Contents 1 Course 1.1 Sources 1.2 In Uganda 1.3 In South Sudan 1.4 In Sudan 1.5 In Egypt 2 Tributaries 2.1 Atbara River 2.2 Blue Nile 2.3 Bahr el Ghazal and Sobat River 2.4 Yellow Nile 3 History 3.1 Eonile 3.2 Integrated Nile 3.3 Role in the founding of Egyptian civilization 3.4 Search for the source of the Nile 3.5 Since 1950 4 Water sharing dispute 5 Modern achievements and exploration 6 Crossings 6.1 Crossings from Khartoum to the Mediterranean Sea 6.2 Crossings from Rwanda to Khartoum 7 Images and media of the Nile 8 Annotated bibliography 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Course[edit] See also: White Nile The Nile at Dendera, as seen from the SPOT satellite The Nile's watershed[16] The Nile near Beni Suef Composite satellite image of the White Nile Above Khartoum, the Nile is also known as the White Nile, a term also used in a limited sense to describe the section between Lake No and Khartoum. At Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia. Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift. The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometers (1,256,591 sq mi), about 10% of the area of Africa.[17] The Nile basin is complex, and because of this, the discharge at any given point along the mainstem depends on many factors including weather, diversions, evaporation and evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow. Sources[edit] The source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake has feeder rivers of considerable size. The Kagera River, which flows into Lake Victoria near the Tanzanian town of Bukoba, is the longest feeder, although sources do not agree on which is the longest tributary of the Kagera and hence the most distant source of the Nile itself.[18] It is either the Ruvyironza, which emerges in Bururi Province, Burundi,[19] or the Nyabarongo, which flows from Nyungwe Forest in Rwanda.[20] The two feeder rivers meet near Rusumo Falls on the Rwanda-Tanzania border. The source of the Nile from the underwater spring at the neck of Lake Victoria, Jinja In 2010, an exploration party[21] went to a place described as the source of the Rukarara tributary,[22] and by hacking a path up steep jungle-choked mountain slopes in the Nyungwe forest found (in the dry season) an appreciable incoming surface flow for many kilometres upstream, and found a new source, giving the Nile a length of 6,758 km (4,199 mi). Gish Abay is reportedly the place where the "holy water" of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop.[23] In Uganda[edit] The Nile leaves Lake Nyanza (Victoria) at Ripon Falls near Jinja, Uganda, as the Victoria Nile. It flows north for some 130 kilometers (81 mi), to Lake Kyoga. The last part of the approximately 200 kilometers (120 mi) river section starts from the western shores of the lake and flows at first to the west until just south of Masindi Port, where the river turns north, then makes a great half circle to the east and north until Karuma Falls. For the remaining part it flows merely westerly through the Murchison Falls until it reaches the very northern shores of Lake Albert where it forms a significant river delta. The lake itself is on the border of DR Congo, but the Nile is not a border river at this point. After leaving Lake Albert, the river continues north through Uganda and is known as the Albert Nile. In South Sudan[edit] The river flows into South Sudan just south of Nimule, where it is known as the Bahr al Jabal ("Mountain River"[24]). Just south of the town it has the confluence with the Achwa River. The Bahr al Ghazal, itself 716 kilometers (445 mi) long, joins the Bahr al Jabal at a small lagoon called Lake No, after which the Nile becomes known as the Bahr al Abyad, or the White Nile, from the whitish clay suspended in its waters. When the Nile floods it leaves a rich silty deposit which fertilizes the soil. The Nile no longer floods in Egypt since the completion of the Aswan Dam in 1970. An anabranch river, the Bahr el Zeraf, flows out of the Nile's Bahr al Jabal section and rejoins the White Nile. The flow rate of the Bahr al Jabal at Mongalla, South Sudan is almost constant throughout the year and averages 1,048 m3/s (37,000 cu ft/s). After Mongalla, the Bahr Al Jabal enters the enormous swamps of the Sudd region of South Sudan. More than half of the Nile's water is lost in this swamp to evaporation and transpiration. The average flow rate of the White Nile at the tails of the swamps is about 510 m3/s (18,000 cu ft/s). From here it soon meets with the Sobat River at Malakal. On an annual basis, the White Nile upstream of Malakal contributes about fifteen percent of the total outflow of the Nile River.