Contents 1 Overview 2 Plant pathogens 2.1 Fungi 2.1.1 Ascomycetes 2.1.2 Basidiomycetes 2.2 Fungus-like organisms 2.2.1 Oomycetes 2.2.2 Phytomyxea 2.3 Bacteria 2.3.1 Phytoplasmas and spiroplasmas 2.4 Viruses, viroids and virus-like organisms 2.5 Nematodes 2.6 Protozoa and algae 2.7 Parasitic plants 3 Common pathogenic infection methods 4 Physiological plant disorders 5 Epidemiology 6 Disease resistance 7 Management 8 History 9 See also 10 References 11 External links


Overview[edit] See also: Morphological symptoms of plant diseases Control of plant diseases is crucial to the reliable production of food, and it provides significant reductions in agricultural use of land, water, fuel and other inputs. Plants in both natural and cultivated populations carry inherent disease resistance, but there are numerous examples of devastating plant disease impacts (see Irish potato famine, chestnut blight), as well as recurrent severe plant diseases (see rice blast, soybean cyst nematode, citrus canker). However, disease control is reasonably successful for most crops. Disease control is achieved by use of plants that have been bred for good resistance to many diseases, and by plant cultivation approaches such as crop rotation, use of pathogen-free seed, appropriate planting date and plant density, control of field moisture, and pesticide use. Across large regions and many crop species, it is estimated that diseases typically reduce plant yields by 10% every year in more developed settings, but yield loss to diseases often exceeds 20% in less developed settings. Continuing advances in the science of plant pathology are needed to improve disease control, and to keep up with changes in disease pressure caused by the ongoing evolution and movement of plant pathogens and by changes in agricultural practices. Plant diseases cause major economic losses for farmers worldwide. The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates indeed that pests and diseases are responsible for about 25% of crop loss. To solve this issue, new methods are needed to detect diseases and pests early, such as novel sensors that detect plant odours and spectroscopy and biophotonics that are able to diagnose plant health and metabolism.[2]


