Contents 1 Taxonomy and etymology 2 Description 3 Uses 3.1 Origin and history 3.2 Onion types and products 3.3 Culinary uses 3.4 Non-culinary uses 4 Composition 4.1 Nutrients 4.2 Phytochemicals 4.3 Eye irritation 5 Cultivation 5.1 Pests and diseases 5.2 Storage in the home 6 Varieties 6.1 Common onion group (var. cepa) 6.2 Aggregatum group (var. aggregatum) 6.2.1 Hybrids with A. cepa parentage 7 Production 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Taxonomy and etymology[edit] The onion plant (Allium cepa), also known as the bulb onion[5] or common onion,[6] is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.[7][8] It was first officially described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 work Species Plantarum.[9] A number of synonyms have appeared in its taxonomic history: Allium cepa var. aggregatum – G. Don Allium cepa var. bulbiferum – Regel Allium cepa var. cepa – Linnaeus Allium cepa var. multiplicans – L.H. Bailey Allium cepa var. proliferum – (Moench) Regel Allium cepa var. solaninum – Alef Allium cepa var. viviparum – (Metz) Mansf.[10][11] A. cepa is known exclusively from cultivation,[12] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. The most closely related species include A. vavilovii (Popov & Vved.) and A. asarense (R.M. Fritsch & Matin) from Iran.[13] However, Zohary and Hopf state that "there are doubts whether the A. vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop."[14] The vast majority of cultivars of A. cepa belong to the "common onion group" (A. cepa var. cepa) and are usually referred to simply as "onions". The Aggregatum group of cultivars (A. cepa var. aggregatum) includes both shallots and potato onions.[15] The genus Allium also contains a number of other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum), Egyptian onion (A. ×proliferum), and Canada onion (A. canadense).[6] Cepa is commonly accepted as Latin for "onion" and has an affinity with Ancient Greek: κάπια (kápia), Albanian: qepë, Aromanian: tseapã, Catalan: ceba, English: chive, Occitan: ceba, Spanish: cebolla, Old French: cive, and Romanian: ceapă.

Description[edit] Stereo image Left frame  Right frame  Parallel view () Cross-eye view () Onion seeds have a very distinct shape. The onion plant has been grown and selectively bred in cultivation for at least 7,000 years. It is a biennial plant, but is usually grown as an annual. Modern varieties typically grow to a height of 15 to 45 cm (6 to 18 in). The leaves are yellowish- to bluish green and grow alternately in a flattened, fan-shaped swathe. They are fleshy, hollow, and cylindrical, with one flattened side. They are at their broadest about a quarter of the way up, beyond which they taper towards a blunt tip. The base of each leaf is a flattened, usually white sheath that grows out of a basal disc. From the underside of the disc, a bundle of fibrous roots extends for a short way into the soil. As the onion matures, food reserves begin to accumulate in the leaf bases and the bulb of the onion swells.[16] In the autumn, the leaves die back and the outer scales of the bulb become dry and brittle, so the crop is then normally harvested. If left in the soil over winter, the growing point in the middle of the bulb begins to develop in the spring. New leaves appear and a long, stout, hollow stem expands, topped by a bract protecting a developing inflorescence. The inflorescence takes the form of a globular umbel of white flowers with parts in sixes. The seeds are glossy black and triangular in cross section.[16]The average pH of an onion is around 5.5[17]

Uses[edit] Origin and history[edit] A red onion Woodcut, 1547 The geographic origin of the onion is uncertain because the wild onion is extinct and ancient records of using onions span western and eastern Asia.[18][19] The first cultivated, farmed onions are the subject of much debate, but the two regions that many archaeologists, botanists, and food historians point to are central Asia or Persia. They were probably & almost simultaneously domesticated by peoples all over the globe, as there are species of the onion found the world over.[20] Food uses of onions date back thousands of years in China, Egypt and Persia.[18][19][20] Traces of onions recovered from Bronze Age settlements in China suggest that onions were used as far back as 5000 BCE, not only for their flavour, but the bulb's durability in storage and transport.[21][20] Ancient Egyptians revered the onion bulb, viewing its spherical shape and concentric rings as symbols of eternal life.[20] Onions were used in Egyptian burials, as evidenced by onion traces found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV.[22] Numbers, the fourth book of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, and also believed by scholarship to have been initially composed around the 5th century BCE, mentions onions when recounting scarce foodstuffs available before the Jewish exodus but unavailable at the time of its composition: 11:5 — "We remember the fish which we used to eat free in Egypt, the cucumbers, the melons, the leeks, the onions, and the garlic."[20] In the 6th century BCE, the Charaka Samhita, one of the primary works in the Ayurvedic tradition, documents the onion's use on the Asian subcontinent as a medicinal plant: "[A] diuretic, good for digestion, the heart, the eyes, and the joints."[20] A Greek physician of the first century, Dioscorides, also documents the medicinal use of the onion, pointing out its traditional use by athletes for "fortification" before the Olympic Games, when they are said to have been eaten in huge quantities, drank as juice, and rubbed upon their bodies.[20] Pliny the Elder, also in the first century CE, wrote about the use of onions and cabbage in Pompeii. He documented Roman beliefs about the onion's ability to improve ocular ailments, aid in sleep, and heal everything from oral sores and toothaches to dog bites, lumbago, and even dysentery. Archaeologists unearthing Pompeii long after its 79 CE volcanic burial have found gardens resembling those in Pliny's detailed narratives.