Contents 1 Functions 2 Regulation 3 Structure and isoforms 4 Prolactin receptor 5 Diagnostic use 6 Units and unit conversions 7 Reference ranges 7.1 Inter-method variability 8 Conditions 8.1 Elevated levels 8.2 Decreased levels 9 In medicine 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Functions[edit] Prolactin has a wide variety of effects. It stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk (lactation): increased serum concentrations of prolactin during pregnancy cause enlargement of the mammary glands and prepare for milk production, which normally starts when levels of progesterone fall by the end of pregnancy and a suckling stimulus is present. Prolactin plays an important role in maternal behavior.[9] The hormone counteracts the effect of dopamine.[citation needed] Elevated levels of prolactin decrease the levels of sex hormones — estrogen in women and testosterone in men.[10] The effects of mildly elevated levels of prolactin are much more variable, in women, substantially increasing or decreasing estrogen levels. Prolactin is sometimes classified as a gonadotropin[11] although in humans it has only a weak luteotropic effect while the effect of suppressing classical gonadotropic hormones is more important.[12] Prolactin within the normal reference ranges can act as a weak gonadotropin, but at the same time suppresses GnRH secretion. The exact mechanism by which it inhibits GnRH is poorly understood. Although expression of prolactin receptors (PRL-R) have been demonstrated in rat hypothalamus, the same has not been observed in GnRH neurons.[13] Physiologic levels of prolactin in males enhance luteinizing hormone-receptors in Leydig cells, resulting in testosterone secretion, which leads to spermatogenesis.[14] Prolactin also stimulates proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. These cells differentiate into oligodendrocytes, the cells responsible for the formation of myelin coatings on axons in the central nervous system.[15] Other actions include contributing to pulmonary surfactant synthesis of the fetal lungs at the end of the pregnancy and immune tolerance of the fetus by the maternal organism during pregnancy. Prolactin delays hair regrowth in mice.[16] Prolactin promotes neurogenesis in maternal and fetal brains.[17][18]

Regulation[edit] In humans, prolactin is produced at least in the anterior pituitary, decidua, myometrium, breast, lymphocytes, leukocytes and prostate.[19][20] A key regulator of prolactin production is estrogens that enhance growth of prolactin-producing cells and stimulate prolactin production directly, as well as suppressing dopamine. In decidual cells and in lymphocytes the distal promoter and thus prolactin expression is stimulated by cAMP. Responsivness to cAMP is mediated by an imperfect cAMP–responsive element and two CAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP).[20] Progesterone upregulates prolactin synthesis in the endometrium and decreases it in myometrium and breast glandular tissue.[21] Breast and other tissues may express the Pit-1 promoter in addition to the distal promoter. Extrapituitary production of prolactin is thought to be special to humans and primates and may serve mostly tissue specific paracrine and autocrine purposes. It has been hypothesized that in vertebrates such as mice a similar tissue specific effect is achieved by a large family of prolactin-like proteins controlled by at least 26 paralogous PRL genes not present in primates.[20] Vasoactive intestinal peptide and peptide histidine isoleucine help to regulate prolactin secretion in humans, but the functions of these hormones in birds can be quite different.[22] Prolactin follows diurnal and ovulatory cycles. Prolactin levels peak during REM sleep and in the early morning. Many mammals experience a seasonal cycle. During pregnancy, high circulating concentrations of estrogen and progesterone increase prolactin levels by 10- to 20-fold. Estrogen and progesterone inhibit the stimulatory effects of prolactin on milk production. The abrupt drop of estrogen and progesterone levels following delivery allow prolactin—which temporarily remains high—to induce lactation.[verification needed] Sucking on the nipple offsets the fall in prolactin as the internal stimulus for them is removed. The sucking activates mechanoreceptors in and around the nipple. These signals are carried by nerve fibers through the spinal cord to the hypothalamus, where changes in the electrical activity of neurons that regulate the pituitary gland increase prolactin secretion. The suckling stimulus also triggers the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary gland, which triggers milk let-down: Prolactin controls milk production (lactogenesis) but not the milk-ejection reflex; the rise in prolactin fills the breast with milk in preparation for the next feed. In usual circumstances, in the absence of galactorrhea, lactation ceases within one or two weeks following the end of breastfeeding. Levels can rise after exercise, high-protein meals, minor surgical procedures,[23] following epileptic seizures[24] or due to physical or emotional stress.[25][26] In a study on female volunteers under hypnosis, prolactin surges resulted from the evocation, with rage, of humiliating experiences, but not from the fantasy of nursing.[26] Prolactin levels have also been found to rise with use of the drug MDMA.[27] Hypersecretion is more common than hyposecretion. Hyperprolactinemia is the most frequent abnormality of the anterior pituitary tumors, termed prolactinomas. Prolactinomas may disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis as prolactin tends to suppress the secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus and in turn decreases the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary, therefore disrupting the ovulatory cycle.[28] Such hormonal changes may manifest as amenorrhea and infertility in females as well as impotence in males. Inappropriate lactation (galactorrhoea) is another important clinical sign of prolactinomas.