Plant pathogens[edit] Further information: lists of plant diseases Powdery mildew, a biotrophic fungus Fungi[edit] Most phytopathogenic fungi belong to the Ascomycetes and the Basidiomycetes. The fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually via the production of spores and other structures. Spores may be spread long distances by air or water, or they may be soilborne. Many soil inhabiting fungi are capable of living saprotrophically, carrying out the part of their life cycle in the soil. These are facultative saprotrophs. Fungal diseases may be controlled through the use of fungicides and other agriculture practices. However, new races of fungi often evolve that are resistant to various fungicides. Biotrophic fungal pathogens colonize living plant tissue and obtain nutrients from living host cells. Necrotrophic fungal pathogens infect and kill host tissue and extract nutrients from the dead host cells. Significant fungal plant pathogens include:[citation needed] Rice blast, caused by a necrotrophic fungus Ascomycetes[edit] Fusarium spp. (Fusarium wilt disease) Thielaviopsis spp. (canker rot, black root rot, Thielaviopsis root rot) Verticillium spp. Magnaporthe grisea (rice blast) Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (cottony rot) Basidiomycetes[edit] Ustilago spp. (smuts) Rhizoctonia spp. Phakospora pachyrhizi (soybean rust) Puccinia spp. (severe rusts of cereals and grasses) Armillaria spp. (honey fungus species, virulent pathogens of trees) Fungus-like organisms[edit] Oomycetes[edit] The oomycetes are fungus-like organisms.[3] They include some of the most destructive plant pathogens including the genus Phytophthora, which includes the causal agents of potato late blight[3] and sudden oak death.[4][5] Particular species of oomycetes are responsible for root rot. Despite not being closely related to the fungi, the oomycetes have developed similar infection strategies. Oomycetes are capable of using effector proteins to turn off a plant's defenses in its infection process.[6] Plant pathologists commonly group them with fungal pathogens. Significant oomycete plant pathogens include: Pythium spp. Phytophthora spp., including the potato blight of the Great Irish Famine (1845–1849) Phytomyxea[edit] Some slime molds in Phytomyxea cause important diseases, including club root in cabbage and its relatives and powdery scab in potatoes. These are caused by species of Plasmodiophora and Spongospora, respectively. Bacteria[edit] Crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium Most bacteria that are associated with plants are actually saprotrophic and do no harm to the plant itself. However, a small number, around 100 known species, are able to cause disease.[7] Bacterial diseases are much more prevalent in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Most plant pathogenic bacteria are rod-shaped (bacilli). In order to be able to colonize the plant they have specific pathogenicity factors. Five main types of bacterial pathogenicity factors are known: uses of cell wall–degrading enzymes, toxins, effector proteins, phytohormones and exopolysaccharides. Pathogens such as Erwinia species use cell wall–degrading enzymes to cause soft rot. Agrobacterium species change the level of auxins to cause tumours with phytohormones. Exopolysaccharides are produced by bacteria and block xylem vessels, often leading to the death of the plant. Bacteria control the production of pathogenicity factors via quorum sensing. Vitis vinifera with "Ca. Phytoplasma vitis" infection Significant bacterial plant pathogens: Burkholderia[8] Proteobacteria Xanthomonas spp. Pseudomonas spp. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato causes tomato plants to produce less fruit, and it "continues to adapt to the tomato by minimizing its recognition by the tomato immune system."[9] Phytoplasmas and spiroplasmas[edit] Main article: phytoplasma Phytoplasma and Spiroplasma are a genre of bacteria that lack cell walls and are related to the mycoplasmas, which are human pathogens. Together they are referred to as the mollicutes. They also tend to have smaller genomes than most other bacteria. They are normally transmitted by sap-sucking insects, being transferred into the plants phloem where it reproduces. Tobacco mosaic virus Viruses, viroids and virus-like organisms[edit] Main article: Plant Virus There are many types of plant virus, and some are even asymptomatic. Under normal circumstances, plant viruses cause only a loss of crop yield. Therefore, it is not economically viable to try to control them, the exception being when they infect perennial species, such as fruit trees. Most plant viruses have small, single-stranded RNA genomes. However some plant viruses also have double stranded RNA or single or double stranded DNA genomes. These genomes may encode only three or four proteins: a replicase, a coat protein, a movement protein, in order to allow cell to cell movement through plasmodesmata, and sometimes a protein that allows transmission by a vector. Plant viruses can have several more proteins and employ many different molecular translation methods. Plant viruses are generally transmitted from plant to plant by a vector, but mechanical and seed transmission also occur. Vector transmission is often by an insect (for example, aphids), but some fungi, nematodes, and protozoa have been shown to be viral vectors. In many cases, the insect and virus are specific for virus transmission such as the beet leafhopper that transmits the curly top virus causing disease in several crop plants.[10] Nematodes[edit] Main article: Nematodes Root-knot nematode galls Nematodes are small, multicellular wormlike animals. Many live freely in the soil, but there are some species that parasitize plant roots. They are a problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, where they may infect crops. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis) are widely distributed in Europe and North and South America and cause $300 million worth of damage in Europe every year. Root knot nematodes have quite a large host range, they parasitize plant root systems and thus directly affect the uptake of water and nutrients needed for normal plant growth and reproduction,[11] whereas cyst nematodes tend to be able to infect only a few species. Nematodes are able to cause radical changes in root cells in order to facilitate their lifestyle. Protozoa and algae[edit] There are a few examples of plant diseases caused by protozoa (e.g., Phytomonas, a kinetoplastid).[12] They are transmitted as durable zoospores that may be able to survive in a resting state in the soil for many years. Further, they can transmit plant viruses. When the motile zoospores come into contact with a root hair they produce a plasmodium which invades the roots. Some colourless parasitic algae (e.g., Cephaleuros) also cause plant diseases.[citation needed] Parasitic plants[edit] Parasitic plants such as mistletoe and dodder are included in the study of phytopathology. Dodder, for example, is used as a conduit either for the transmission of viruses or virus-like agents from a host plant to a plant that is not typically a host or for an agent that is not graft-transmissible.


Common pathogenic infection methods[edit] Cell wall-degrading enzymes: These are used to break down the plant cell wall in order to release the nutrients inside. Toxins: These can be non-host-specific, which damage all plants, or host-specific, which cause damage only on a host plant. Effector proteins: These can be secreted into the extracellular environment or directly into the host cell, often via the Type three secretion system. Some effectors are known to suppress host defense processes. This can include: reducing the plants internal signaling mechanisms or reduction of phytochemicals production.[13] Bacteria, fungus and oomycetes are known for this function.[3][14]


Physiological plant disorders[edit] Main article: Physiological plant disorders Abiotic disorders can be caused by natural processes such as drought, frost, snow and hail; flooding and poor drainage; nutrient deficiency; deposition of mineral salts such as sodium chloride and gypsum; windburn and breakage by storms; and wildfires. Similar disorders (usually classed as abiotic) can be caused by human intervention, resulting in soil compaction, pollution of air and soil, salinisation caused by irrigation and road salting, over-application of herbicides, clumsy handling (e.g. lawnmower damage to trees), and vandalism.[citation needed] Orchid leaves with viral infections