[20] According to texts collected in the fifth/sixth century CE under the authorial aegis of "Apicius" (said to have been a gourmet), onions were used in many Roman recipes.[20] In the Age of Discovery, onions were taken to North America by the first European settlers,[18] only to discover the plant readily available, and in wide use in Native American gastronomy.[18] According to diaries kept by certain of the first English colonists, the bulb onion was one of the first crops planted by the Pilgrim fathers.[20] Onion types and products[edit] Sliced red onions Jar of pickled onions Common onions are normally available in three colour varieties. Yellow or brown onions (called red in some European countries), are full-flavoured and are the onions of choice for everyday use, with many cultivars bred specifically to demonstrate this sweetness (Vidalia, Walla Walla, Cévennes, "Bermuda,"[23] &c.). Yellow onions turn a rich, dark brown when caramelised and give French onion soup its sweet flavour. The red onion (called purple in some European countries) is a good choice for fresh use when its colour livens up the dish; it is also used in grilling. White onions are the traditional onions used in classic Mexican cuisine; they have a golden colour when cooked and a particularly sweet flavour when sautéed.[24][20] While the large, mature onion bulb is most often eaten, onions can be eaten at immature stages. Young plants may be harvested before bulbing occurs and used whole as spring onions or scallions. When an onion is harvested after bulbing has begun, but the onion is not yet mature, the plants are sometimes referred to as "summer" onions.[25] Additionally, onions may be bred and grown to mature at smaller sizes. Depending on the mature size and the purpose for which the onion is used, these may be referred to as pearl, boiler, or pickler onions, but differ from true pearl onions which are a different species.[25] Pearl and boiler onions may be cooked as a vegetable rather than as an ingredient and pickler onions are often preserved in vinegar as a long-lasting relish.[26] Onions are available in fresh, frozen, canned, caramelised, pickled, and chopped forms. The dehydrated product is available as kibbled, sliced, ring, minced, chopped, granulated, and powder forms. Onion powder is a seasoning widely used when the fresh ingredient is not available. It is made from finely ground, dehydrated onions, mainly the pungent varieties of bulb onions, and has a strong odour. Being dehydrated, it has a long shelf life and is available in several varieties: yellow, red, and white.[27] Culinary uses[edit] See also: List of onion dishes Sautéing onions Onions are commonly chopped and used as an ingredient in various hearty warm dishes, and may also be used as a main ingredient in their own right, for example in French onion soup, creamed onions, and onion chutney. They are versatile and can be baked, boiled, braised, grilled, fried, roasted, sautéed, or eaten raw in salads.[28] Their layered nature makes them easy to hollow out once cooked, facilitating stuffing them, as in Turkish sogan-dolma. Onions are a staple in Indian cuisine, used as a thickening agent for curries and gravies. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack around the world, and as a side serving in pubs and fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. They are part of a traditional British pub's ploughman's lunch, usually served with crusty bread, English cheese, and ale. In North America, onions are a part of most cuisines, but are most famously sliced, battered, deep-fried, and served as onion rings.[28] Similar to garlic,[29] onions can show an additional colour – pink-red – after cutting, an effect caused by reactions of amino acids with sulfur compounds.[30] Non-culinary uses[edit] The large size of onion cells makes them ideal for practicing microscopy. These cells from the epidermis of a red onion are naturally pigmented. Onions have particularly large cells that are readily observed under low magnification. Forming a single layer of cells, the bulb epidermis is easy to separate for educational, experimental, and breeding purposes.[31][32] Onions are, therefore, commonly employed in science education to teach the use of a microscope for observing cell structure.[33] Onions are toxic to dogs, cats, guinea pigs, and many other animals.[34][35]

Composition[edit] Nutrients[edit] Raw onion bulbs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 166 kJ (40 kcal) Carbohydrates 9.34 g Sugars 4.24 g Dietary fibre 1.7 g Fat 0.1 g Protein 1.1 g Vitamins Thiamine (B1) (4%) 0.046 mg Riboflavin (B2) (2%) 0.027 mg Niacin (B3) (1%) 0.116 mg Pantothenic acid (B5) (2%) 0.123 mg Vitamin B6 (9%) 0.12 mg Folate (B9) (5%) 19 μg Vitamin C (9%) 7.4 mg Minerals Calcium (2%) 23 mg Iron (2%) 0.21 mg Magnesium (3%) 10 mg Manganese (6%) 0.129 mg Phosphorus (4%) 29 mg Potassium (3%) 146 mg Zinc (2%) 0.17 mg Other constituents Water 89.11 g Fluoride 1.1 µg Link to USDA Database entry Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database Most onion cultivars are about 89% water, 9% carbohydrates (including 4% sugar and 2% dietary fibre), 1% protein, and negligible fat (table). Onions contain low amounts of essential nutrients and have an energy value of 166 kJ (40 Calories) in a 100 g (3.5 oz) amount. Onions contribute savoury flavour to dishes without contributing significant caloric content.[20] Phytochemicals[edit] Considerable differences exist between onion varieties in phytochemical content, particularly for polyphenols, with shallots having the highest level, six times the amount found in Vidalia onions.[36] Yellow onions have the highest total flavonoid content, an amount 11 times higher than in white onions.[36] Red onions have considerable content of anthocyanin pigments, with at least 25 different compounds identified representing 10% of total flavonoid content.[36] Onion polyphenols are under basic research to determine their possible biological properties in humans.[36][37] Some people suffer from allergic reactions after handling onions.[38] Symptoms can include contact dermatitis, intense itching, rhinoconjunctivitis, blurred vision, bronchial asthma, sweating, and anaphylaxis. Allergic reactions may not occur when eating cooked onions, possibly due to the denaturing of the proteins from cooking.