[25] The average flow of the White Nile at Malakal, just below the Sobat River, is 924 m3/s (32,600 cu ft/s); the peak flow is approximately 1,218 m3/s (43,000 cu ft/s) in October and minimum flow is about 609 m3/s (21,500 cu ft/s) in April. This fluctuation is due the substantial variation in the flow of the Sobat, which has a minimum flow of about 99 m3/s (3,500 cu ft/s) in March and a peak flow of over 680 m3/s (24,000 cu ft/s) in October.[26] During the dry season (January to June) the White Nile contributes between 70 percent and 90 percent of the total discharge from the Nile. In Sudan[edit] Below Renk the White Nile enters Sudan, it flows north to Khartoum and meets the Blue Nile. The course of the Nile in Sudan is distinctive. It flows over six groups of cataracts, from the sixth at Sabaloka just north of Khartoum northward to Abu Hamed. Due to the tectonic uplift of the Nubian Swell, the river is then diverted to flow for over 300 km south-west following the structure of the Central African Shear Zone embracing the Bayuda Desert. At Al Dabbah it resumes its northward course towards the first Cataract at Aswan forming the 'S'-shaped Great Bend of the Nile[27] already mentioned by Eratosthenes.[28] In the north of Sudan the river enters Lake Nasser (known in Sudan as Lake Nubia), the larger part of which is in Egypt. In Egypt[edit] Below the Aswan High Dam, at the northern limit of Lake Nasser, the Nile resumes its historic course. North of Cairo, the Nile splits into two branches (or distributaries) that feed the Mediterranean: the Rosetta Branch to the west and the Damietta to the east, forming the Nile Delta.

Tributaries[edit] Atbara River[edit] Below the confluence with the Blue Nile the only major tributary is the Atbara River, roughly halfway to the sea, which originates in Ethiopia north of Lake Tana, and is around 800 kilometers (500 mi) long. The Atbara flows only while there is rain in Ethiopia and dries very rapidly. During the dry period of January to June, it typically dries up. It joins the Nile approximately 300 kilometers (200 mi) north of Khartoum. Blue Nile[edit] Main article: Blue Nile The Blue Nile Falls fed by Lake Tana near the city of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Nile Delta from space Annotated view of the Nile and Red Sea, with a dust storm.[29] The Blue Nile (Ge'ez ጥቁር ዓባይ Ṭiqūr ʿĀbbāy (Black Abay) to Ethiopians; Arabic: النيل الأزرق‎; transliterated: an-Nīl al-Azraq) springs from Lake Tana in the Ethiopian Highlands. The Blue Nile flows about 1,400 kilometres to Khartoum, where the Blue Nile and White Nile join to form the Nile.[30] Ninety percent of the water and ninety-six percent of the transported sediment carried by the Nile[31] originates in Ethiopia, with fifty-nine percent of the water from the Blue Nile (the rest being from the Tekezé, Atbarah, Sobat, and small tributaries). The erosion and transportation of silt only occurs during the Ethiopian rainy season in the summer, however, when rainfall is especially high on the Ethiopian Plateau; the rest of the year, the great rivers draining Ethiopia into the Nile (Sobat, Blue Nile, Tekezé, and Atbarah) have a weaker flow. In harsh and arid seasons and droughts the blue Nile dries out completely. [32] The flow of the Blue Nile varies considerably over its yearly cycle and is the main contribution to the large natural variation of the Nile flow. During the dry season the natural discharge of the Blue Nile can be as low as 113 m3/s (4,000 cu ft/s), although upstream dams regulate the flow of the river. During the wet season the peak flow of the Blue Nile often exceeds 5,663 m3/s (200,000 cu ft/s) in late August (a difference of a factor of 50). Before the placement of dams on the river the yearly discharge varied by a factor of 15 at Aswan. Peak flows of over 8,212 m3/s (290,000 cu ft/s) occurred during late August and early September, and minimum flows of about 552 m3/s (19,500 cu ft/s) occurred during late April and early May. Bahr el Ghazal and Sobat River[edit] The Bahr al Ghazal and the Sobat River are the two most important tributaries of the White Nile in terms of discharge. The Bahr al Ghazal's drainage basin is the largest of any of the Nile's sub-basins, measuring 520,000 square kilometers (200,000 sq mi) in size, but it contributes a relatively small amount of water, about 2 m3/s (71 cu ft/s) annually, due to tremendous volumes of water being lost in the Sudd wetlands. The Sobat River, which joins the Nile a short distance below Lake No, drains about half as much land, 225,000 km2 (86,900 sq mi), but contributes 412 cubic meters per second (14,500 cu ft/s) annually to the Nile.[33] When in flood the Sobat carries a large amount of sediment, adding greatly to the White Nile's color.[34] Yellow Nile[edit] The Yellow Nile is a former tributary that connected the Ouaddaï Highlands of eastern Chad to the Nile River Valley c. 8000 to c. 1000 BC.[35] Its remains are known as the Wadi Howar. The wadi passes through Gharb Darfur near the northern border with Chad and meets up with the Nile near the southern point of the Great Bend.

