Contents 1 Commercial importance 2 Misconceptions 3 References 4 External links


Commercial importance[edit] Seedlessness is seen as a desirable trait in edible fruit with hard seeds such as banana, pineapple, orange and grapefruit. Parthenocarpy is also desirable in fruit crops that may be difficult to pollinate or fertilize, such as fig, tomato and summer squash. In dioecious species, such as persimmon, parthenocarpy increases fruit production because staminate trees do not need to be planted to provide pollen. Parthenocarpy is undesirable in nut crops, such as pistachio, for which the seed is the edible part. Horticulturists have selected and propagated parthenocarpic cultivars of many plants, including banana, fig, cactus pear (Opuntia), breadfruit and eggplant. Some plants, such as pineapple, produce seedless fruits when a single cultivar is grown because they are self-infertile. Some cucumbers produce seedless fruit if pollinators are excluded. Strange as it seems, seedless watermelon plants are grown from seeds. The seeds are produced by crossing a diploid parent with a tetraploid parent to produce triploid seeds. When sprayed on flowers, any of the plant hormones gibberellin, auxin and cytokinin could stimulate the development of parthenocarpic fruit. That is termed artificial parthenocarpy. Plant hormones are seldom used commercially to produce parthenocarpic fruit. Home gardeners sometimes spray their tomatoes with an auxin to assure fruit production.[citation needed] Some parthenocarpic cultivars have been developed as genetically modified organisms.[4] Some parthenocarpic cultivars are of ancient origin. The oldest known cultivated plant is a parthenocarpic fig first that was grown at least 11,200 years ago.[5] In some climates, normally-seeded pear cultivars produce mainly seedless fruit for lack of pollination.[6]


Misconceptions[edit] Most commercial seedless grape cultivars, such as 'Thompson Seedless', are seedless because of not parthenocarpy but stenospermocarpy.[7] Parthenocarpy is sometimes claimed to be the equivalent of parthenogenesis in animals.[8] That is incorrect because parthenogenesis is a method of asexual reproduction, with embryo formation without fertilization, and parthenocarpy involves fruit formation, without seed formation. The plant equivalent of parthenogenesis is apomixis.


References[edit] ^ Zangerl AR, Nitao JK, Berenbaum MR (1991). "Parthenocarpic fruits in wild parsnip: decoy defence against a specialist herbivore". Evolutionary Ecology. 5 (2): 136–45. doi:10.1007/BF02270830.  ^ Fuentes M, Schupp EW (1998). "Empty seeds reduce seed predation by birds in Juniperus osteosperma" (PDF). Evolutionary Ecology. 12 (7): 823–7. doi:10.1023/A:1006594532392. Archived from the original on 2006-11-10.  ^ Acciarri, N.; Restaino, F.; Vitelli, G.; Perrone, D.; Zottini, M.; Pandolfini, T.; Spena, A.; Rotino, G. (2002). "Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: Improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation". BMC Biotechnology. 2: 4. doi:10.1186/1472-6750-2-4. PMC 101493 . PMID 11934354.  ^ Pandolfini T, Rotino GL, Camerini S, Defez R, Spena A (2002). "Optimisation of transgene action at the post-transcriptional level: high quality parthenocarpic fruits in industrial tomatoes". BMC Biotechnol. 2: 1. doi:10.1186/1472-6750-2-1. PMC 65046 . PMID 11818033.  ^ Kislev ME, Hartmann A, Bar-Yosef O (June 2006). "Early domesticated fig in the Jordan Valley". Science. 312 (5778): 1372–4. doi:10.1126/science.1125910. PMID 16741119.  ^ R.L. Stebbins, W.M. Mellenthin, and P.B. Lombard (1981) Pollination & Commercial Varieties of Pears in Oregon Oregon State University Extension Service. ^ Mullins, M., Bouquet, A., Edward, L. (1992). "Biology of the grapevine". . Cambridge University Press, p. 75. ^ "parthenogenesis. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07". bartleby.com. Archived from the original on 28 June 2008. 


External links[edit] Weiss, J., Nerd, A. and Mizrahi, Y (1993). "Vegetative parthenocarpy in the cactus pear Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill". Annals of Botany. 72 (6): 521–6. doi:10.1006/anbo.1993.1140. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parthenocarpy&oldid=814106497" Categories: Plant morphologyPlant reproductionHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from July 2014CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list


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