[39] Eye irritation[edit] Cut onions emit certain compounds which cause the lacrimal glands in the eyes to become irritated, releasing tears. Peeling onions Freshly cut onions often cause a stinging sensation in the eyes of people nearby, and often uncontrollable tears. This is caused by the release of a volatile gas, syn-propanethial-S-oxide, which stimulates nerves in the eye creating a stinging sensation.[7] This gas is produced by a chain of reactions which serve as a defence mechanism: chopping an onion causes damage to cells which releases enzymes called alliinases. These break down amino acid sulfoxides and generate sulfenic acids. A specific sulfenic acid, 1-propenesulfenic acid, is rapidly acted on by a second enzyme, the lacrimatory factor synthase, producing the syn-propanethial-S-oxide.[7] This gas diffuses through the air and soon reaches the eyes, where it activates sensory neurons. Lacrimal glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant.[40] Eye irritation can be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water.[40] Leaving the root end intact also reduces irritation as the onion base has a higher concentration of sulphur compounds than the rest of the bulb.[41] Refrigerating the onions before use reduces the enzyme reaction rate and using a fan can blow the gas away from the eyes. The more often one chops onions, the less one experiences eye irritation.[42] The amount of sulfenic acids and lacrimal factor released and the irritation effect differs among Allium species. In 2008, the New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research created "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology to prevent the synthesis of lachrymatory factor synthase in onions.[43]

Cultivation[edit] Large-scale cultivation Onions are best cultivated in fertile soils that are well-drained. Sandy loams are good as they are low in sulphur, while clayey soils usually have a high sulphur content and produce pungent bulbs. Onions require a high level of nutrients in the soil. Phosphorus is often present in sufficient quantities, but may be applied before planting because of its low level of availability in cold soils. Nitrogen and potash can be applied at regular intervals during the growing season, the last application of nitrogen being at least four weeks before harvesting.[44] Bulbing onions are day-length sensitive; their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. Most traditional European onions are referred to as "long-day" onions, producing bulbs only after 14 hours or more of daylight occurs. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate-day" types, requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. Finally, "short-day" onions, which have been developed in more recent times, are planted in mild-winter areas in the autumn and form bulbs in the early spring, and require only 11–12 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation.[45] Onions are a cool-weather crop and can be grown in USDA zones 3 to 9.[46] Hot temperatures or other stressful conditions cause them to "bolt", meaning that a flower stem begins to grow.[47] Onions may be grown from seed or from sets. Onion seeds are short-lived and fresh seeds germinate better.[46][48] The seeds are sown thinly in shallow drills, thinning the plants in stages. In suitable climates, certain cultivars can be sown in late summer and autumn to overwinter in the ground and produce early crops the following year.[16] Onion sets are produced by sowing seed thickly in early summer in poor soil and the small bulbs produced are harvested in the autumn. These bulbs are planted the following spring and grow into mature bulbs later in the year.[49] Certain cultivars are used for this purpose and these may not have such good storage characteristics as those grown directly from seed.[16] Routine care during the growing season involves keeping the rows free of competing weeds, especially when the plants are young. The plants are shallow-rooted and do not need a great deal of water when established. Bulbing usually takes place after 12 to 18 weeks. The bulbs can be gathered when needed to eat fresh, but if they will be kept in storage, they should be harvested after the leaves have died back naturally. In dry weather, they can be left on the surface of the soil for a few days to dry out properly, then they can be placed in nets, roped into strings, or laid in layers in shallow boxes. They should be stored in a well-ventilated, cool place such as a shed.[16] Pests and diseases[edit] Onions suffer from a number of plant disorders. The most serious for the home gardener are likely to be the onion fly, stem and bulb eelworm, white rot, and neck rot. Diseases affecting the foliage include rust and smut, downy mildew, and white tip disease. The bulbs may be affected by splitting, white rot, and neck rot. Shanking is a condition in which the central leaves turn yellow and the inner part of the bulb collapses into an unpleasant-smelling slime. Most of these disorders are best treated by removing and burning affected plants.[50] The larvae of the onion leaf miner or leek moth (Acrolepiopsis assectella) sometimes attack the foliage and may burrow down into the bulb. [51] Larvae of the onion fly The onion fly (Delia antiqua) lays eggs on the leaves and stems and on the ground close to onion, shallot, leek, and garlic plants. The fly is attracted to the crop by the smell of damaged tissue and is liable to occur after thinning. Plants grown from sets are less prone to attack. The larvae tunnel into the bulbs and the foliage wilts and turns yellow. The bulbs are disfigured and rot, especially in wet weather. Control measures may include crop rotation, the use of seed dressings, early sowing or planting, and the removal of infested plants.[52] The onion eelworm (Ditylenchus dipsaci), a tiny parasitic soil-living nematode, causes swollen, distorted foliage. Young plants are killed and older ones produce soft bulbs. No cure is known and affected plants should be uprooted and burned. The site should not be used for growing onions again for several years and should also be avoided for growing carrots, parsnips, and beans, which are also susceptible to the eelworm.