Contents 1 Structural divisions 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 5.1 General 5.2 Specialized 6 External links

Structural divisions[edit] Although some plant anatomy studies utilize a systems approach, such as the study of vascular tissues,[4] plant anatomy is more classically[5] divided into the following structural categories: Vascular tissue of a gooseberry vine from Grew's Anatomy of Plants Root tip Flower anatomy Calyx Corolla Androecium Gynoecium Leaf anatomy Epidermis Palisade cells Stem anatomy Stem structure Fruit/Seed anatomy Ovule Seed structure Pericarp Accessory fruit Wood anatomy Bark Cork Phloem Vascular cambium Heartwood and sapwood branch collar Root anatomy Root structure

History[edit] Main article: History of botany About 300 BC Theophrastus wrote a number of plant treatises, only two of which survive, Enquiry into Plants (Περὶ φυτῶν ἱστορία), and On the Causes of Plants (Περὶ φυτῶν αἰτιῶν). He developed concepts of plant morphology and classification, which did not withstand the scientific scrutiny of the Renaissance. A Swiss physician and botanist, Gaspard Bauhin, introduced binomial nomenclature into plant taxonomy. He published Pinax theatri botanici in 1596, which was the first to use this convention for naming of species. His criteria for classification included natural relationships, or 'affinities', which in many cases were structural. It was in the late 1600s that plant anatomy became refined into a modern science. Italian doctor and microscopist, Marcello Malpighi, was one of the two founders of plant anatomy. In 1671 he published his Anatomia Plantarum, the first major advance in plant physiogamy since Aristotle. The other founder was the British doctor Nehemiah Grew. He published An Idea of a Philosophical History of Plants in 1672 and The Anatomy of Plants in 1682. Grew is credited with the recognition of plant cells, although he called them 'vesicles' and 'bladders'. He correctly identified and described the sexual organs of plants (flowers) and their parts.[6] In the eighteenth century, Carl Linnaeus established taxonomy based on structure, and his early work was with plant anatomy. While the exact structural level which is to be considered to be scientifically valid for comparison and differentiation has changed with the growth of knowledge, the basic principles were established by Linnaeus. He published his master work, Species Plantarum in 1753. In 1802, French botanist Charles-François Brisseau de Mirbel, published Traité d'anatomie et de physiologie végétale (Treatise on Plant Anatomy and Physiology) establishing the beginnings of the science of plant cytology. In 1812, Johann Jacob Paul Moldenhawer published Beyträge zur Anatomie der Pflanzen, describing microscopic studies of plant tissues. In 1813 a Swiss botanist, Augustin Pyrame de Candolle, published Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, in which he argued that plant anatomy, not physiology, ought to be the sole basis for plant classification. Using a scientific basis, he established structural criteria for defining and separating plant genera. In 1830, Franz Meyen published Phytotomie, the first comprehensive review of plant anatomy. In 1838 German botanist Matthias Jakob Schleiden, published Contributions to Phytogenesis, stating, "the lower plants all consist of one cell, while the higher plants are composed of (many) individual cells" thus confirming and continuing Mirbel's work. A German-Polish botanist, Eduard Strasburger, described the mitotic process in plant cells and further demonstrated that new cell nuclei can only arise from the division of other pre-existing nuclei. His Studien über Protoplasma was published in 1876. Gottlieb Haberlandt, a German botanist, studied plant physiology and classified plant tissue based upon function. On this basis, in 1884 he published Physiologische Pflanzenanatomie (Physiological Plant Anatomy) in which he described twelve types of tissue systems (absorptive, mechanical, photosynthetic, etc.). British paleobotanists Dunkinfield Henry Scott and William Crawford Williamson described the structures of fossilized plants at the end of the nineteenth century. Scott's Studies in Fossil Botany was published in 1900. Following Charles Darwin's Origin of Species a Canadian botanist, Edward Charles Jeffrey, who was studying the comparative anatomy and phylogeny of different vascular plant groups, applied the theory to plants using the form and structure of plants to establish a number of evolutionary lines. He published his The Anatomy of Woody Plants in 1917. The growth of comparative plant anatomy was spearheaded by British botanist Agnes Arber. She published Water Plants: A Study of Aquatic Angiosperms in 1920, Monocotyledons: A Morphological Study in 1925, and The Gramineae: A Study of Cereal, Bamboo and Grass in 1934.[7] Following World War II, Katherine Esau published, Plant Anatomy (1953), which became the definitive textbook on plant structure in North American universities and elsewhere, it was still in print as of 2006.[8] She followed up with her Anatomy of seed plants in 1960.

