Contents 1 History of the term 2 Relationship maintenance 2.1 Ground rules 2.2 Styles 2.3 Jealousy issues 3 Acceptance 3.1 Legal issues 4 Incidence 4.1 Notable people 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

History of the term[edit] The origins of the term remain obscure. Researchers in the 1960s used the term "open marriage" to describe individual freedom in choosing marriage partners.[1][2] A "closed marriage" said individuals had to marry someone based on social conventions and proscriptions; "open marriage" meant individuals could choose to marry someone based on personal preferences.[citation needed] Nena O'Neill and George O'Neill changed the meaning of the term with the 1972 publication of their book Open Marriage, which sold over 1.5 million copies. The O'Neills conceived open marriage as one in which each partner has room for personal growth and can develop outside friendships. Most chapters in the book dealt with non-controversial approaches to revitalizing marriage in areas of trust, role flexibility, communication, identity, and equality. Chapter 16, entitled "Love Without Jealousy", devoted 20 pages to the proposition that an open marriage could include some forms of sexuality with other partners. These concepts entered the cultural consciousness and the term "open marriage" became a synonym for sexually non-monogamous marriage—much to the regret of the O'Neills. In her 1977 book, The Marriage Premise, Nena O'Neill advocated sexual fidelity in the chapter with that same name. That year, she told the New York Times, "The whole area of extramarital sex is touchy. I don't think we ever saw it as a concept for the majority, and certainly it has not proved to be."[3] However, by then, the use of the term "open marriage" to mean sexually non-monogamous marriage was in widespread use. George O'Neill died in 1980; Nena died in 2006.[3] Today, with many committed couples not seeking formal marriage, the term is frequently generalized to "open relationship".[citation needed]

Relationship maintenance[edit] Main article: Open marriage relationship The impact of open marriage on relationships varies across couples. Some couples report high levels of marital satisfaction and have long-lasting open marriages.[citation needed] Other couples drop out of the open marriage lifestyle and return to sexual monogamy. These couples may continue to believe open marriage is a valid way of life, just not for them. Still, other couples experience serious problems and claim open marriage contributed to their divorces.[citation needed] Ground rules[edit] Couples involved in open marriages or relationships typically adopt a set of ground rules to guide their activities.[citation needed] Ground rules in relationships allow partners to coordinate their behaviors, so they achieve shared goals with fewer conflicts. Some ground rules are universal in the sense that they apply to virtually all relationships in a particular culture. Other ground rules apply to particular kinds of relationships, such as friendships or marriages. Still other ground rules are designed to manage romantic rivalry and jealousy. The ground rules adopted by sexually monogamous couples tend to prevent behaviors that are viewed as acts of infidelity. The ground rules adopted by sexually open couples tend to prohibit behaviors that provoke jealousy or sexual health concerns. Partners may change the ground rules of their relationships over time. One example of a changing ground rule includes where a married couple decides to separate. Without divorcing, they are still legally married. However, they may choose to continue cohabitation.[citation needed] Styles[edit] Main article: Open marriage styles Couples in open marriages may prefer different kinds of extramarital relationships. Couples who prefer extramarital relationships emphasizing love and emotional involvement have a polyamorous style of open marriage. Couples who prefer extramarital relationships emphasizing sexual gratification and recreational friendships have a swinging style of open marriage. These distinctions may depend on psychological factors such as sociosexuality and may contribute to the formation of separate Polyamory and Swinging communities. Despite their distinctions, however, all open marriages share common issues: the lack of social acceptance, the need to maintain the health of their relationship and avoid neglect, and the need to manage jealous rivalry. Many open couples maintain rules forbidding emotional attachment, extramarital children, extramarital sex in the marital bed, extramarital sex with those known to both partners, or extramarital sex without the use of barrier contraception.[citation needed] Some open marriages are one-sided. Some situations giving rise to this are where the libidos of partners differ greatly, or illness renders one partner incapable of, or no longer desiring, sex. The couple may remain together while one partner seeks out sexual gratification as he/she sees fit. The difference between these situations and a cheating situation is that both partners in the marriage are aware of, and agree to the arrangement.[citation needed] Jealousy issues[edit] Main article: Open marriage jealousy Couples in open marriage may expose themselves to situations that could provoke jealousy. Most couples in open marriages report experiencing jealousy at some point during their marriage.[citation needed] Ground rules are one way to help manage jealousy in open relationships. However, ground rules may not be sufficient.[citation needed] Couples in open marriages may benefit from a general understanding of jealousy and how to cope with it.[citation needed]