[53] White rot of onions, leeks, and garlic is caused by the soil-borne fungus Sclerotium cepivorum. As the roots rot, the foliage turns yellow and wilts. The bases of the bulbs are attacked and become covered by a fluffy white mass of mycelia, which later produces small, globular black structures called sclerotia. These resting structures remain in the soil to reinfect a future crop. No cure for this fungal disease exists, so affected plants should be removed and destroyed and the ground used for unrelated crops in subsequent years.[54] Neck rot is a fungal disease affecting onions in storage. It is caused by Botrytis allii, which attacks the neck and upper parts of the bulb, causing a grey mould to develop. The symptoms often first occur where the bulb has been damaged and spread downwards in the affected scales. Large quantities of spores are produced and crust-like sclerotia may also develop. In time, a dry rot sets in and the bulb becomes a dry, mummified structure. This disease may be present throughout the growing period, but only manifests itself when the bulb is in storage. Antifungal seed dressings are available and the disease can be minimised by preventing physical damage to the bulbs at harvesting, careful drying and curing of the mature onions, and correct storage in a cool, dry place with plenty of circulating air.[55] Storage in the home[edit] Onion at end of storage life, beginning to sprout Cooking onions and sweet onions are better stored at room temperature, optimally in a single layer, in mesh bags in a dry, cool, dark, well-ventilated location. In this environment, cooking onions have a shelf life of three to four weeks and sweet onions one to two weeks. Cooking onions will absorb odours from apples and pears. Also, they draw moisture from vegetables with which they are stored which may cause them to decay.[46][56] Sweet onions have a greater water and sugar content than cooking onions. This makes them sweeter and milder tasting, but reduces their shelf life. Sweet onions can be stored refrigerated; they have a shelf life of around 1 month. Irrespective of type, any cut pieces of onion are best tightly wrapped, stored away from other produce, and used within two to three days.[41]

Varieties[edit] Common onion group (var. cepa)[edit] Rossa di Tropea onions for sale in Italy Most of the diversity within A. cepa occurs within this group, the most economically important Allium crop. Plants within this group form large single bulbs, and are grown from seed or seed-grown sets. The majority of cultivars grown for dry bulbs, salad onions, and pickling onions belong to this group.[15] The range of diversity found among these cultivars includes variation in photoperiod (length of day that triggers bulbing), storage life, flavour, and skin colour.[57] Common onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions, such as the Vidalia from Georgia, USA, or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten raw on a sandwich. Aggregatum group (var. aggregatum)[edit] This group contains shallots and potato onions, also referred to as multiplier onions. The bulbs are smaller than those of common onions, and a single plant forms an aggregate cluster of several bulbs from a master. They are propagated almost exclusively from daughter bulbs, although reproduction from seed is possible. Shallots are the most important subgroup within this group and comprise the only cultivars cultivated commercially. They form aggregate clusters of small, narrowly ovoid to pear-shaped bulbs. Potato onions differ from shallots in forming larger bulbs with fewer bulbs per cluster, and having a flattened (onion-like) shape. However, intermediate forms exist.[15] I'itoi onion is a prolific multiplier onion cultivated in the Baboquivari Peak Wilderness, Arizona area. This small-bulb type has a shallot-like flavour and is easy to grow and ideal for hot, dry climates. Bulbs are separated, and planted in the fall 1 in below the surface and 12 in apart. Bulbs will multiply into clumps and can be harvested throughout the cooler months. Tops die back in the heat of summer and may return with heavy rains; bulbs can remain in the ground or be harvested and stored in a cool dry place for planting in the fall. The plants rarely flower; propagation is by division.[58] Hybrids with A. cepa parentage[edit] A number of hybrids are cultivated that have A. cepa parentage, such as the diploid tree onion or Egyptian onion (A. ×proliferum), and the triploid onion (A. ×cornutum). A. ×proliferum, tree onion The tree onion or Egyptian onion produces bulblets in the umbel instead of flowers, and is now known to be a hybrid of A. cepa and A. fistulosum. It has previously been treated as a variety of A. cepa, for example A. cepa var. proliferum, A. cepa var. bulbiferum, and A. cepa var. viviparum.[59][60] It has been grown for centuries in Japan and China for use as a salad onion.[61][6] The triploid onion is a hybrid species with three sets of chromosomes, two sets from A. cepa and the third set from an unknown parent.[60] Various clones of the triploid onion are grown locally in different regions, such as 'Ljutika' in Croatia, and 'Pran', 'Poonch', and 'Srinagar' in the India-Kashmir region. 'Pran' is grown extensively in the northern Indian provinces of Jammu and Kashmir. There are very small genetic differences between 'Pran' and the Croatian clone 'Ljutika', implying a monophyletic origin for this species.[62] Some authors have used the name A. cepa var. viviparum (Metzg.) Alef. for the triploid onion, but this name has also been applied to the Egyptian onion. The only name unambiguously connected with the triploid onion is A. ×cornutum. Spring onions or salad onions may be grown from the Welsh onion (A. fistulosum), as well as from A. cepa. Young plants of A. fistulosum and A. cepa look very similar, but may be distinguished by their leaves, which are circular in cross-section in A. fistulosum rather than flattened on one side.[63]