See also[edit] Plant morphology Plant physiology

References[edit] ^ Raven, P. H.; Evert, R. F. and Eichhorn, S. E. (2005) Biology of Plants (7th edition) W. H. Freeman, New York, page 9, ISBN 0-7167-1007-2 ^ Hagemann, Wolfgang (1992). "The Relationship of Anatomy to Morphology in Plants: A New Theoretical Perspective". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 153 (3(2)): S38–S48. doi:10.1086/297062. JSTOR 2995526.  ^ Evert, Ray Franklin and Esau, Katherine (2006) Esau's Plant anatomy: meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body - their structure, function and development Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey, page xv, ISBN 0-471-73843-3 ^ A systems approach is organized on the basis of the plant's activities, such as the nutrient transport cycle, or the flowering, pollination, embryogenesis, and seed development cycle. Howell, Stephen Herbert (1998). Molecular Genetics of Plant Development. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-521-58784-6.  ^ See e.g. Craig, Richard & Vassilyev, Andrey. "Plant Anatomy". McGraw-Hill. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010.  ^ Bolam, J. (1973). "The botanical works of Nehemiah Grew, FRS (1641-1712)". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. 27 (2): 219–231. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1973.0017. JSTOR 530999.  ^ Thomas, Hanshaw H. (1960). "Agnes Arber, 1879–1960". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 6: 1–11. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1960.0021. JSTOR 769330.  ^ Chaffey, N. (2006). "(Book Review) Esau's Plant Anatomy, Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: their Structure, Function, and Development. 3rd edn". Annals of Botany. 99 (4): 785–786. doi:10.1093/aob/mcm015. 

Further reading[edit] General[edit] Eames, Arthur Johnson; MacDaniels, Laurence H. (1947). An Introduction to Plant Anatomy 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, link (1st ed., 1925, link). Esau, Katherine (1965). Plant Anatomy 2nd ed. Wiley, New York. Meicenheimer, R. History of Plant Anatomy. Miami University, link. Specialized[edit] Cutler, D. F.; Gregory, M.; Rudall, P. (eds.) (1960-2014). Anatomy of the Monocotyledons. 10 vols. Oxford University Press. Goffinet, B.; Buck, W. R.; Shaw, J. (2008). Morphology, anatomy, and classification of the Bryophyta. In: Goffinet, B.; Shaw, J. (eds.). Bryophyte Biology, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, pp. 55-138 (1st ed., 2000, link). Jeffrey, E. C. (1917). The anatomy of woody plants. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, link. Metcalfe, C.R.; Chalk, L. (1957). Anatomy of the Dicotyledons: Leaves, stem and wood in relation to taxonomy, with notes on economic uses. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1500 pp., link (2nd ed., 1979-1998, 4 vols.). Schoute, J. C. (1938). Anatomy. In: Verdoorn, F. (ed.). Manual of Pteridology. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague. pp. 65—104. link. Schweingruber, F. H.; Börner, A.; Schulze, E. (2011-2013). Atlas of Stem Anatomy in Herbs, Shrubs and Trees. Vol. 1, 2011, link. Vol. 2, 2013, link. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.

External links[edit] Farabee, M.J. (2001) "Plants and their structure" Estrella Mountain Community College, Phoenix, Arizona Botanical Visual Glossary Plant anatomy glossary- University of Rhode Island v t e Anatomy and morphology Fields Gross anatomy Superficial anatomy Neuroanatomy Comparative anatomy Transcendental anatomy Microscopic anatomy histology molecular Bacteria Bacterial cell structure Protists Level of organization Structures Plants Plant anatomy Plant habit Plant life-form/growth-form/physiognomy Plant morphology Fruit anatomy Invertebrates Body plan Decapod anatomy Gastropod anatomy Insect morphology Spider anatomy Mammals Human anatomy Neanderthal anatomy Cat anatomy Dog anatomy Horse anatomy Elephant anatomy Giraffe anatomy Other vertebrates Bird anatomy Fish anatomy Shark anatomy Other topics Allometry Brain morphometry Morphometrics Physiognomy v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Authority control NDL: 00572144 Retrieved from "" Categories: Plant anatomyBranches of botany

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages العربيةAsturianuБеларускаяБългарскиČeštinaDanskDeutschEestiEspañolEsperantoFrançais한국어Հայերենहिन्दीHrvatskiBahasa IndonesiaעבריתBasa JawaҚазақшаКыргызчаMagyarМакедонскиമലയാളം日本語PolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiதமிழ்ไทยУкраїнськаייִדיש中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 5 December 2017, at 18:04. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.248","walltime":"0.313","ppvisitednodes":{"value":1155,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":64542,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":1068,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":16,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":0,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 226.805 1 -total"," 52.02% 117.974 1 Template:Reflist"," 23.56% 53.444 4 Template:Cite_journal"," 20.72% 46.993 3 Template:Navbox"," 16.27% 36.909 1 Template:Botany"," 15.76% 35.746 2 Template:ISBN"," 13.09% 29.694 1 Template:Main_article"," 11.73% 26.598 1 Template:Authority_control"," 6.63% 15.033 2 Template:Catalog_lookup_link"," 5.46% 12.383 1 Template:Anatomy"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.094","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":3318314,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1268","timestamp":"20180106021329","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":89,"wgHostname":"mw1263"});});