Structure and isoforms[edit] The structure of prolactin is similar to that of growth hormone and placental lactogen. The molecule is folded due to the activity of three disulfide bonds. Significant heterogeneity of the molecule has been described, thus bioassays and immunoassays can give different results due to differing glycosylation, phosphorylation and sulfation, as well as degradation. The non-glycosylated form of prolactin is the dominant form at is secreted by the pituitary gland. MM,,KK,LLLL The three different sizes of prolactin are: Little prolactin—the predominant form.[29] It has a molecular weight of appxoximately 22-kDa.[29] It is a single-chain polypeptide of 198 amino acids and is apparently the result of removal of some amino acids. Big prolactin—approximately 48 kDa.[29] It may be the product of interaction of several prolactin molecules. It appears to have little, if any, biological activity.[30] Big big prolactin—approximately 150 kDa.[29] It appears to have a low biological activity.[31] The levels of larger ones are somewhat higher during the early postpartum period.[32]

Prolactin receptor[edit] Main article: Prolactin receptor Prolactin receptors are present in the mammillary glands, ovaries, pituitary glands, heart, lung, thymus, spleen, liver, pancreas, kidney, adrenal gland, uterus, skeletal muscle, skin and areas of the central nervous system.[33] When prolactin binds to the receptor, it causes it to dimerize with another prolactin receptor. This results in the activation of Janus kinase 2, a tyrosine kinase that initiates the JAK-STAT pathway. Activation also results in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and Src kinase.[33] Human prolactin receptors are insensitive to mouse prolactin.[34]

Diagnostic use[edit] Prolactin levels may be checked as part of a sex hormone workup, as elevated prolactin secretion can suppress the secretion of FSH and GnRH, leading to hypogonadism and sometimes causing erectile dysfunction. Prolactin levels may be of some use in distinguishing epileptic seizures from psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. The serum prolactin level usually rises following an epileptic seizure.[35]

Units and unit conversions[edit] The serum concentration of prolactin can be given in mass concentration (µg/L or ng/mL), molar concentration (nmol/L or pmol/L) or in international units (typically mIU/L). The current IU is calibrated against the third International Standard for Prolactin, IS 84/500.[36][37] Reference ampoules of IS 84/500 contain 2.5 µg of lyophilized human prolactin[38] and have been assigned an activity of .053 International Units.[36][37] Measurements that are calibrated against the current international standard can be converted into mass units using this ratio of grams to IUs;[39] prolactin concentrations expressed in mIU/L can be converted to µg/L by dividing by 21.2. Previous standards use other ratios.[40][41][42][43] The first International Reference Preparation (or IRP) of human Prolactin for Immunoassay was established in 1978 (75/504 1st IRP for human Prolactin) at a time when purified human prolactin was in short supply.[39][40] Previous standards relied on prolactin from animal sources.[43] Purified human prolactin was scarce, heterogeneous, unstable and difficult to characterize. A preparation labelled 81/541 was distributed by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization without official status and given the assigned value of 50 mIU/ampoule based on an earlier collaborative study.[39][41] It was determined that this preparation behaved anomalously in certain immunoassays and was not suitable as an IS.[39] Three different human pituitary extracts containing prolactin were subsequently obtained as candidates for an IS. These were distributed into ampoules coded 83/562, 83/573 and 84/500.[36][37][39][42] Collaborative studies involving 20 different laboratories found little difference between these three preparations. 83/562 appeared to be the most stable. This preparation was largely free of dimers and polymers of prolactin. On the basis of these investigations 83/562 was established as the Second IS for human Prolactin.[42] Once stocks of these ampoules were depleted, 84/500 was established as the Third IS for human Prolactin.[36][39]

Reference ranges[edit] General guidelines for diagnosing prolactin excess (hyperprolactinemia) define the upper threshold of normal prolactin at 25 µg/L for women and 20 µg/L for men.[33] Similarly, guidelines for diagnosing prolactin deficiency (hypoprolactinemia) are defined as prolactin levels below 3 µg/L in women[44][45] and 5 µg/L in men.[46][47][48] However, different assays and methods for measuring prolactin are employed by different laboratories and as such the serum reference range for prolactin is often determined by the laboratory performing the measurement.[33][49] Furthermore, prolactin levels also vary factors including age,[50] sex,[50] menstrual cycle stage[50] and pregnancy.[50] The circumstances surrounding a given prolactin measurement (assay, patient condition, etc.) must therefore be considered before the measurement can be accurately interpreted.[33] The following chart illustrates the variations seen in normal prolactin measurements across different populations. Prolactin values were obtained from specific control groups of varying sizes using the IMMULITE assay.[50] Typical prolactin values Proband Prolactin, µg/L women, follicular phase (n = 803) 12.1 women, luteal phase (n = 699) 13.9 women, mid-cycle (n = 53) 17 women, whole cycle (n = 1555) 13.0 women, pregnant, 1st trimester (n = 39) 16 women, pregnant, 2nd trimester (n = 52) 49 women, pregnant, 3rd trimester (n = 54) 113 Men, 21–30 (n = 50) 9.2 Men, 31–40 (n = 50) 7.1 Men, 41–50 (n = 50) 7.0 Men, 51–60 (n = 50) 6.2 Men, 61–70 (n = 50) 6.9 Inter-method variability[edit] The following table illustrates variability in reference ranges of serum prolactin between some commonly used assay methods (as of 2008), using a control group of healthy health care professionals (53 males, age 20–64 years, median 28 years; 97 females, age 19–59 years, median 29 years) in Essex, England:[49] Assay method Mean Prolactin Lower limit 2.5th percentile Upper limit 97.5th percentile µg/L mIU/L µg/L mIU/L µg/L mIU/L Females Centaur 7.92 168 3.35 71 16.4 348 Immulite 9.25 196 3.54 75 18.7 396 Access 9.06 192 3.63 77 19.3 408 AIA 9.52[51] 257[51] 3.89[51] 105[51] 20.3[51] 548[51] Elecsys 10.5 222 4.15 88 23.2 492 Architect 10.6 225 4.62 98 21.1 447 Males Access 6.89 146 2.74 58 13.1 277 Centaur 7.88 167 2.97 63 12.4 262 Immulite 7.45 158 3.30 70 13.3 281 AIA 7.81[51] 211[51] 3.30[51] 89[51] 13.5[51] 365[51] Elecsys 8.49 180 3.40 72 15.6 331 Architect 8.87 188 4.01 85 14.6 310 An example usage of table above is, if using the Centaur assay to estimate prolactin values in µg/L for females, the mean is 7.92 µg/L and the reference range is 3.35–16.4 µg/L.