Production[edit] Onion (dry) production in 2014 Country (millions of tonnes)  China 22.5  India 19.4  United States 3.2  Egypt 2.5  Iran 2.1  Russia 2.0  Turkey 1.8  Pakistan 1.7  Brazil 1.6 World 88.5 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation[64] In 2014, world production of dried onions was 88.5 million tonnes, led by China and India producing 25% and 22% of the total, respectively.[64] The Onion Futures Act, passed in 1958, bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States. This prohibition came into force after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation by Sam Siegel and Vincent Kosuga at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange two years earlier. The subsequent investigation provided economists with a unique case study into the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. The act remains in effect as of 2016[update].[65]

See also[edit] List of Allium species List of onion cultivars Onion Johnny Pyruvate scale Fried onion

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P.; Vissenberg, K (2009). "Onion epidermis as a new model to study the control of growth anisotropy in higher plants". Journal of Experimental Botany. 60 (14): 4175–87. doi:10.1093/jxb/erp251. PMID 19684107.  ^ Xu, K; Huang, X; Wu, M; Wang, Y; Chang, Y; Liu, K; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, F; Yi, L; Li, T; Wang, R; Tan, G; Li, C (2014). "A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis". PLoS ONE. 9 (1): e83556. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083556. PMC 3885512 . PMID 24416168.  ^ Anne McCabe; Mick O'Donnell; Rachel Whittaker (19 July 2007). Advances in Language and Education. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-4411-0458-8.  ^ Cope, R.B. (August 2005). "Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats" (PDF). Veterinary Medicine. 100 (8): 562–566. ISSN 8750-7943.  ^ Salgado, B.S.; Monteiro, L.N.; Rocha, N.S. (2011). "Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats". 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Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology. 22 (6): 441–442. PMID 23101191.  ^ a b Scott, Thomas. "What is the chemical process that causes my eyes to tear when I peel an onion?". Ask the Experts: Chemistry. Scientific American. Retrieved 2007-04-28.  ^ a b "FAQ". National Onion Association. Retrieved 2013-03-28.  ^ Hiskey, Daven (2010-11-05). "Why onions make your eyes water". Today I Found Out. Retrieved 2013-03-28.  ^ "Tearless Onion Created In Lab Using Gene Silencing". ScienceDaily. 5 February 2008. Retrieved 23 November 2016.  ^ Boyhan, George E.; Kelley, W. Terry (eds.) (2007). "2007 Onion Production Guide". Production Guides. University of Georgia: College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Retrieved 2013-09-14. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Savonen, Carol (2006-07-13). "Onion bulb formation is strongly linked with day length". Oregon State University Extension Service. Retrieved 2013-09-14.  ^ a b c "Onions: Planting, Growing and Harvesting Onion Plants". The Old Farmer's Almanac. Retrieved 2013-03-27.  ^ Rhoades, Jackie. "What is Onion Bolting and how to Keep an Onion from Bolting". Gardening Know How. Retrieved 2013-03-27.  ^ "Onion production". USDA: Agricultural Research Service. 2011-02-23. Retrieved 2013-03-27.  ^ Fern, Ken; Fern, Addy. "Allium cepa – L". Plants For A Future. Retrieved 2013-03-22.  ^ Hessayon, D.G. (1978). Be your own Vegetable Doctor. Pan Britannica Industries. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0-903505-08-8.  ^ Landry, Jean-François (2007). "Taxonomic review of the leek moth genus Acrolepiopsis (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae) in North America". The Canadian Entomologist. 139 (3): 319–353. doi:10.4039/n06-098.  ^ "Delia antiqua (Meigen): Onion Fly". Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries. Retrieved 2013-03-29.  ^ "Onion Eelworm (Ditylenchus dipsaci)". GardenAction. 2011. Retrieved 2013-03-29.  ^ "Onion white rot". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 2013-03-29.  ^ "Onion neck rot". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 2013-03-29.  ^ Jauron, Richard (2009-07-27). "Harvesting and storing onions". Iowa State University Extension. Retrieved 2013-03-28.  ^ Brewster, James L. (1994). Onions and other vegetable Alliums (1st ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 5. ISBN 0-85198-753-2.  ^ "I'Itoi Onion". Ark of Taste. Slow Food USA. 2010. Retrieved 2013-03-25.  ^ "Allium × proliferum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ a b Fritsch, R.M.; N. Friesen (2002). "Chapter 1: Evolution, Domestication, and Taxonomy". In H.D. Rabinowitch; L. Currah. Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 0-85199-510-1.  ^ Brewster, James L. (1994). Onions and other vegetable Alliums (1st ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 15. ISBN 0-85198-753-2.  ^ Friesen, N. & M. Klaas (1998). "Origin of some vegetatively propagated Allium crops studied with RAPD and GISH". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 45 (6): 511–523. doi:10.1023/A:1008647700251.  ^ Brewster, James L. (1994). Onions and other vegetable alliums (1st ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 3. ISBN 0-85198-753-2.  ^ a b "Onion (dry) production in 2014: Crops/World Regions/Production Quantity from pick lists". Food and Agriculture Organisation, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017.  ^ "7 USC § 13–1 – Violations, prohibition against dealings in motion picture box office receipts or onion futures; punishment". United States Code: 7 USC § 13–1. Legal Information Institute. 1958. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 

Further reading[edit] Block, E. (2010). Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. Royal Society of Chemistry (UK). ISBN 978-0-85404-190-9.  Gripshover, Margaret M., and Thomas L. Bell, "Patently Good Ideas: Innovations and Inventions in U.S. Onion Farming, 1883–1939," Material Culture (Spring 2012), vol 44 pp 1–30. Sen, Colleen T. (2004). Food culture in India. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 0-313-32487-5.