History[edit] Further information: Sahara § Climate history Reconstruction of the Oikoumene (inhabited world), an ancient map based on Herodotus' description of the world, circa 450 BC The Nile (iteru in Ancient Egyptian) has been the lifeline of civilization in Egypt since the Stone Age, with most of the population and all of the cities of Egypt resting along those parts of the Nile valley lying north of Aswan. However, the Nile used to run much more westerly through what is now Wadi Hamim and Wadi al Maqar in Libya and flow into the Gulf of Sidra.[36] As sea level rose at the end of the most recent ice age, the stream which is now the northern Nile pirated the ancestral Nile near Asyut,[37] this change in climate also led to the creation of the current Sahara desert, around 3400 BC.[38] Eonile[edit] The present Nile is at least the fifth river that has flowed north from the Ethiopian Highlands. Satellite imagery was used to identify dry watercourses in the desert to the west of the Nile. An Eonile canyon, now filled by surface drift, represents an ancestral Nile called the Eonile that flowed during the later Miocene (23–5.3 million years before present). The Eonile transported clastic sediments to the Mediterranean; several natural gas fields have been discovered within these sediments. During the late-Miocene Messinian salinity crisis, when the Mediterranean Sea was a closed basin and evaporated to the point of being empty or nearly so, the Nile cut its course down to the new base level until it was several hundred metres below world ocean level at Aswan and 2,400 m (7,900 ft) below Cairo.[39] This created a very long and deep canyon which was filled with sediment when the Mediterranean was recreated. At some point the sediments raised the riverbed sufficiently for the river to overflow westward into a depression to create Lake Moeris. Lake Tanganyika drained northwards into the Nile until the Virunga Volcanoes blocked its course in Rwanda. The Nile was much longer at that time, with its furthest headwaters in northern Zambia. Integrated Nile[edit] There are two theories about the age of the integrated Nile. One is that the integrated drainage of the Nile is of young age, and that the Nile basin was formerly broken into series of separate basins, only the most northerly of which fed a river following the present course of the Nile in Egypt and Sudan. Rushdi Said postulated that Egypt itself supplied most of the waters of the Nile during the early part of its history.[40] The other theory is that the drainage from Ethiopia via rivers equivalent to the Blue Nile and the Atbara and Takazze flowed to the Mediterranean via the Egyptian Nile since well back into Tertiary times.[41] Salama suggested that during the Paleogene and Neogene Periods (66 million to 2.588 million years ago) a series of separate closed continental basins each occupied one of the major parts of the Sudanese Rift System: Mellut rift, White Nile rift, Blue Nile rift, Atbara rift and Sag El Naam rift.[42] The Mellut Rift Basin is nearly 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) deep at its central part. This rift is possibly still active, with reported tectonic activity in its northern and southern boundaries. The Sudd swamps which form the central part of the basin may still be subsiding. The White Nile Rift System, although shallower than the Bahr el Arab rift, is about 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) deep. Geophysical exploration of the Blue Nile Rift System estimated the depth of the sediments to be 5–9 kilometers (3.1–5.6 mi). These basins were not interconnected until their subsidence ceased, and the rate of sediment deposition was enough to fill and connect them. The Egyptian Nile connected to the Sudanese Nile, which captures the Ethiopian and Equatorial headwaters during the current stages of tectonic activity in the Eastern, Central and Sudanese Rift Systems.[43] The connection of the different Niles occurred during cyclic wet periods. The River Atbara overflowed its closed basin during the wet periods that occurred about 100,000 to 120,000 years ago. The Blue Nile connected to the main Nile during the 70,000–80,000 years B.P. wet period. The White Nile system in Bahr El Arab and White Nile Rifts remained a closed lake until the connection of the Victoria Nile to the main system some 12,500 years ago. Role in the founding of Egyptian civilization[edit] A felucca traversing the Nile near Aswan The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that "Egypt was the gift of the Nile". An unending source of sustenance, it provided a crucial role in the development of Egyptian civilization. Silt deposits from the Nile made the surrounding land fertile because the river overflowed its banks annually. The Ancient Egyptians cultivated and traded wheat, flax, papyrus and other crops around the Nile. Wheat was a crucial crop in the famine-plagued Middle East. This trading system secured Egypt's diplomatic relationships with other countries, and contributed to economic stability. Far-reaching trade has been carried on along the Nile since ancient times. Water buffalo were introduced from Asia, and Assyrians introduced camels in the 7th century BC. These animals were killed for meat, and were domesticated and used for ploughing—or in the