Conditions[edit] Elevated levels[edit] Hyperprolactinaemia, or excess serum prolactin, is associated with hypoestrogenism, anovulatory infertility, oligomenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, unexpected lactation and loss of libido in women and erectile dysfunction and loss of libido in men.[52] Physiological Coitus Exercise Lactation Pregnancy Sleep Stress Depression Pharmacological Anesthetics Anticonvulsant Antihistamines (H2) Antihypertensives Cholinergic agonist Drug-induced hypersecretion Catecholamine depletor Dopamine receptor blockers Dopamine synthesis inhibitor Estrogens Oral contraceptives Oral contraceptive withdrawal Neuroleptics Antipsychotics Neuropeptides Opiates and opiate antagonists Pathological Hypothalamic-pituitary stalk damage Granulomas Infiltrations Radiation Rathke's cyst Trauma Pituitary stalk resection Suprasellar surgery Tumors Craniopharyngioma Germinoma Hypothalamic metastases Meningioma Suprasellar pituitary mass extension Surgery   Pituitary Acromegaly Idiopathic Lymphocytic hypophysitis or parasellar mass Macroadenoma (compressive) Macroprolactinemia Plurihumoral adenoma Prolactinoma Systemic disorders Chest-neurologic chest wall trauma Herpes Zoster Chronic renal failure Cirrhosis Cranial radiation Epileptic seizures Polycystic ovarian disease Pseudocyesis Chronic low levels of thyroid hormone Decreased levels[edit] Main article: Hypoprolactinemia Hypoprolactinemia, or serum prolactin deficiency, is associated with ovarian dysfunction in women,[44][45] and arteriogenic erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation,[46] oligozoospermia, asthenospermia, hypofunction of seminal vesicles and hypoandrogenism[47] in men. In one study, normal sperm characteristics were restored when prolactin levels were raised to normal values in hypoprolactinemic men.[48] Hypoprolactinemia can result from hypopituitarism, excessive dopaminergic action in the tuberoinfundibular pathway and ingestion of D2 receptor agonists such as bromocriptine. While there is evidence that women who smoke tend to breast feed for shorter periods, there is a wide variation of breast-feeding rates in women who do smoke. This suggest that psychosocial factors rather than physiological mechanisms (e.g., nicotine suppressing prolactin levels) are responsible for the lower rates of breast feeding in women who do smoke.[53][54]

In medicine[edit] Prolactin is available commercially for use in animals, but not in humans.[55] It is used to stimulate lactation in animals.[55] The biological half-life of prolactin in humans is around 15–20 minutes.[56] The D2 receptor is involved in the regulation of prolactin secretion, and agonists of the receptor such as bromocriptine and cabergoline decrease prolactin levels while antagonists of the receptor such as domperidone, metoclopramide, haloperidol, risperidone, and sulpiride increase prolactin levels.[57] D2 receptor antagonists like domperidone, metoclopramide, and sulpiride are used as galactogogues to increase prolatin secretion and induce lactation in humans.[58]

See also[edit] Breast-feeding Epileptic seizure Hyperprolactinaemia Hypothalamic–pituitary–prolactin axis Male lactation Prolactin modulator Prolactin receptor Prolactin-releasing hormone Prolactinoma Weaning

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PMID 18719199.  ^ a b c d e Prolaktin Archived 28 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. at—reference ranges as determined from the IMMULITE assay method ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The AIA essay values are also from Table 2 in Beltran 2008, like the other values, but it uses a different conversion factor of 27.0 mIU/L per µg/L, taken from the second international standard, IS 83/562). ^ Melmed S, Kleinberg D 2008 Anterior pituitary. 1n: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, eds. Willams textbook of endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 185-261 ^ Amir LH (2001). "Maternal smoking and reduced duration of breastfeeding: a review of possible mechanisms". Early Human Development. 64 (1): 45–67. doi:10.1016/S0378-3782(01)00170-0. PMID 11408108.  ^ Amir LH, Donath SM (2002). "Does maternal smoking have a negative physiological effect on breastfeeding? The epidemiological evidence". Birth (Berkeley, Calif.). 29 (2): 112–23. doi:10.1046/j.1523-536X.2002.00152.x. PMID 12000412.  ^ a b R. T. Coutts; G. A. Smail (12 May 2014). Polysaccharides Peptides and Proteins: Pharmaceutical Monographs. Elsevier. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-1-4831-9612-1.  ^ D.F. Horrobin (6 December 2012). Prolactin: Physiology and Clinical Significance. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-94-010-9695-9.  ^ Martin H. Johnson (14 December 2012). Essential Reproduction. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-1-118-42388-2.  ^ Jan Riordan (January 2005). Breastfeeding and Human Lactation. Jones & Bartlett Learning. pp. 468–. ISBN 978-0-7637-4585-1. 