External links[edit] Look up onion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on Onion powder Media related to Onions at Wikimedia Commons PROTAbase on Allium cepa v t e Allium Allium species Chives Garlic Leek Onion Onion cultivars Calçot Cocktail Common / Bulb Yellow Red White Pearl Potato Scallion Shallot Sweet Tree Vidalia Welsh Onion species Allium… …abramsii …acuminatum …aflatunense …ampeloprasum …amplectens …anceps …atrorubens …bisceptrum …bolanderi …burlewii …caeruleum …campanulatum …cernuum …chinense …cratericola …crispum …cristophii …koreanum …monanthum …platycaule …praecox …punctum …sanbornii …shevockii …siskiyouense …sphaerocephalon …stellatum …stipitatum …textile …tribracteatum …tricoccum …triquetrum …tuolumnense …unifolium …validum …victorialis …yosemitense Onion food List of onion dishes Blooming Fried Onion cake Onion ring Pickled Sogan-dolma Garlic cultivars Elephant Garlic chives Snow Mountain Solo Garlic species Allium… …canadense …drummondii …moly …neapolitanum …nigrum …roseum …sphaerocephalon …triquetrum …ursinum …vineale Garlic food List of garlic dishes Black garlic Persillade Pistou Garlic oil Garlic press Garlic bread Garlic chutney Beurre à la bourguignonne (garlic butter) Garlic soup Garlic and onion constituents Allicin Diallyl disulfide Diallyl trisulfide Allyl mercaptan Related Garlic Is as Good as Ten Mothers (1980 documentary) Category Commons v t e TRP channel modulators TRPA Activators 4-Hydroxynonenal 4-Oxo-2-nonenal 4,5-EET 12S-HpETE 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Acrolein Allicin (garlic) Allyl isothiocyanate (mustard, radish, horseradish, wasabi) AM404 Bradykinin Cannabichromene (cannabis) Cannabidiol (cannabis) Cannabigerol (cannabis) Cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon) CR gas (dibenzoxazepine; DBO) CS gas (2-chlorobenzal malononitrile) Curcumin (turmeric) Dehydroligustilide (celery) Diallyl disulfide Dicentrine (Lindera spp.) Farnesyl thiosalicylic acid Formalin Gingerols (ginger) Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Hydrogen peroxide Icilin Isothiocyanate Ligustilide (celery, Angelica acutiloba) Linalool (Sichuan pepper, thyme) Methylglyoxal Methyl salicylate (wintergreen) N-Methylmaleimide Nicotine (tobacco) Oleocanthal (olive oil) Paclitaxel (Pacific yew) Paracetamol (acetaminophen) PF-4840154 Phenacyl chloride Polygodial (Dorrigo pepper) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tear gases Tetrahydrocannabinol (cannabis) Thiopropanal S-oxide (onion) Umbellulone (Umbellularia californica) WIN 55,212-2 Blockers Dehydroligustilide (celery) Nicotine (tobacco) Ruthenium red TRPC Activators Adhyperforin (St John's wort) Diacyl glycerol GSK1702934A Hyperforin (St John's wort) Substance P Blockers DCDPC DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GSK417651A GSK2293017A Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate Progesterone Pyr3 Tolfenamic acid TRPM Activators ADP-ribose BCTC Calcium (intracellular) Cold Coolact P Cooling Agent 10 CPS-369 Eucalyptol (eucalyptus) Frescolat MGA Frescolat ML Geraniol Hydroxycitronellal Icilin Linalool Menthol (mint) PMD 38 Pregnenolone sulfate Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Steviol glycosides (e.g., stevioside) (Stevia rebaudiana) Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly) Thio-BCTC WS-3 WS-12 WS-23 Blockers Capsazepine Clotrimazole DCDPC Flufenamic acid Meclofenamic acid Mefenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Nicotine (tobacco) Niflumic acid Ruthenium red Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Tolfenamic acid TPPO TRPML Activators MK6-83 PI(3,5)P2 SF-22 TRPP Activators Triptolide (Tripterygium wilfordii) Blockers Ruthenium red TRPV Activators 2-APB 5',6'-EET 9-HODE 9-oxoODE 12S-HETE 12S-HpETE 13-HODE 13-oxoODE 20-HETE α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Allicin (garlic) AM404 Anandamide Bisandrographolide (Andrographis paniculata) Camphor (camphor laurel, rosemary, camphorweed, African blue basil, camphor basil) Cannabidiol (cannabis) Cannabidivarin (cannabis) Capsaicin (chili pepper) Carvacrol (oregano, thyme, pepperwort, wild bergamot, others) DHEA Diacyl glycerol Dihydrocapsaicin (chili pepper) Estradiol Eugenol (basil, clove) Evodiamine (Euodia ruticarpa) Gingerols (ginger) GSK1016790A Heat Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Homocapsaicin (chili pepper) Homodihydrocapsaicin (chili pepper) Incensole (incense) Lysophosphatidic acid Low pH (acidic conditions) Menthol (mint) N-Arachidonoyl dopamine N-Oleoyldopamine N-Oleoylethanolamide Nonivamide (PAVA) (PAVA spray) Nordihydrocapsaicin (chili pepper) Paclitaxel (Pacific yew) Paracetamol (acetaminophen) Phorbol esters (e.g., 4α-PDD) Piperine (black pepper, long pepper) Polygodial (Dorrigo pepper) Probenecid Protons Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Resiniferatoxin (RTX) (Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tetrahydrocannabivarin (cannabis) Thymol (thyme, oregano) Tinyatoxin (Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Tramadol Vanillin (vanilla) Zucapsaicin Blockers α-Spinasterol (Vernonia tweediana) AMG-517 Asivatrep BCTC Cannabigerol (cannabis) Cannabigerolic acid (cannabis) Cannabigerovarin (cannabis) Cannabinol (cannabis) Capsazepine DCDPC DHEA DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GRC-6211 HC-067047 Lanthanum Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid NGD-8243 Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate RN-1734 RN-9893 Ruthenium red SB-705498 Tolfenamic acid See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators Taxon identifiers Wd: Q23485 APDB: 14048 EoL: 1084354 FNA: 200027457 FoC: 200027457 GBIF: 2857697 GRIN: 2244 iNaturalist: 48592 IPNI: 527795-1 ITIS: 42720 NCBI: 4679 PalDat: Allium_cepa Plant List: kew-295261 PLANTS: ALCE Tropicos: 18401646 WCSP: 295261 Retrieved from "" Categories: AlliumOnionsPlants described in 1753Plants used in Native American cuisineHerbsLeaf vegetablesRoot vegetablesFlora of the United StatesFlora of MexicoFlora of ChinaFlora of Central AmericaFlora of South AmericaFlora of EuropeCropsHidden categories: CS1 Latin-language sources (la)CS1 maint: Extra text: authors listCS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listArticles with 'species' microformatsArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2016All articles containing potentially dated statementsCommons category with local link different than on WikidataGood articlesUse dmy dates from April 2017Articles containing video clips

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Onion - Photos and All Basic Informations

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This Is A Good Article. Follow The Link For More Information.Onion (disambiguation)Onions (surname)Taxonomy (biology)EPlantFlowering PlantMonocotyledonAsparagalesAmaryllidaceaeAllioideaeAlliumBinomial NomenclatureCarl LinnaeusSynonym (taxonomy)VegetableAlliumGarlicShallotLeekChiveAllium ChinenseAllium FistulosumTree OnionAllium CanadenseWild Onion (disambiguation)Biennial PlantPerennial PlantAnnual PlantDelia AntiquaDitylenchus DipsaciShallotPotato OnionVegetablePickled OnionChutneyEnlargeEnlargeAlliumSpecies DescriptionCarl LinnaeusSpecies PlantarumIranFeral OrganismAutostereogramAutostereogramBiennial PlantFibrous Root SystemInflorescenceUmbelEnlargeRed OnionEnlargeExtinctionWestern AsiaEastern AsiaEgyptPersiaAncient EgyptRamesses IVBook Of NumbersTanakhHebrew BibleEgyptCharaka SamhitaAyurvedicDioscoridesPliny The ElderPompeiiLumbagoDysenteryGourmetAge Of DiscoveryNorth AmericaIndigenous Peoples Of The AmericasPilgrim FathersEnlargeEnlargeYellow OnionSweet OnionRed OnionGrillingWhite OnionMexican CuisineAllium FistulosumScallionPearl OnionVinegarCaramelizationKibbledList Of Onion DishesEnlargeFrench Onion SoupOnion ChutneyStuffingSogan-dolmaIndian CuisinePickled OnionFish And ChipsUnited KingdomThe CommonwealthPloughman's LunchBreadCheeseAleDeep FryingOnion RingGarlicEnlargeEpidermis (botany)Cell (biology)Plant BreedingScience EducationMicroscopeGuinea PigFood EnergyCarbohydrateSugarDietary FiberFatProtein (nutrient)VitaminThiamineRiboflavinNiacinPantothenic AcidVitamin B6FolateVitamin CMineral (nutrient)CalciumIronMagnesium In BiologyManganesePhosphorusPotassiumZincFluorideMicrogramMilligramInternational UnitDietary Reference IntakeCarbohydratesDietary FiberDietary ProteinFatEssential NutrientCaloriesPhytochemicalPolyphenolVidalia OnionFlavonoidAnthocyaninPigmentBasic ResearchAllergyDermatitisRhinitisAsthmaAnaphylaxisDenaturation (biochemistry)EnlargeLacrimal GlandEnlargeTearsSyn-propanethial-S-oxideAnti-predator AdaptationCell (biology)EnzymesAlliinaseAmino AcidSulfoxideSulfenic AcidLacrimal GlandLacrimal GlandsTearsNew Zealand Institute For Crop And Food ResearchGeneBiotechnologyEnlargeSoilPhosphorusNitrogenPotashHardiness ZoneBolting (horticulture)Acrolepiopsis AssectellaEnlargeDelia AntiquaDitylenchus DipsaciNematodeCarrotParsnipBeanStromatinia CepivoraMyceliumSclerotiumBotrytis AlliiSporeEnlargeVegetablesDecompositionEnlargeAllium FistulosumSweet OnionVidalia OnionGeorgia (U.S. State)Washington (state)Baboquivari Peak WildernessDiploidTree OnionTriploidEnlargeTree OnionHybrid (biology)MonophyleticSpring OnionWelsh OnionTonneChinaIndiaUnited StatesEgyptIranRussiaTurkeyPakistanBrazilUN Food & Agriculture OrganisationOnion Futures ActFutures ContractMarket ManipulationVincent KosugaChicago Mercantile ExchangeEconomistList Of Allium SpeciesList Of Onion CultivarsOnion JohnnyPyruvate ScaleFried OnionInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-85404-190-7Germplasm Resources Information NetworkAgricultural Research ServiceUnited States Department Of AgricultureInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-85199-510-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-85198-753-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-19-850357-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-85199-510-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-86318-979-1Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4411-0458-8International Standard Serial NumberDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed IdentifierCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListCategory:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListD. G. HessayonPan Britannica IndustriesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-903505-08-8Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-85198-753-2Germplasm Resources Information NetworkAgricultural Research ServiceUnited States Department Of AgricultureInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-85199-510-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-85198-753-2Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-85198-753-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-85404-190-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-313-32487-5Commons:Category:OnionsTemplate:AlliumTemplate Talk:AlliumAlliumList Of Allium SpeciesChivesGarlicLeekList Of Onion CultivarsCalçotCocktail OnionYellow OnionRed OnionWhite OnionPearl OnionPotato OnionScallionShallotSweet OnionTree OnionVidalia OnionWelsh OnionAllium NeapolitanumOnionAllium AbramsiiAllium AcuminatumAllium AflatunenseAllium AmpeloprasumAllium AmplectensAllium AncepsAllium AtrorubensAllium BisceptrumAllium BolanderiAllium BurlewiiAllium CaeruleumAllium CampanulatumAllium CernuumAllium ChinenseAllium CratericolaAllium CrispumAllium CristophiiAllium KoreanumAllium MonanthumAllium PlatycauleAllium PraecoxAllium PunctumAllium SanborniiAllium ShevockiiAllium SiskiyouenseAllium SphaerocephalonAllium StellatumAllium StipitatumAllium TextileAllium TribracteatumAllium TricoccumAllium TriquetrumAllium TuolumnenseAllium UnifoliumAllium ValidumAllium VictorialisAllium YosemitenseOnionList Of Onion DishesBlooming OnionFried OnionOnion CakeOnion RingPickled OnionSogan-dolmaElephant GarlicAllium TuberosumSnow Mountain GarlicSolo GarlicGarlicAllium CanadenseAllium DrummondiiAllium MolyAllium NeapolitanumAllium NigrumAllium RoseumAllium SphaerocephalonAllium TriquetrumAllium UrsinumAllium VinealeGarlicList Of Garlic DishesBlack GarlicPersilladePistouGarlic OilGarlic PressGarlic BreadGarlic ChutneyGarlic ButterGarlic SoupAllicinDiallyl DisulfideDiallyl TrisulfideAllyl MercaptanGarlic Is As Good As Ten MothersCategory:AlliumTemplate:Transient Receptor Potential Channel ModulatorsTemplate Talk:Transient Receptor Potential Channel ModulatorsTransient Receptor Potential ChannelIon Channel ModulatorTransient Receptor Potential Ankyrin Channel4-Hydroxynonenal4-Oxo-2-nonenal4,5-EET12S-HpETE15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2SanshoolGingerSichuan PepperMelegueta PepperAcroleinAllicinGarlicAllyl IsothiocyanateMustard PlantRadishHorseradishWasabiAM404BradykininCannabichromeneCannabisCannabidiolCannabisCannabigerolCannabisCinnamaldehydeCinnamonCR GasCS GasCurcuminTurmericCeleryDiallyl DisulfideDicentrineLinderaFormalinGingerolGingerHepoxilin A3Hepoxilin B3Hydrogen PeroxideIcilinIsothiocyanateCeleryAngelica AcutilobaLinaloolSichuan PepperThymeMethylglyoxalMethyl SalicylateWintergreenN-MethylmaleimideNicotineTobaccoOleocanthalOlive OilPaclitaxelPacific YewParacetamolPF-4840154Phenacyl ChloridePolygodialDorrigo PepperShogaolGingerSichuan PepperMelegueta PepperTear GasTetrahydrocannabinolCannabisThiopropanal S-oxideUmbelluloneUmbellularia CalifornicaWIN 55,212-2CeleryNicotineTobaccoRuthenium RedTransient Receptor Potential Canonical ChannelAdhyperforinSt John's WortDiacyl GlycerolHyperforinSt John's WortSubstance PDehydroepiandrosterone SulfateFlufenamic AcidMeclofenamic AcidN-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic AcidNiflumic AcidPregnenolone SulfateProgesteroneTolfenamic AcidTransient Receptor Potential Melastatin ChannelAdenosine Diphosphate RiboseCalciumColdEucalyptolEucalyptusGeraniolHydroxycitronellalIcilinLinaloolMentholMenthaPregnenolone SulfateRuta GraveolensSteviol GlycosideSteviosideStevia RebaudianaTasteGlucoseFructoseSucroseWS-3CapsazepineClotrimazoleFlufenamic AcidMeclofenamic AcidMefenamic AcidN-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic AcidNicotineTobaccoNiflumic AcidRuthenium RedRuta GraveolensTolfenamic AcidTriphenylphosphine OxideTransient Receptor Potential Mucolipin ChannelPhosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphateTransient Receptor Potential Polycystin ChannelTriptolideTripterygium WilfordiiRuthenium RedTransient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Channel2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl Borate5',6'-Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid9-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic Acid9-oxoODE12S-HETE12S-HpETE13-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic Acid13-oxoODE20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic AcidSanshoolGingerSichuan PepperMelegueta PepperAllicinGarlicAM404AnandamideAndrographis PaniculataCamphorCamphor LaurelRosemaryCamphorweedAfrican Blue BasilOcimum KilimandscharicumCannabidiolCannabisCannabidivarinCannabisCapsaicinChili PepperCarvacrolOreganoThymeLepidiumWild BergamotDehydroepiandrosteroneDiacyl GlycerolDihydrocapsaicinChili PepperEstradiolEugenolBasilCloveEvodiamineEuodia RuticarpaGingerolGingerHeatHepoxilin A3Hepoxilin B3HomocapsaicinChili PepperHomodihydrocapsaicinChili PepperIncensoleIncenseLysophosphatidic AcidPHMentholMenthaN-Arachidonoyl DopamineN-OleoylethanolamideNonivamidePAVA SprayNordihydrocapsaicinChili 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