camels' case, carriage. Water was vital to both people and livestock. The Nile was also a convenient and efficient means of transportation for people and goods. The Nile was an important part of ancient Egyptian spiritual life. Hapy was the god of the annual floods, and both he and the pharaoh were thought to control the flooding. The Nile was considered to be a causeway from life to death and the afterlife. The east was thought of as a place of birth and growth, and the west was considered the place of death, as the god Ra, the Sun, underwent birth, death, and resurrection each day as he crossed the sky. Thus, all tombs were west of the Nile, because the Egyptians believed that in order to enter the afterlife, they had to be buried on the side that symbolized death. As the Nile was such an important factor in Egyptian life, the ancient calendar was even based on the 3 cycles of the Nile. These seasons, each consisting of four months of thirty days each, were called Akhet, Peret, and Shemu. Akhet, which means inundation, was the time of the year when the Nile flooded, leaving several layers of fertile soil behind, aiding in agricultural growth.[44] Peret was the growing season, and Shemu, the last season, was the harvest season when there were no rains.[44] Search for the source of the Nile[edit] John Hanning Speke c. 1863. Speke was the Victorian explorer who first reached Lake Victoria in 1858, returning to establish it as the source of the Nile by 1862.[45] Henry Morton Stanley in 1872. Stanley circumnavigated the lake and confirmed Speke's observations in 1875.[45] Owing to their failure to penetrate the sudd wetlands of South Sudan, the upper reaches of the Nile remained largely unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans. Various expeditions failed to determine the river's source. Agatharcides records that in the time of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, a military expedition had penetrated far enough along the course of the Blue Nile to determine that the summer floods were caused by heavy seasonal rainstorms in the Ethiopian Highlands, but no European of antiquity is known to have reached Lake Tana. The Tabula Rogeriana depicted the source as three lakes in 1154. Europeans began to learn about the origins of the Nile in the 15th and 16th centuries, when travelers to Ethiopia visited Lake Tana and the source of the Blue Nile in the mountains south of the lake. Although James Bruce claimed to be the first European to have visited the headwaters,[46] modern writers give the credit to the Jesuit Pedro Páez. Páez's account of the source of the Nile[47] is a long and vivid account of Ethiopia. It was published in full only in the early 20th century, although it was featured in works of Páez's contemporaries, including Baltazar Téllez,[48] Athanasius Kircher[49] and by Johann Michael Vansleb.[50] Europeans had been resident in Ethiopia since the late 15th century, and one of them may have visited the headwaters even earlier without leaving a written trace. The Portuguese João Bermudes published the first description of the Tis Issat Falls in his 1565 memoirs, compared them to the Nile Falls alluded to in Cicero's De Republica.[51] Jerónimo Lobo describes the source of the Blue Nile, visiting shortly after Pedro Páez. Telles also used his account. The White Nile was even less understood. The ancients mistakenly believed that the Niger River represented the upper reaches of the White Nile. For example, Pliny the Elder wrote that the Nile had its origins "in a mountain of lower Mauretania", flowed above ground for "many days" distance, then went underground, reappeared as a large lake in the territories of the Masaesyli, then sank again below the desert to flow underground "for a distance of 20 days' journey till it reaches the nearest Ethiopians."[52] A merchant named Diogenes reported that the Nile's water attracted game such as buffalo. A map of the Nile c. 1911, a time when its entire primary course ran through British occupations, condominiums, colonies, and protectorates.[53] Lake Victoria was first sighted by Europeans in 1858 when the British explorer John Hanning Speke reached its southern shore while traveling with Richard Francis Burton to explore central Africa and locate the great lakes. Believing he had found the source of the Nile on seeing this "vast expanse of open water" for the first time, Speke named the lake after the then Queen of the United Kingdom. Burton, recovering from illness and resting further south on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, was outraged that Speke claimed to have proved his discovery to be the true source of the Nile when Burton regarded this as still unsettled. A very public quarrel ensued, which sparked a great deal of intense debate within the scientific community and interest by other explorers keen to either confirm or refute Speke's discovery. British explorer and missionary David Livingstone pushed too far west and entered the Congo River system instead. It was ultimately Welsh-American explorer Henry Morton Stanley who confirmed Speke's discovery, circumnavigating Lake Victoria and reporting the great outflow at Ripon Falls on the Lake's northern shore. European involvement in Egypt goes back to the time of Napoleon. Laird Shipyard of Liverpool sent an iron