External links[edit] Pathophysiology of Endocrine System—Prolactin at MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Prolactin Prolactin - Lab Tests Online med/1098 at eMedicine—"Hyperprolactinemia" med/1914 at eMedicine—"Prolactin Deficiency" [1] - "Endocrine Society Guidelines" v t e Hormones Endocrine glands Hypothalamic- pituitary Hypothalamus GnRH TRH Dopamine CRH GHRH Somatostatin (GHIH) MCH Posterior pituitary Oxytocin Vasopressin Anterior pituitary FSH LH TSH Prolactin POMC CLIP ACTH MSH Endorphins Lipotropin GH Adrenal axis Adrenal cortex aldosterone cortisol cortisone DHEA DHEA-S androstenedione Adrenal medulla epinephrine norepinephrine Thyroid Thyroid hormone T3 T4 Calcitonin Thyroid axis Parathyroid PTH Gonadal axis Testis testosterone AMH inhibin Ovary estradiol progesterone activin and inhibin relaxin Placenta hCG HPL estrogen progesterone Pancreas glucagon insulin amylin somatostatin pancreatic polypeptide Pineal gland melatonin N,N-dimethyltryptamine 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine Other Thymus Thymosins Thymosin α1 Beta thymosins Thymopoietin Thymulin Digestive system Stomach gastrin ghrelin Duodenum CCK Incretins GIP GLP-1 secretin motilin VIP Ileum enteroglucagon peptide YY Liver/other Insulin-like growth factor IGF-1 IGF-2 Adipose tissue leptin adiponectin resistin Skeleton Osteocalcin Kidney renin EPO calcitriol prostaglandin Heart Natriuretic peptide ANP BNP v t e Amyloidosis (E85, 277.3) Common amyloid forming proteins AA ATTR Aβ2M AL Aβ/APP AIAPP ACal APro AANF ACys ABri Systemic amyloidosis AL amyloidosis AA amyloidosis Aβ2M/Haemodialysis-associated AGel/Finnish type AA/Familial Mediterranean fever ATTR/Transthyretin-related hereditary Organ-limited amyloidosis Heart AANF/Isolated atrial Brain Familial amyloid neuropathy ACys+ABri/Cerebral amyloid angiopathy Aβ/Alzheimer's disease Kidney AApoA1+AFib+ALys/Familial renal Skin Primary cutaneous amyloidosis Amyloid purpura Endocrine Thyroid ACal/Medullary thyroid cancer Pituitary APro/Prolactinoma Pancreas AIAPP/Insulinoma AIAPP/Diabetes mellitus type 2 v t e Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators Adiponectin AdipoR1 Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin ADP-355 ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon (–)-Arctigenin Arctiin Gramine Matairesinol Antagonists: Peptide: ADP-400 AdipoR2 Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin ADP-355 ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon Deoxyschizandrin Parthenolide Syringing Taxifoliol Antagonists: Peptide: ADP-400 Angiotensin See here instead. Bradykinin Agonists: Bradykinin Kallidin Antagonists: FR-173657 Icatibant LF22-0542 CGRP Agonists: Amylin CGRP Pramlintide Antagonists: Atogepant BI 44370 TA CGRP (8-37) MK-3207 Olcegepant Rimegepant SB-268262 Telcagepant Ubrogepant Antibodies: Eptinezumab Erenumab Fremanezumab Galcanezumab Cholecystokinin CCKA Agonists: Cholecystokinin Antagonists: Amiglumide Asperlicin Devazepide Dexloxiglumide Lintitript Lorglumide Loxiglumide Pranazepide Proglumide Tarazepide Tomoglumide CCKB Agonists: Cholecystokinin CCK-4 Gastrin Pentagastrin (CCK-5) Antagonists: Ceclazepide CI-988 (PD-134308) Itriglumide L-365,360 Netazepide Proglumide Spiroglumide Unsorted Antagonists: Nastorazepide CRH CRF1 Agonists: Cortagine Corticorelin Corticotropin releasing hormone Sauvagine Stressin I Urocortin Antagonists: Antalarmin Astressin-B CP-154,526 Emicerfont Hypericin LWH-234 NBI-27914 Pexacerfont R-121919 TS-041 Verucerfont CRF2 Agonists: Corticorelin Corticotropin releasing hormone Sauvagine Urocortin Antagonists: Astressin-B Cytokine See here instead. Endothelin Agonists: Endothelin 1 Endothelin 2 Endothelin 3 IRL-1620 Antagonists: A-192621 ACT-132577 Ambrisentan Aprocitentan Atrasentan Avosentan Bosentan BQ-123 BQ-788 Clazosentan Darusentan Edonentan Enrasentan Fandosentan Feloprentan Macitentan Nebentan Sitaxentan Sparsentan Tezosentan Zibotentan Galanin GAL1 Agonists: Galanin Galanin (1-15) Galanin-like peptide Galmic Galnon NAX 810-2 Antagonists: C7 Dithiepine-1,1,4,4-tetroxide Galantide (M15) M32 M35 M40 SCH-202596 GAL2 Agonists: Galanin Galanin (1-15) Galanin (2-11) Galanin-like peptide Galmic Galnon J18 NAX 810-2 Antagonists: C7 Galantide (M15) M32 M35 M40 M871 GAL3 Agonists: Galanin Galanin (1-15) Galmic Galnon Antagonists: C7 Galantide (M15) GalR3ant HT-2157 M32 M35 M40 SNAP-37889 SNAP-398299 Ghrelin/GHS See here instead. GH See here instead. GHRH See here instead. GLP GLP-1 Agonists: Albiglutide Beinaglutide Dulaglutide Efpeglenatide Exenatide GLP-1 Langlenatide Liraglutide Lixisenatide Oxyntomodulin Semaglutide Taspoglutide GLP-2 Agonists: Elsiglutide Glepaglutide GLP-2 Teduglutide Others Propeptides: Preproglucagon Proglucagon Glucagon