoots, termed suckers. Trees and shrubs with branches that touch the ground can form colonies via layering, e. g. willow and blackberry. Some vines naturally form adventitious roots on their stems that take root in the soil when the stems contact the ground, e.g. ivy and trumpet vine. With other vines, rooting of the stem where nodes come into contact with soil may establish a clonal colony, e.g. Wisteria. Ferns and many herbaceous flowering plants often form clonal colonies via horizontal underground stems termed rhizomes, e.g. ostrich fern Matteuccia struthiopteris and goldenrod. A number of herbaceous flowering plants form clonal colonies via horizontal surface stems termed stolons, or runners; e.g. strawberry and many grasses. Non-woody plants with underground storage organs such as bulbs and corms can also form colonies, e.g. Narcissus and Crocus. A few plant species can form colonies via adventitious plantlets that form on leaves, e.g. Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Tolmiea menziesii. A few plant species can form colonies via asexual seeds, termed apomixis, e.g. dandelion.

Record colonies[edit] A group of 47,000 Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees (nicknamed "Pando") in the Wasatch Mountains, Utah, United States, has been shown to be a single clone connected by the root system. It is sometimes considered the world's largest organism by mass, covering 106 acres (43 ha). It is possible that other unknown clonal colonies of trees rival or exceed its size. The only known plant of King's Lomatia (Lomatia tasmanica) in Tasmania is a clonal colony estimated to be 43,600 years old.[1] Another possible candidate for oldest organism on earth is a stand of the marine plant Posidonia oceanica in the Mediterranean Sea, which could be up to 100,000 years of age.[2]

Examples[edit] When woody plants form clonal colonies, they often remain connected through the root system, sharing roots, water and mineral nutrients. A few non-vining, woody plants that form clonal colonies are: Aspen, Quaking, Populus tremuloides Bayberry, Myrica pensylvanica Black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata Bladdernut, Staphylea species Blueberry, Vaccinium species Devil's Club Oplopanax horridus Forsythia, Forsythia species Hazelnut, Corylus species Honey locust, Gleditsia triacanthos Kentucky coffeetree, Gymnocladus dioicus Kerria, Kerria japonica Pawpaw, Asimina triloba Pando tree, a clonal colony of a single male Populus tremuloides, all determined to be part of a single living organism Poplars, Populus species Sassafras, Sassafras albidum Sumac, Rhus species Sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua Sweetshrub, Calycanthus floridus

References[edit] ^ "Tasmanian bush could be oldest living organism". Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on 2006-07-23. Retrieved 2008-05-07.  ^ "Ibiza's Monster Marine Plant". Ibiza Spotlight. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 

Further reading[edit] Cook, R. E. (1983). "Clonal plant populations". American Scientist. 71: 244–253.  Kricher, J. C., & Morrison, G. (1988). A Field Guide to Eastern Forests, pp. 19–20. Peterson Field Guide Series. ISBN 0-395-35346-7. See also King Clone Wikimedia Commons has media related to Clonal colony. Retrieved from "" Categories: Plant reproductionPlant morphologyMycology

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