Epidemiology[edit] Main article: Plant disease epidemiology This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (July 2017)


Disease resistance[edit] Main article: Plant disease resistance This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (July 2017)


Management[edit] Further information: Pest control and Antagonism (phytopathology) Quarantine A diseased patch of vegetation or individual plants can be isolated from other, healthy growth. Specimens may be destroyed or relocated into a greenhouse for treatment or study. Another option is to avoid the introduction of harmful nonnative organisms by controlling all human traffic and activity (e.g., AQIS), although legislation and enforcement are crucial in order to ensure lasting effectiveness. Cultural Farming in some societies is kept on a small scale, tended by peoples whose culture includes farming traditions going back to ancient times. (An example of such traditions would be lifelong training in techniques of plot terracing, weather anticipation and response, fertilization, grafting, seed care, and dedicated gardening.) Plants that are intently monitored often benefit from not only active external protection but also a greater overall vigor. While primitive in the sense of being the most labor-intensive solution by far, where practical or necessary it is more than adequate. Plant resistance Sophisticated agricultural developments now allow growers to choose from among systematically cross-bred species to ensure the greatest hardiness in their crops, as suited for a particular region's pathological profile. Breeding practices have been perfected over centuries, but with the advent of genetic manipulation even finer control of a crop's immunity traits is possible. The engineering of food plants may be less rewarding, however, as higher output is frequently offset by popular suspicion and negative opinion about this "tampering" with nature. Chemical (See: pesticide application) Many natural and synthetic compounds can be employed to combat the above threats. This method works by directly eliminating disease-causing organisms or curbing their spread; however, it has been shown to have too broad an effect, typically, to be good for the local ecosystem. From an economic standpoint, all but the simplest natural additives may disqualify a product from "organic" status, potentially reducing the value of the yield. Biological Crop rotation may be an effective means to prevent a parasitic population from becoming well-established, as an organism affecting leaves would be starved when the leafy crop is replaced by a tuberous type, etc. Other means to undermine parasites without attacking them directly may exist. Integrated The use of two or more of these methods in combination offers a higher chance of effectiveness.


History[edit] Further information: Timeline of plant pathology Plant pathology has developed from antiquity, starting with Theophrastus, but scientific study began in the Early Modern period with the invention of the microscope, and developed in the 19th century.[15] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2017)


See also[edit] American Phytopathological Society Australasian Plant Pathology Society Biological control with micro-organisms British Society for Plant Pathology Burl Common names of plant diseases Disease resistance in fruit and vegetables Forest pathology Fungicides Gene-for-gene relationship Global Plant Clinic Glossary of phytopathology Herbivory Inducible plant defenses against herbivory List of phytopathology journals Microbial inoculant Mycology Pesticide Phytoplasma Plant defense against herbivory Plant disease forecasting Plant pathologists QoI Strobilurins Stunt