Agonists: Dasiglucagon Glucagon Oxyntomodulin Antagonists: Adomeglivant L-168,049 LGD-6972 Propeptides: Preproglucagon Proglucagon GnRH Agonists: Peptide: Avorelin Azagly-nafarelin Buserelin Deslorelin Fertirelin GnRH Gonadorelin Goserelin Histrelin Leuprorelin (leuprolide) Lutrelin Nafarelin Peforelin Triptorelin Zoptarelin doxorubicin Antagonists: Peptide: Abarelix Acyline Cetrorelix Degarelix Detirelix Ganirelix Iturelix Ozarelix Prazarelix Ramorelix Teverelix (antarelix); Non-peptide: ASP-1707 Elagolix KLH-2109 (OBE-2109) Relugolix Sufugolix Gonadotropin LH/CG Agonists: Choriogonadotropin alfa Human chorionic gonadotropin Luteinizing hormone Lutropin alfa Menotropin (human menopausal gonadotropin) FSH Agonists: Corifollitropin alfa Follicle-stimulating hormone Follitropin alfa Follitropin beta Follitropin epsilon Menotropin (human menopausal gonadotropin) Urofollitropin Varfollitropin alfa NAMs: ADX-61623 Growth factor See here instead. Insulin Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05) Insulin-like growth factor 1 Insulin-like growth factor 2 Insulin Insulin aspart Insulin degludec Insulin detemir Insulin glargine Insulin glulisine Insulin lispro Mecasermin Mecasermin rinfabate Antagonists: BMS-754807 S661 S961 Kinase inhibitors: Linsitinib Antibodies: Xentuzumab (against IGF-1 and IGF-2) Kisspeptin Agonists: Kisspeptin Kisspeptin-10 Antagonists: Kisspeptin-234 Leptin Agonists: Leptin Metreleptin MCH MCH1 Agonists: Melanin concentrating hormone Antagonists: ATC-0065 ATC-0175 GW-803430 NGD-4715 SNAP-7941 SNAP-94847 MCH2 Agonists: Melanin concentrating hormone Melanocortin See here instead. Neuropeptide FF Agonists: Neuropeptide AF Neuropeptide FF Neuropeptide SF (RFRP-1) Neuropeptide VF (RFRP-3) Antagonists: BIBP-3226 RF9 Neuropeptide S Agonists: Neuropeptide S Antagonists: ML-154 SHA-68 Neuropeptide Y Y1 Agonists: Neuropeptide Y Peptide YY Antagonists: BIBO-3304 BIBP-3226 BVD-10 GR-231118 PD-160170 Y2 Agonists: 2-Thiouridine 5'-triphosphate Neuropeptide Y Neuropeptide Y (13-36) Peptide YY Peptide YY (3-36) Antagonists: BIIE-0246 JNJ-5207787 SF-11 Y4 Agonists: GR-231118 Neuropeptide Y Pancreatic polypeptide Peptide YY Antagonists: UR-AK49 Y5 Agonists: BWX-46 Neuropeptide Y Peptide YY Antagonists: CGP-71683 FMS-586 L-152,804 Lu AA-33810 MK-0557 NTNCB Velneperit (S-2367) Neurotensin NTS1 Agonists: Neurotensin Neuromedin N Antagonists: Meclinertant SR-142948 NTS2 Agonists: Neurotensin Antagonists: Levocabastine SR-142948 Opioid See here instead. Orexin OX1 Agonists: Orexin (A, B) Antagonists: ACT-335827 ACT-462206 Almorexant Filorexant Lemborexant SB-334867 SB-408124 SB-649868 Suvorexant TCS-1102 OX2 Agonists: Orexin (A, B) SB-668875 Antagonists: ACT-335827 ACT-462206 Almorexant EMPA Filorexant JNJ-10397049 Lemborexant MK-1064 SB-649868 Seltorexant Suvorexant TCS-1102 TCS-OX2-29 Oxytocin See here instead. Prolactin Agonists: Growth hormone Human placental lactogen Placental growth hormone (growth hormone variant) Prolactin S179D-hPRL Somatotropin Antagonists: Δ1–9-G129R-hPRL Δ1–14-G129R-hPRL G120K-hGH G129R-hPRL Prolactin modulators: Prolactin inhibitors: D2 receptor agonists (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline); Prolactin releasers: D2 receptor antagonists (e.g., domperidone, metoclopramide, risperidone) Estrogens (e.g., estradiol) Progestogens (e.g., progesterone) PTH Agonists: Abaloparatide Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) Semparatide Teriparatide Relaxin Agonists: Insulin-like factor 3 Relaxin (1, 2, 3) Serelaxin Somatostatin See here instead. Tachykinin See here instead. TRH Agonists: Azetirelin Fertirelin Montirelin Orotirelin Posatirelin Protirelin Rovatirelin Taltirelin TRH (TRF) TSH Agonists: Thyrotropin alfa TSH (thyrotropin) Vasopressin See here instead. VIP/PACAP VIPR1 Agonists: Peptide: Bay 55-9837 LBT-3393 PACAP VIP VIPR2 Agonists: Peptide: LBT-3627 PACAP VIP PAC1 Agonists: PACAP PACAP (1-27) PACAP (1-38) Antagonists: PACAP (6-38) Unsorted PHI PHM PHV Others Endogenous: Adrenomedullin Apelin Asprosin Bombesin Calcitonin Carnosine CART CLIP DSIP Enteroglucagon Formyl peptide GALP GIP GRP Integrin ligands (collagens, fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminins, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, osteopontin, VCAM-1, vitronectin) Kininogens Motilin Natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, CNP, urodilatin) Nesfatin-1 Neuromedin B Neuromedin N Neuromedin S Neuromedin U Obestatin Osteocalcin Resistin Secretin Thymopoietin Thymosins Thymulin Urotensin-II VGF Exogenous: Lifitegrast (LFA-1 antagonist) See also Receptor/signaling modulators Retrieved from "" Categories: Genes on human chromosome 6Peptide hormonesAnterior pituitary hormonesBreastfeedingHormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axisHormones of the pregnant femaleHuman hormonesHuman female endocrine systemHidden categories: CS1 errors: chapter ignoredWebarchive template wayback linksUse dmy dates from December 2017Use American English from December 2017All Wikipedia articles written in American EnglishAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from February 2012Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017All pages needing factual verificationWikipedia articles needing factual verification from July 2014