Plant_anatomy - Photos and All Basic Informations

Plant_anatomy More Links

EnlargeChloroplastsMnium StellareAnatomyPlantPlant MorphologyPlant CellTissue (biology)MicroscopyVascular TissueEnlargeVascular TissueGooseberryNehemiah GrewEnlargeRoot TipSepalCorolla (flower)AndroeciumGynoeciumLeafEpidermis (botany)Palisade CellPlant StemOvuleSeedPericarpAccessory FruitBark (botany)Cork (tissue)PhloemVascular CambiumWoodBranch CollarRootHistory Of BotanyTheophrastusHistoria Plantarum (Theophrastus)RenaissanceGaspard BauhinBinomial NomenclatureTaxonomy (biology)Marcello MalpighiAristotleNehemiah GrewCarl LinnaeusCharles-François Brisseau De MirbelCell BiologyJohann Jacob Paul MoldenhawerA. P. De CandolleFranz MeyenMatthias Jakob SchleidenEduard StrasburgerGottlieb HaberlandtDunkinfield Henry ScottWilliam Crawford WilliamsonCharles DarwinE. C. JeffreyVascular PlantAgnes ArberWorld War IIKatherine EsauPlant MorphologyPlant PhysiologyInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7167-1007-2Digital Object IdentifierJSTORInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-471-73843-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-58784-6Digital Object IdentifierJSTORDigital Object IdentifierJSTORDigital Object IdentifierTemplate:AnatomyTemplate Talk:AnatomyAnatomyMorphology (biology)Gross AnatomySuperficial AnatomyNeuroanatomyComparative AnatomyTranscendental AnatomyHistologyMolecular AnatomyEndoskeleton Of An ElephantBacterial Cell StructureTemplate:Protist StructuresPlant HabitPlant Life-formPlant MorphologyFruit AnatomyBody PlanDecapod AnatomyGastropodaInsect MorphologySpider AnatomyMammal AnatomyHuman AnatomyNeanderthal AnatomyCat AnatomyDog AnatomyEquine AnatomyElephantGiraffeVertebrate AnatomyBird AnatomyFish AnatomyShark AnatomyAllometryBrain MorphometryMorphometricsPhysiognomyTemplate:BotanyTemplate Talk:BotanyBotanyHistory Of BotanyBranches Of BotanyHistory Of Plant SystematicsEthnobotanyPaleobotanyPlant EcologyPhytogeographyGeobotanical ProspectingFloraPhytochemistryPlant PathologyBryologyPhycologyFloristicsDendrologyPlantAlgaeArchaeplastidaBryophyteNon-vascular PlantVascular PlantSpermatophytePteridophyteGymnospermFlowering PlantPlant MorphologyGlossary Of Plant MorphologyPlant CellCell WallPhragmoplastPlastidPlasmodesmaVacuoleTissue (biology)MeristemVascular TissueVascular BundleGround TissueLeafCork CambiumWoodStorage OrganRootRhizoidBulbRhizomeShootPlant StemLeafPetiole (botany)CataphyllBudSessility (botany)Plant Reproductive MorphologyABC Model Of Flower DevelopmentInflorescenceUmbelRacemeBractPedicel (botany)FlowerWhorl (botany)Floral SymmetryFloral DiagramFloral FormulaReceptacle (botany)HypanthiumPerianthTepalPetalSepalSporophyllGynoeciumOvary (botany)OvuleStigma (botany)ArchegoniumStamenStamenStaminodePollenTapetum (botany)Column (botany)GametophyteSporophyteEmbryoFruitFruit AnatomyBerry (botany)Capsule (fruit)SeedSeed DispersalEndospermEpicuticular WaxPlant CuticleEpidermis (botany)StomaNectarTrichomeThorns, Spines, And PricklesPlant PhysiologyPlant NutritionPhotosynthesisChlorophyllPlant HormoneTranspirationTurgor PressureBulk MovementAleuronePhytomelaninSugarSapStarchCelluloseSecondary GrowthWoody PlantHerbaceous PlantHabit (biology)VineLianaShrubSubshrubTreeSucculent PlantPlant ReproductionPlant EvolutionPlant EcologyAlternation Of GenerationsSporangiumSporeMicrosporangiaMicrosporeSporangiumMegasporePollinationPollinatorPollen TubeDouble FertilizationGerminationPlant Evolutionary Developmental BiologyEvolutionary History Of PlantsTimeline Of Plant EvolutionHardiness ZonePlant TaxonomyHistory Of Plant SystematicsHerbariumTaxonomy (biology)Botanical NomenclatureBotanical NameCorrect NameAuthor Citation (botany)International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And PlantsInternational Code Of Nomenclature For Cultivated PlantsTaxonomic RankInternational Association For Plant TaxonomyList Of Systems Of Plant TaxonomyCultivated Plant TaxonomyCitrus TaxonomyCultigenCultivarCultivar GroupGrex (horticulture)AgronomyFloricultureForestryHorticultureGlossary Of Botanical TermsList Of BotanistsList Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation (W–Z)Botanical ExpeditionCategory:BotanyPortal:PlantsWikipedia:WikiProject PlantsHelp:Authority ControlNational Diet LibraryHelp:CategoryCategory:Plant AnatomyCategory:Branches Of BotanyDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link