Acceptance[edit] Main article: Open marriage acceptance Surveys show large majorities of people disapprove of extramarital sexual activity.[citation needed] A few studies show people specifically disapprove of open marriages.[citation needed] Critics have put forward moral, medical, and psychological objections to open marriages.[citation needed] The lack of social acceptance places pressure on couples to hide their open marriages from family, friends, and colleagues. This may limit their social support network.[citation needed] Many of those disapproving with open marriage speak up against it because of "religious and moral reasons" making these groups differ from those agreeing.[4] Those that have admitted to an open marriage or any "informal arrangement", "probably is 4% to 9% in U.S. adults".[5] The term of open marriage isn't really something just "invented". Now we are starting to see a different form of monogamy that is "open to variety of lovers" and shares "feelings", "needs", and "desires".[6] This sexual practice isn't new, we have been seeing these styles of openness in the 1960 through the 70s with the sexual openness of "swingers". Legal issues[edit] Whether an open marriage is with the knowledge, consent or encouragement of the partners, the practice may still be regarded as extramarital sex or adultery, which may be illegal in some jurisdictions.

Incidence[edit] Main article: Open marriage incidence The incidence of open marriage is the frequency with which open marriage occurs. Several definitional issues complicate attempts to determine the incidence of open marriage. People sometimes claim to have open marriages when their spouses would not agree. Couples may agree to allow extramarital sex but never actually engage in extramarital sex. Some researchers define open marriages in narrow terms. Despite these difficulties, researchers have estimated that between 1.7 percent and 6 percent of married people are involved in open marriages.[citation needed] Notable people[edit] Jenny Block, author of Open: Love, Sex and Life in an Open Marriage[7] Thomas Braden, journalist[8] Margaret Cho, actress and comedian[9][10] Misha Collins, actor and wife Vicki Vantoch, author[11] Bob Crane, actor and Sigrid Valdis, actress[12] Robert Crumb and Aline Crumb, cartoonists[13] Salvador Dalí, artist, and his wife Gala Dalí[14] Ruby Dee and Ossie Davis, they described their decision to have an open marriage, later changing their minds.[15] Denholm Elliott, actor[16] Havelock Ellis, sexologist[17] Erica Jong, author[18] Larry King, talk show host and Shawn Southwick, singer[19] Alfred Kinsey, sexologist and wife Clara Bracken McMillen Charles Laughton, actor, and Elsa Lanchester, actress[20] Shirley MacLaine, actress[21] Edna St. Vincent Millay, American poet[22] Mo'Nique, actress/comedian[23] Amanda Palmer, American performer and Neil Gaiman, English author[24] Ayn Rand, novelist, philosopher, playwright, and screenwriter[25] Robert Rimmer, author of The Harrad Experiment.[26] Vita Sackville-West, author, and husband Harold Nicolson[27] Margaret Sanger, founder of Planned Parenthood[28][29] Eliezer Yudkowsky, AI researcher and blogger[30] Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart & Oberon Zell-Ravenheart, authors and Neopagans.[citation needed]