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Prolactin - Photos and All Basic Informations

Prolactin More Links

Protein Data BankGene NomenclatureMouse Genome InformaticsHomoloGeneGeneCardsChromosome 6 (human)ChromosomeChromosome 6 (human)Chromosome 6 (human)Genomic Location For PRLGenomic Location For PRLLocus (genetics)Base PairBase PairChromosome 13 (mouse)ChromosomeChromosome 13 (mouse)Genomic Location For PRLGenomic Location For PRLLocus (genetics)Base PairBase PairGene OntologyEntrezEnsemblUniProtPubMedWikidataProteinLactationPituitary GlandOscar RiddleHenry FriesenPeptide HormoneGeneCytokineImmune SystemApoptoticHematopoiesisAngiogenesisEndocrineAutocrine SignallingParacrine SignallingProlactin ReceptorCytokine ReceptorHypothalamusTuberoinfundibular PathwayArcuate NucleusDopamineD2 ReceptorLactotrophsThyrotropin-releasing FactorStimulationAnterior PituitaryWikipedia:Citation NeededMammary GlandLactationPregnancyMammary GlandProgesteroneMaternal BehaviorHormoneDopamineWikipedia:Citation NeededEstrogenTestosteroneGonadotropinGonadotropinGonadotropin-releasing HormoneLuteinizing HormoneLeydig CellsSpermatogenesisOligodendrocyte Precursor CellOligodendrocyteMyelinAxonCentral Nervous SystemPulmonary SurfactantLungImmune ToleranceNeurogenesisFetalDeciduaMyometriumLymphocytesLeukocytesProstateEstrogenDopamineCyclic Adenosine MonophosphateProgesteroneEndometriumMyometriumParacrineAutocrineVasoactive Intestinal PeptidePeptide Histidine IsoleucineDayOvulationPregnancyWikipedia:VerifiabilityHypothalamusPituitary GlandOxytocinPosterior Pituitary GlandGalactorrheaBreastfeedingEpileptic SeizuresStress (psychological)MDMAProlactinomaHypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal AxisFollicle-stimulating HormoneLuteinizing HormoneMenstrual CycleAmenorrheaGalactorrheaGrowth HormonePlacental LactogenDisulfide BondBioassayImmunoassayGlycosylationPhosphorylationSulfationPituitary GlandMolecular WeightKilodaltonPolypeptideAmino AcidPostpartum PeriodProlactin ReceptorMammillary BodyOvaryThymusSpleenKidneyAdrenal GlandUterusSkeletal MuscleCentral Nervous SystemDimer (chemistry)Janus Kinase 2Tyrosine KinaseJAK-STAT PathwayMitogen-activated Protein KinasesSrc KinaseSex HormoneHypogonadismErectile DysfunctionSeizurePsychogenic Non-epileptic SeizuresMass Concentration (chemistry)MicrogramLitreNanogramMillilitreMolar ConcentrationNanomolePicomoleInternational UnitLyophilizeInternational UnitWorld Health OrganizationWHO Expert Committee On Biological StandardizationImmunoassaysPolymerHyperprolactinemiaHypoprolactinemiaReference Ranges For Blood TestsMenstrual CycleAssayEssexHyperprolactinaemiaHypoestrogenismAnovulatoryInfertilityOligomenorrhoeaAmenorrhoeaLactationLibidoErectile DysfunctionCoitusAnestheticAnticonvulsantAntihistamineAntihypertensivesCholinergic AgonistDopamine ReceptorEstrogenOral ContraceptiveOral ContraceptiveNeurolepticAntipsychoticNeuropeptideOpiateGranulomaRadiationRathke's CystSuprasellarCraniopharyngiomaGerminomaMeningiomaAcromegalyLymphocytic HypophysitisMacroadenomaProlactinomaHerpes ZosterRenal FailureCirrhosisEpileptic SeizurePolycystic Ovarian DiseasePseudocyesisThyroid HormoneHypoprolactinemiaHypoprolactinemiaArteriogenesisErectile DysfunctionPremature EjaculationOligozoospermiaAsthenospermiaSeminal VesiclesHypoandrogenismHypopituitarismDopaminergicTuberoinfundibular PathwayD2 ReceptorAgonistBromocriptinePsychosocialBiological Half-lifeBromocriptineCabergolineDomperidoneMetoclopramideHaloperidolRisperidoneSulpirideGalactogogueBreast-feedingEpileptic SeizureHyperprolactinaemiaHypothalamic–pituitary–prolactin AxisMale LactationProlactin ModulatorProlactin ReceptorProlactin-releasing HormoneProlactinomaWeaningEnsembl Genome Database ProjectEnsembl Genome Database ProjectDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierMayo ClinicInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8053-5909-5Medical Subject HeadingsDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780080919065Help:CS1 ErrorsDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-07-140235-7Digital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierWayback MachineDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4831-9612-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-94-010-9695-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-118-42388-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7637-4585-1MedlinePlusEMedicineEMedicineTemplate:HormonesTemplate Talk:HormonesHormoneEndocrine GlandHypothalamic-pituitary HormoneHypothalamusGonadotropin-releasing HormoneThyrotropin-releasing HormoneDopamineCorticotropin-releasing HormoneGrowth Hormone Releasing HormoneSomatostatinMelanin Concentrating HormonePosterior PituitaryOxytocinVasopressinAnterior PituitaryFollicle-stimulating HormoneLuteinizing HormoneThyroid-stimulating HormoneProopiomelanocortinCorticotropin-like Intermediate PeptideAdrenocorticotropic HormoneMelanocyte-stimulating HormoneEndorphinsLipotropinGrowth HormoneHypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal AxisAdrenal GlandAldosteroneCortisolCortisoneDehydroepiandrosteroneDehydroepiandrosterone SulfateAndrostenedioneAdrenal GlandEpinephrineNorepinephrineThyroidThyroid HormoneTriiodothyronineThyroxineCalcitoninHypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid AxisParathyroid GlandParathyroid HormoneHypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal AxisTesticleTestosteroneAnti-Müllerian HormoneActivin And InhibinOvaryEstradiolProgesteroneActivin And InhibinRelaxinPlacentaHuman Chorionic GonadotropinHuman Placental LactogenEstrogenProgesteronePancreasGlucagonInsulinAmylinSomatostatinPancreatic PolypeptidePineal GlandMelatoninN,N-dimethyltryptamine5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThymusThymosinsThymosin α1Beta ThymosinsThymopoietinThymulinDigestionStomachGastrinGhrelinDuodenumCholecystokininIncretinsGastric Inhibitory PolypeptideGlucagon-like Peptide-1SecretinMotilinVasoactive Intestinal PeptideIleumEnteroglucagonPeptide YYLiverInsulin-like Growth FactorInsulin-like Growth Factor 1Insulin-like Growth Factor 2Adipose TissueLeptinAdiponectinResistinHuman SkeletonOsteocalcinKidneyReninErythropoietinCalcitriolProstaglandinHeartNatriuretic PeptideAtrial Natriuretic PeptideBrain Natriuretic PeptideTemplate:AmyloidosisTemplate Talk:AmyloidosisAmyloidosisICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, Nutritional And Metabolic DiseasesList Of ICD-9 Codes 240–279: Endocrine, Nutritional And Metabolic Diseases, And Immunity DisordersAmyloidSerum Amyloid ATransthyretinBeta-2 MicroglobulinBence Jones ProteinBeta AmyloidAmyloid Precursor ProteinAmylinCalcitoninAtrial Natriuretic PeptideCystatin CITM2BAL AmyloidosisAA AmyloidosisHaemodialysis-associated AmyloidosisFinnish Type AmyloidosisFamilial Mediterranean FeverTransthyretin-related Hereditary AmyloidosisOrgan-limited AmyloidosisHuman HeartIsolated Atrial AmyloidosisHuman BrainFamilial Amyloid NeuropathyCerebral Amyloid AngiopathyAlzheimer's DiseaseKidneyFamilial Renal AmyloidosisHuman SkinPrimary Cutaneous AmyloidosisAmyloid PurpuraEndocrine SystemThyroidMedullary Thyroid CancerPituitary GlandProlactinomaPancreasInsulinomaDiabetes Mellitus Type 2Template:Signaling Peptide/protein Receptor ModulatorsTemplate Talk:Signaling Peptide/protein Receptor ModulatorsPeptide ReceptorReceptor ModulatorAdiponectin ReceptorAdiponectin Receptor 1AdiponectinAdipoRon(–)-ArctigeninArctiinGramineMatairesinolAdiponectin Receptor 2AdiponectinAdipoRonDeoxyschizandrinParthenolideTaxifoliolAngiotensin ReceptorTemplate:Angiotensin Receptor ModulatorsBradykinin ReceptorBradykininKallidinIcatibantLF22-0542Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide ReceptorAmylinCalcitonin Gene-related PeptidePramlintideOlcegepantRimegepantTelcagepantEptinezumabErenumabFremanezumabGalcanezumabCholecystokinin ReceptorCholecystokinin A ReceptorCholecystokininAsperlicinDevazepideDexloxiglumideLorglumideProglumideCholecystokinin B ReceptorCholecystokininCCK-4GastrinPentagastrinCI-988ProglumideCorticotropin-releasing Hormone ReceptorCorticotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 1CorticorelinCorticotropin Releasing HormoneSauvagineUrocortinAntalarminAstressin-BCP-154,526EmicerfontHypericinPexacerfontVerucerfontCorticotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 2CorticorelinCorticotropin Releasing HormoneSauvagineUrocortinAstressin-BCytokine ReceptorTemplate:Cytokine Receptor ModulatorsEndothelin ReceptorEndothelin 1Endothelin 2Endothelin 3AmbrisentanAtrasentanBosentanBQ-123BQ-788DarusentanMacitentanSitaxentanTezosentanZibotentanGalanin ReceptorGalanin Receptor 1GalaninGalanin-like PeptideGalmicGalnonGalanin Receptor 2GalaninGalanin-like PeptideGalmicGalnonGalanin Receptor 3GalaninGalmicGalnonHT-2157SNAP-37889Growth Hormone Secretagogue ReceptorTemplate:GH/IGF-1 Axis Signaling ModulatorsGrowth Hormone ReceptorTemplate:GH/IGF-1 Axis Signaling ModulatorsGrowth-hormone-releasing Hormone ReceptorTemplate:GH/IGF-1 Axis Signaling