References[edit] ^ Agrios, George N. (1972). Plant Pathology (3rd ed.). Academic Press.  ^ Martinelli, F., Scalenghe, R., Davino, S., Panno, S., Scuderi, G., Ruisi, P., Villa, P., Stroppiana, D., Boschetti, M., Goulart, L.R., Davis, C.E., Dandekar, A.M. (2014). "Advanced methods of plant disease detection. A review". Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 35: 1–25. doi:10.1007/s13593-014-0246-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b c Nicole Davis (September 9, 2009). "Genome of Irish potato famine pathogen decoded". Haas et al. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. Retrieved 24 July 2012.  ^ Kamoun, S.; Furzer, O.; Jones, J. D. G.; Judelson, H. S.; Ali, G. S.; Dalio, R. J. D.; Roy, S. G.; Schena, L.; Zambounis, A.; Panabières, F.; Cahill, D.; Ruocco, M.; Figueiredo, A.; Chen, X. R.; Hulvey, J.; Stam, R.; Lamour, K.; Gijzen, M.; Tyler, B. M.; Grünwald, N. J.; Mukhtar, M. S.; Tomé, D. F. A.; Tör, M.; Van Den Ackerveken, G.; McDowell, J.; Daayf, F.; Fry, W. E.; Lindqvist-Kreuze, H.; Meijer, H. J. G.; et al. (2015). "The Top 10 oomycete pathogens in molecular plant pathology". Molecular Plant Pathology. 16: 413–434. doi:10.1111/mpp.12190.  ^ Grünwald, N. J.; Goss, E. M.; Press, C. M. (2008). "Phytophthora ramorum: A pathogen with a remarkably wide host range causing sudden oak death on oaks and ramorum blight on woody ornamentals". Molecular Plant Pathology. 9 (6): 729–40. doi:10.1111/J.1364-3703.2008.00500.X. PMID 19019002.  ^ "Scientists discover how deadly fungal microbes enter host cells". (VBI) at Virginia Tech affiliates. Physorg. July 22, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2012.  ^ Jackson RW (editor). (2009). Plant Pathogenic Bacteria: Genomics and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-37-0.  ^ Burkholder (October 1948). "Bacteria as Plant Pathogens". Annual Review of Microbiology. Cornell University. 2: 389–412. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi.02.100148.002133. PMID 18104350.  ^ "Research team unravels tomato pathogen's tricks of the trade". Virginia Tech. 2011.  ^ Creamer, Rebecca; H. Hubble; A. Lewis (May 2005). "Curtovirus Infection of Chile Pepper in New Mexico". Plant Diseases. 89 (5): 480–486. doi:10.1094/PD-89-0480.  ^ Huynh, Bao-Lam; Matthews, William C.; Ehlers, Jeffrey D.; Lucas, Mitchell R.; Santos, Jansen R. P.; Ndeve, Arsenio; Close, Timothy J.; Roberts, Philip A. (2015-10-08). "A major QTL corresponding to the Rk locus for resistance to root-knot nematodes in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 129 (1): 87–95. doi:10.1007/s00122-015-2611-0. ISSN 0040-5752. PMC 4703619 . PMID 26450274.  ^ Jankevicius, J.V. et al. Ciclo biológico de Phytomonas / Biological cycle of Phytomonas. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, v. 83, supl. 1, 1988. ^ Ma, Winbo (March 28, 2011). "How do plants fight disease? Breakthrough research by UC Riverside plant pathologist offers a clue". UC Riverside.  ^ "1st large-scale map of a plant's protein network addresses evolution, disease process". Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. July 29, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2012.  ^ Aisnworth, G.C. (1981). Introduction to the History of Plant Pathology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23032-2. 


External links[edit] International Society for Plant Pathology Australasian Plant Pathology Society American Phytopathological Society British Society for Plant Pathology Food Security Journal Contributions toward a bibliography of peach yellows, 1887–1888 Digital copy of scientist Erwin Frink Smith's manuscript on peach yellows disease. Erwin Frink Smith Papers Index to papers of Smith (1854–1927) who was considered the "father of bacterial plant pathology" and worked for the United States Department of Agriculture for over 40 years. Plant Health Progress, Online journal of applied plant pathology Pacific Northwest Fungi, online mycology journal with papers on fungal plant pathogens Rothamsted Plant Pathology and Microbiology Department New Mexico State University Department of Entomology Plant Pathology and Weed Science Pathogen Host Interactions Database (PHI-base) Grape Virology Opportunity in Plant Pathology Facebook page for Asian Association of Societies for Plant Pathology v t e Plant disorders / control Physiological plant disorders Plant pathology Plant stress measurement Transplant shock v t e Agriculture General Agribusiness Agricultural supplies Agricultural science Agricultural engineering Agroforestry Agronomy Animal husbandry Animal-free agriculture Extensive farming Farm Free range Intensive farming Intensive animal farming Mechanised agriculture Organic farming Permaculture Sustainable agriculture Universities and colleges Urban agriculture History Prehistoric Neolithic Revolution Agriculture in Mesoamerica Ancient Ancient Egypt Ancient Greece Ancient Rome Medieval Arab Agricultural Revolution Modern British Agricultural Revolution Green Revolution Organic Types Aquaculture Cattle Dairy farming Goat farming Grazing Hydroponics Livestock Pig farming Orchards Poultry farming Sheep farming Categories Agriculture by country Agriculture companies Biotechnology Livestock Meat industry Poultry farming Category Portal Wikiproject v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Authority control GND: 4130197-3 NDL: 00572138 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plant_pathology&oldid=818068880" Categories: PhytopathologyAgronomyPathologyHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listArticles lacking in-text citations from January 2011All articles lacking in-text citationsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from July 2017Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017Articles to be expanded from July 2017All articles to be expandedArticles with empty sections from July 2017All articles with empty sectionsArticles using small message boxesPages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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