See also[edit] Ménage à trois Open relationship

References[edit] ^ Johnson, H.M. (1960). Sociology: A Systematic Introduction. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc. ^ Jacobsohn, P., & Matheny, A.P. (1963). Mate selection in open marriage systems. In K. Ishwaran and J.M. Mogey (Eds.), Family and Marriage (pp. 98-123). Leiden, The Netherlands: E.J. Brill, Publisher. ^ a b Fox, Margalit (26 March 2006). "Nena O'Neill, 82, an Author of 'Open Marriage,' Is Dead" – via  ^ "The Slippery Slope of Open Marriage". Psychology Today.  ^ "The Truth About Open Marriage". WebMD.  ^ "A New Monogamy? A Fresh Look at Open Marriage for 2016". The Huffington Post.  ^ Kearl, Mary (3 November 2009). "Love, Sex and Parenting in an Open Relationship". AOL Health. Retrieved 27 May 2010.  ^ Pace, Eric (1 September 1999). "Joan Braden Is Dead at 77; Hostess to a Capital Elite". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 May 2010.  ^ "Margaret Cho Opens Up About Her Open Marriage". Huffington Post. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.  ^ Signorile, Michelangelo (14 August 2013). "Margaret Cho On Her Open Marriage: 'I Can't Stop Up That Hole' Interview Discusses Monogamy, Bisexuality, Open Relationships". Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 November 2010.  ^ Vantoch, Vicki (2007). The Threesome Handbookk: A Practical Guide to Sleeping with Three. Da Capo Press. p. [page needed]. ISBN 978-1568583334.  ^ "Autofocus" by Natasha Theobald ^ Salkin, Allen (21 January 2007). "Mr. and Mrs. Natural". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 May 2010.  ^ Hedgecoe, Guy (21 July 2017). "Digging up Dali: Why experts question artist paternity claim". BBC News.  ^ "Definition and Examples of Open Marriages".  ^ "Susan Elliott (Obituary)". The Daily Telegraph. 24 April 2007.  ^] ^ "Scenes From an Open Marriage" (PDF). Retrieved 19 March 2013.  ^ "Exclusive interview". 15 November 2007.  ^ "SALON Departments: Listress Answers". Retrieved 27 May 2010.  ^ "Steve Parker and Shirley MacLaine Marriage Profile". Retrieved 27 May 2010.  ^ Epstein, Daniel Mark (2001). What Lips my Lips Have Kissed: The Loves and Love Poems of Edna St. Vincent Millay. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-6727-2.  ^ 7/22/07 by. "Mo'Nique's in an Open Marriage at The Insider". Retrieved 27 May 2010.  ^ "Amanda Palmer Gets Intimate". 20 September 2012.  ^ Branden, Barbara (1986). The Passion of Ayn Rand. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company. pp. 256–264, 331–343. ISBN 0-385-19171-5. OCLC 12614728.  Branden 1986 ^ Robert Rimmer, Adventures in Loving, New York, New American Library, 1973. ^ Glendinning, Victoria (1983). VITA. A Biography of Vita Sackville-West. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 436.  ^ Peterson James R. (1999). The Century of Sex: Playboy's History of the Sexual Revolution 1900-1999. New York. Grove Press. (p.61) ISBN 0-8021-1652-3 ^ Kingston Anne. (2004). The Meaning of Wife. Union Square West, N.Y. Farrar, Straus and West. (p.80) ISBN 978-0-374-20510-2 ^ "Eliezer S. Yudkowsky". Retrieved 5 November 2015. 

Further reading[edit] Block, J. (2009). Open: Love, Sex and Life in an Open Marriage. Seal Press. ISBN 978-1580052757 O'Neill, N. / O'Neill, George (1984). Open Marriage: A New Life Style for Couples. M. Evans & Company. ISBN 978-0871314383 Schott, O. (2014). In Praise of Open Relationships. On Love, Sex, Reason, and Happiness. Bertz + Fischer Publishing. ISBN 978-3-86505-725-9

External links[edit] A Handbook on Open Relationships Liberated in Love: Can Open Marriage Work? v t e Close plural relationships By type Group marriage Open marriage Open relationship Polyamory Polyandry Polyfidelity Polygamy Polygynandry Polygyny Relationship anarchy History and Culture Nikah Ijtimah Polygamy in Christianity Polygamy in North America Polygyny in Islam LDS/FLDS Origin Current state List of practitioners Celestial marriage Sealing Spiritual wifery Placement marriage Lost boys Polygamy czar Terms Compersion New relationship energy Primary and secondary Terminology within polyamory Values within polyamory v t e Close relationships Types of relationships Domestic partnership Family Marriage Husband Wife Significant other Soulmate Siblings Cousin Widowhood Boyfriend Girlfriend Casual Cohabitation Romantic friendship Sexual partner Sugar baby Friendship Kinship Monogamy Non-monogamy Open marriage Open relationship Polyamory Polyfidelity Polygamy Same-sex relationship Cicisbeo Concubinage Courtesan Mistress Romantic relationship events Annulment Bonding Breakup Courtship Dating Divorce Mating Meet market Romance Separation Singles event Wedding Feelings and emotions Affinity Attachment Compersion Intimacy Jealousy Limerence Love Passion Platonic love Psychology of sexual monogamy Unconditional love Human practices Bride price Dower Dowry Hypergamy Infidelity Repression Sexual activity Transgression Relationship abuse Child abuse Dating abuse Domestic violence Elder abuse Retrieved from "" Categories: Sexual fidelityTypes of marriageOpen marriageHidden categories: Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from March 2015Use dmy dates from July 2017Articles needing additional references from October 2012All articles needing additional referencesArticles that may contain original research from April 2012All articles that may contain original researchArticles with multiple maintenance issuesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from October 2012Articles with unsourced statements from March 2012Articles with unsourced statements from November 2011Articles with unsourced statements from October 2009Articles with unsourced statements from August 2008Articles with unsourced statements from July 2017

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