ModulatorsGlucagon-like Peptide ReceptorGlucagon-like Peptide 1 ReceptorAlbiglutideDulaglutideExenatideGlucagon-like Peptide 1LiraglutideLixisenatideOxyntomodulinSemaglutideTaspoglutideGlucagon-like Peptide 2 ReceptorGlucagon-like Peptide 2TeduglutidePreproglucagonProglucagonGlucagon ReceptorGlucagonOxyntomodulinPreproglucagonProglucagonGonadotropin-releasing Hormone ReceptorBuserelinDeslorelinFertirelinGonadotropin-releasing HormoneGonadorelinGoserelinHistrelinLeuprorelinNafarelinTriptorelinZoptarelin DoxorubicinAbarelixCetrorelixDegarelixGanirelixOzarelixASP-1707ElagolixKLH-2109RelugolixSufugolixGonadotropin ReceptorLuteinizing Hormone/choriogonadotropin ReceptorChoriogonadotropin AlfaHuman Chorionic GonadotropinLuteinizing HormoneLutropin AlfaMenotropinFollicle-stimulating Hormone ReceptorCorifollitropin AlfaFollicle-stimulating HormoneFollitropin AlfaFollitropin BetaMenotropinUrofollitropinGrowth Factor ReceptorTemplate:Growth Factor Receptor ModulatorsInsulin ReceptorChaetochrominInsulin-like Growth Factor 1Insulin-like Growth Factor 2InsulinInsulin AspartInsulin DegludecInsulin DetemirInsulin GlargineInsulin GlulisineInsulin LisproMecaserminMecasermin RinfabateLinsitinibKiSS1-derived Peptide ReceptorKisspeptinLeptin ReceptorLeptinMetreleptinMelanin-concentrating Hormone ReceptorMelanin-concentrating Hormone Receptor 1Melanin Concentrating HormoneATC-0175GW-803430NGD-4715SNAP-7941SNAP-94847Melanin-concentrating Hormone Receptor 2Melanin Concentrating HormoneMelanocortin ReceptorTemplate:Melanocortin Receptor ModulatorsNeuropeptide FF ReceptorNeuropeptide FFBIBP-3226Neuropeptide S ReceptorNeuropeptide SML-154SHA-68Neuropeptide Y ReceptorNeuropeptide Y Receptor Y1Neuropeptide YPeptide YYBIBP-3226Neuropeptide Y Receptor Y2Neuropeptide YPeptide YYBIIE-0246Pancreatic Polypeptide Receptor 1Neuropeptide YPancreatic PolypeptidePeptide YYUR-AK49Neuropeptide Y Receptor Y5Neuropeptide YPeptide YYLu AA-33810VelneperitNeurotensin ReceptorNeurotensin Receptor 1NeurotensinNeuromedin NMeclinertantSR-142948Neurotensin Receptor 2NeurotensinLevocabastineSR-142948Opioid ReceptorTemplate:Opioid Receptor ModulatorsOrexin ReceptorHypocretin (orexin) Receptor 1OrexinOrexin-AOrexin-BAlmorexantFilorexantLemborexantSB-334867SB-408124SB-649868SuvorexantHypocretin (orexin) Receptor 2OrexinOrexin-AOrexin-BAlmorexantEMPA (drug)FilorexantLemborexantSB-649868SeltorexantSuvorexantTCS-OX2-29Oxytocin ReceptorTemplate:Oxytocin And Vasopressin Receptor ModulatorsProlactin ReceptorGrowth HormoneHuman Placental LactogenPlacental Growth HormoneSomatotropinD2 ReceptorAgonistBromocriptineCabergolineD2 ReceptorReceptor AntagonistDomperidoneMetoclopramideRisperidoneEstrogenEstradiolProgestogenProgesteroneParathyroid Hormone ReceptorAbaloparatideParathyroid HormoneParathyroid Hormone-related ProteinTeriparatideRelaxin ReceptorINSL3RelaxinRelaxin-3SerelaxinSomatostatin ReceptorTemplate:GH/IGF-1 Axis Signaling ModulatorsTachykinin ReceptorTemplate:Neurokinin Receptor ModulatorsThyrotropin-releasing Hormone ReceptorFertirelinProtirelinTaltirelinThyrotropin-releasing HormoneThyrotropin ReceptorThyrotropin AlfaThyroid-stimulating HormoneVasopressin ReceptorTemplate:Oxytocin And Vasopressin Receptor ModulatorsVasoactive Intestinal Peptide ReceptorPituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating PeptideVIPR1Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating PeptideVasoactive Intestinal PeptideVIPR2LBT-3627Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating PeptideVasoactive Intestinal PeptideADCYAP1R1Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating PeptideAdrenomedullinApelinAsprosinBombesinCalcitoninCarnosineCocaine And Amphetamine Regulated TranscriptCorticotropin-like Intermediate PeptideDelta Sleep-inducing PeptideEnteroglucagonFormyl PeptideGalanin-like PeptideGastric Inhibitory PolypeptideGastrin-releasing PeptideIntegrinCollagenFibrinogenFibronectinLamininICAM-1ICAM-2OsteopontinVCAM-1VitronectinKininogenMotilinNatriuretic PeptideAtrial Natriuretic PeptideBrain Natriuretic PeptideC-type Natriuretic PeptideUrodilatinNesfatin-1Neuromedin BNeuromedin NNeuromedin SNeuromedin UObestatinOsteocalcinResistinSecretinThymopoietinThymosinThymulinUrotensin-IIVGFLifitegrastTemplate:Receptor ModulatorsHelp:CategoryCategory:Genes On Human Chromosome 6Category:Peptide HormonesCategory:Anterior Pituitary HormonesCategory:BreastfeedingCategory:Hormones Of The Hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin AxisCategory:Hormones Of The Pregnant FemaleCategory:Human HormonesCategory:Human Female Endocrine SystemCategory:CS1 Errors: Chapter IgnoredCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Use Dmy Dates From December 2017Category:Use American 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