Contents 1 Life cycle and structure 2 Growth 3 Benefits in agriculture 4 Location 5 Types 6 List of perennials 6.1 Perennial flowers 6.2 Perennial fruits 6.3 Perennial herbs 6.4 Perennial vegetables 7 See also 8 References 9 External links


Life cycle and structure[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Perennial plants can be short-lived (only a few years) or they can be long-lived, as are some woody plants like trees. They include a wide assortment of plant groups from ferns and liverworts to the highly diverse flowering plants like orchids and grasses. Plants that flower and fruit only once and then die are termed monocarpic or semelparous. However, most perennials are polycarpic (or iteroparous), flowering over many seasons in their lifetime. Perennials typically grow structures that allow them to adapt to living from one year to the next through a form of vegetative reproduction rather than seeding. These structures include bulbs, tubers, woody crowns, rhizomes plus others. They might have specialized stems or crowns that allow them to survive periods of dormancy over cold or dry seasons during the year. Annuals produce seeds to continue the species as a new generation while the growing season is suitable, and the seeds survive over the cold or dry period to begin growth when the conditions are again suitable. Many perennials have developed specialized features that allow them to survive extreme climatic and environmental conditions. Some have adapted to survive hot and dry conditions or cold temperatures. Those plants tend to invest a lot of resource into their adaptations and often do not flower and set seed until after a few years of growth. Many perennials produce relatively large seeds, which can have an advantage, with larger seedlings produced after germination that can better compete with other plants. Some annuals produce many more seeds per plant in one season, while some (polycarpic) perennials are not under the same pressure to produce large numbers of seeds but can produce seeds over many years. Dahlia plants are perennial.


Growth[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) In warmer and more favorable climates, perennials grow continuously. In seasonal climates, their growth is limited to the growing season. In some species, perennials retain their foliage all year round; these are evergreen perennials. Other plants are deciduous perennials, for example, in temperate regions a perennial plant may grow and bloom during the warm part of the year, with the foliage dying back in the winter. In many parts of the world, seasonality is expressed as wet and dry periods rather than warm and cold periods, and deciduous perennials lose their leaves in the dry season. With their roots protected below ground in the soil layer, perennial plants are notably tolerant of wildfire. Herbaceous perennials are also able to tolerate the extremes of cold in temperate and Arctic winters, with less sensitivity than trees or shrubs.


Benefits in agriculture[edit] Switchgrass is a deep-rooted perennial. These roots are more than 3 meters long. Although most of humanity is fed by the re-sowing of the seeds of annual grain crops, (either naturally or by the manual efforts of man), perennial crops provide numerous benefits.[4] Perennial plants often have deep, extensive root systems which can hold soil to prevent erosion, capture dissolved nitrogen before it can contaminate ground and surface water, and out-compete weeds (reducing the need for herbicides). These potential benefits of perennials have resulted in new attempts to increase the seed yield of perennial species,[5] which could result in the creation of new perennial grain crops.[6] Some examples of new perennial crops being developed are perennial rice and intermediate wheatgrass. The Land Institute estimates that profitable, productive perennial grain crops will take at least 25 years to achieve.


Location[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Stereo image Left frame  Right frame  Parallel view () Cross-eye view () Seeds from various perennial flowers Perennial plants dominate many natural ecosystems on land and in fresh water, with only a very few (e.g. Zostera) occurring in shallow sea water. Herbaceous perennial plants are particularly dominant in conditions too fire-prone for trees and shrubs, e.g., most plants on prairies and steppes are perennials; they are also dominant on tundra too cold for tree growth. Nearly all forest plants are perennials, including the trees and shrubs. Perennial plants are usually better competitors than annual plants, especially under stable, resource-poor conditions. This is due to the development of larger root systems which can access water and soil nutrients deeper in the soil and to earlier emergence in the spring.


Types[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Examples of evergreen perennials include Begonia and banana. Examples of deciduous perennials include goldenrod and mint. Examples of monocarpic perennials include Agave and some species of Streptocarpus. Examples of woody perennials include maple, pine, and apple trees. Examples of herbaceous perennials used in agriculture include alfalfa, Thinopyrum intermedium, and Red clover.


List of perennials[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Perennial flowers[edit] Gulmohur Hibiscus Perennial fruits[edit] Apple Apricot Avocado Banana Blackcurrant Blueberry Blackberry Currant Feijoa Grape Kiwi fruit Japanese wineberry Pear Persimmon Pineapple Plum Pomegranate Raspberries Strawberry Strawberry tree Tomato Perennial herbs[edit] The following perennial plants are used as herbs: Agastache Alfalfa Althaea officinalis (marshmallow) Basil, many varieties: African blue, East Indian Chives Fennel Ferula Garlic Ginger Hops - Humulus Hyssop Horseradish Lavender Lemon balm Mint Onions, many varieties: potato onions, shallots, Egyptian onions, Japanese bunching onions, Welsh onions, Chinese leeks Oregano Piper nigrum (black pepper) Rosemary Sage Thyme Valerian White horehound - Marrubium vulgare Yarrow - Achillea millefolium Perennial vegetables[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Many vegetable plants can grow as perennials in tropical climates, but die in cold weather. Some of the more completely perennial vegetables are: Allium tricoccum Asparagus Broccoli: nine star Chives Colocasia esculenta Globe artichoke Apios americana ground Nut Jerusalem artichoke Konjac Leek Milkweed (Asclepias) New Zealand spinach Potato Radicchio or a.k.a. Italian chicory Rhubarb Siberian pea tree (Caragana arborescens) Sorrel Rakkyo Sea kale Collard greens Mustard greens Turnip greens Kale Sweet potato Taro Watercress


See also[edit] Annual plant Biennial plant Herbaceous Herbchronology Perennial grain


References[edit] ^ The Garden Helper. The Difference Between Annual Plants and Perennial Plants in the Garden. Retrieved on 2008-06-22. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.  ^ Stearn, William T. "Botanical Latin" (four editions, 1966-92) ^ Glover et al. Future Farming: A return to roots? Retrieved on 2008-11-11. ^ Moffat 1996 [1] Retrieved on 2008-11-14 ^ Cox et al. 2000 [2] Retrieved on 2008-11-14


External links[edit] Wikiquote has quotations related to: Perennial plant USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map Gardening with Perennials Edible Aroids Plants for a Future Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Perennial_plant&oldid=811428224" Categories: Botanical nomenclaturePlantsGarden plantsPerennial plantsHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from March 2016All articles needing additional referencesArticles that may contain original research from August 2007All articles that may contain original researchArticles with multiple maintenance issuesArticles needing additional references from July 2017Articles needing additional references from March 2011


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