Contents 1 Fields 2 Overview 3 History 4 Floristic regions 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links


Fields[edit] Phytogeography is part of a more general science known as biogeography. Phytogeographers are concerned with patterns and process in plant distribution. Most of the major questions and kinds of approaches taken to answer such questions are held in common between phyto- and zoogeographers. Phytogeography in wider sense (or geobotany, in German literature) encompasses four fields, according with the focused aspect, environment, flora (taxa), vegetation (plant community) and origin, respectively:[1][2][3][4] plant ecology (or mesology - however, the physiognomic-ecological approach on vegetation and biome study are also generally associated with this field); plant geography (or phytogeography in strict sense, chorology, floristics); plant sociology (or phytosociology, synecology - however, this field doesn't prescind from flora study, as its approach to study vegetation relies upon a fundamental unit, the plant association, which is defined upon flora). historical plant geography (or paleobotany, paleogeobotany) Phytogeography is often divided into two main branches: ecological phytogeography and historical phytogeography. The former investigates the role of current day biotic and abiotic interactions in influencing plant distributions; the latter are concerned with historical reconstruction of the origin, dispersal, and extinction of taxa.[citation needed]


Overview[edit] The basic data element of phytogeography are specimen records. These are collected individual plants like this one, a Cinnamon Fern, collected in the Smokey Mountains of North Carolina. The basic data elements of phytogeography are occurrence records (presence or absence of a species) with operational geographic units such as political units or geographical coordinates. These data are often used to construct phytogeographic provinces (floristic provinces) and elements. The questions and approaches in phytogeography are largely shared with zoogeography, except zoogeography is concerned with animal distribution rather than plant distribution. The term phytogeography itself suggests a broad meaning. How the term is actually applied by practicing scientists is apparent in the way periodicals use the term. The American Journal of Botany, a monthly primary research journal, frequently publishes a section titled "Systematics, Phytogeography, and Evolution." Topics covered in the American Journal of Botany's "Systematics and Phytogeography" section include phylogeography, distribution of genetic variation and, historical biogeography, and general plant species distribution patterns. Biodiversity patterns are not heavily covered.


History[edit] An 1814 self-portrait in Paris of Alexander von Humboldt. Humboldt is often referred to as the "father of phytogeography". Phytogeography has a long history. One of the subjects earliest proponents was Prussian naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, who is often referred to as the "father of phytogeography". Von Humboldt advocated a quantitative approach to phytogeography that has characterized modern plant geography. Gross patterns of the distribution of plants became apparent early on in the study of plant geography. For example, Alfred Russel Wallace, co-discoverer of the principle of natural selection, discussed the Latitudinal gradients in species diversity, a pattern observed in other organisms as well. Much research effort in plant geography has since then been devoted to understanding this pattern and describing it in more detail. In 1890, the United States Congress passed an act that appropriated funds to send expeditions to discover the geographic distributions of plants (and animals) in the United States. The first of these was The Death Valley Expedition, including Frederick Vernon Coville, Frederick Funston, Clinton Hart Merriam, and others.[5] Research in plant geography has also been directed to understanding the patterns of adaptation of species to the environment. This is done chiefly by describing geographical patterns of trait/environment relationships. These patterns termed ecogeographical rules when applied to plants represent another area of phytogeography. Recently, a new field termed macroecology has developed, which focuses on broad-scale (in both time and space) patterns and phenomena in ecology. Macroecology focuses as much on other organisms as plants.


Floristic regions[edit] Good (1947) floristic kingdoms Main article: Floristic regions Floristics is a study of the flora of some territory or area. Traditional phytogeography concerns itself largely with floristics and floristic classification, see floristic province.


See also[edit] Biogeography Botany Geobotanical prospecting Macroecology Species distribution Zoogeography Association (ecology)


References[edit] This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ^ Rizzini, C.T. 1997. Tratado de fitogeografia do Brasil: aspectos ecológicos, sociológicos e florísticos. 2 ed. Rio de Janeiro: Âmbito Cultural Edições, p. 7-11. ^ Mueller-Dombois, D. & Ellenberg, H (1974). Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. New York: John Wiley & Sons. See Mueller-Dombois (2001), p. 567, [1]. ^ Pott, R. 2005. Allgemeine Geobotanik. Biogeosysteme und Biodiversität. Springer: Berlin, p. 13, [2]. ^ Wulff, E.V. (1943). An Introduction to Historical Plant Geography. Chronica Botanica Comp., Waltham, Mass., [3]. ^ Death Valley Expedition (1891), Historic Expeditions, Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, [4]


Bibliography[edit] Brown, J.H. & Lomolino, M.V. 1998. Biogeography. 2nd edition. Chapter 1. Humboldt, A. von & Bonpland, A. 1805. Essai sur la geographie des plantes. Accompagné d'un tableau physique des régions équinoxiales fondé sur des mesures exécutées, depuis le dixiéme degré de latitude boréale jusqu'au dixiéme degré de latitude australe, pendant les années 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802 et 1803. Paris: Schöll, [5]. Polunin, N. 1960. Introduction to plant geography and some related sciences. New York, McGraw-Hill, [6]. Wallace, A. R. 1878. Tropical nature and other essays. Macmillan, London.


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Phytogeography.  Clements, Frederic E. (1920). "Plant Geography". Encyclopedia Americana.   "Distribution of Plants". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  v t e Phytogeography: Vegetation classification Physiognomy Forests, woodlands, arboretum Shrublands, scrubs, thickets, fruticetum Dwarf-shrubland, subshrublands, dwarf-scrubs, suffruticetum Herbaceous communities, grasslands, steppes, prairies, herbetum Savannas, parklands Scarcely vegetated areas, desert vegetation Latitude Tropical Subtropical Temperate Subpolar Polar Climatic regime Pluvial, rainy, ombrophilous Cloudy Seasonal Drought Altitude Montane Submontane Lowland Coastal Leaves Loss of leaves Deciduous, caducifolious Semi-deciduous, semicaducifolious Evergreen, perennifolious Leaf hardness Sclerophyll, stiff leaves Orthophyll, hyptiophyll leaves Leaf form Aciculifolious, needle-leaved Latifolious, broad-leaved Substrate Terrestrial vegetation Aquatic vegetation Riparian Mangrove Swampy See also Biogeographic realms Biomes Floristic kingdoms Plant habits Plant life-forms Vegetation v t e Biogeography Phylogeography Zoogeography Phytogeography Island biogeography Palaeobiogeography Panbiogeography Microbial biogeography v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Authority control GND: 4045561-0 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Phytogeography&oldid=820341073" Categories: PhytogeographyBiogeographyBiology terminologyHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from August 2016Articles with unsourced statements from September 2016Articles lacking in-text citations from June 2012All articles lacking in-text citationsWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopedia Americana with a Wikisource referenceWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International EncyclopediaWikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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