steamer to the Nile in the 1830s. With the completion of the Suez Canal and the British takeover of Egypt in the 1870s, more British river steamers followed. The Nile is the area's natural navigation channel, giving access to Khartoum and Sudan by steamer. The Siege of Khartoum was broken with purpose-built sternwheelers shipped from England and steamed up the river to retake the city. After this came regular steam navigation of the river. With British Forces in Egypt in the First World War and the inter-war years, river steamers provided both security and sightseeing to the Pyramids and Thebes. Steam navigation remained integral to the two countries as late as 1962. Sudan steamer traffic was a lifeline as few railways or roads were built in that country. Most paddle steamers have been retired to shorefront service, but modern diesel tourist boats remain on the river. Village on the Nile, 1891 Since 1950[edit] The confluence of the Kagera and Ruvubu rivers near Rusumo Falls, part of the Nile's upper reaches Dhows on the Nile The Nile passes through Cairo, Egypt's capital city The Nile has long been used to transport goods along its length. Winter winds blow south, up river, so ships could sail up river, and down river using the flow of the river. While most Egyptians still live in the Nile valley, the 1970 completion of the Aswan High Dam ended the summer floods and their renewal of the fertile soil, fundamentally changing farming practices. The Nile supports much of the population living along its banks, enabling Egyptians to live in otherwise inhospitable regions of the Sahara. The rivers's flow is disturbed at several points by the Cataracts of the Nile, which are sections of faster-flowing water with many small islands, shallow water, and rocks, which form an obstacle to navigation by boats. The Sudd wetlands in Sudan also forms a formidable navigation obstacle and impede water flow, to the extent that Sudan had once attempted to canalize (the Jonglei Canal) to bypass the swamps.[54][55] Nile cities include Khartoum, Aswan, Luxor (Thebes), and the Giza – Cairo conurbation. The first cataract, the closest to the mouth of the river, is at Aswan, north of the Aswan Dam. This part of the river is a regular tourist route, with cruise ships and traditional wooden sailing boats known as feluccas. Many cruise ships ply the route between Luxor and Aswan, stopping at Edfu and Kom Ombo along the way. Security concerns have limited cruising on the northernmost portion for many years. A computer simulation study to plan the economic development of the Nile was directed by H. A. W. Morrice and W. N. Allan, for the Ministry of Hydro-power of the Republic of the Sudan, during 1955–1957[56][57][58] Morrice was their Hydrological Adviser, and Allan his predecessor. M.P. Barnett directed the software development and computer operations. The calculations were enabled by accurate monthly inflow data collected for 50 years. The underlying principle was the use of over-year storage, to conserve water from rainy years for use in dry years. Irrigation, navigation and other needs were considered. Each computer run postulated a set of reservoirs and operating equations for the release of water as a function of the month and the levels upstream. The behavior that would have resulted given the inflow data was modeled. Over 600 models were run. Recommendations were made to the Sudanese authorities. The calculations were run on an IBM 650 computer. Simulation studies to design water resources are discussed further in the article on hydrology transport models, that have been used since the 1980s to analyze water quality. Despite the development of many reservoirs, drought during the 1980s led to widespread starvation in Ethiopia and Sudan, but Egypt was nourished by water impounded in Lake Nasser. Drought has proven to be a major cause of fatality in the Nile River basin. According to a report by the Strategic Foresight Group around 170 million people have been affected by droughts in the last century with half a million lives lost.[59] From the 70 incidents of drought which took place between 1900 and 2012, 55 incidents took place in Ethiopia, Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya and Tanzania.[59]

Water sharing dispute[edit] The Nile's water has affected the politics of East Africa and the Horn of Africa for many decades. Countries including Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya have complained about Egyptian domination of its water resources. The Nile Basin Initiative promotes a peaceful cooperation among those states.[60][61] Several attempts have been made to establish agreements between the countries sharing the Nile waters. It is very difficult to have all these countries agree with each other given the self-interest of each country and their political, strategic, and social differences. On 14 May 2010 at Entebbe, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda signed a new agreement on sharing the Nile water even though this agreement raised strong opposition from Egypt and Sudan. Ideally, such international agreements should promote equitable and efficient usage of the Nile basin's water resources. Without a better understanding about the availability of the future water resources of the Nile River, it is possible that conflicts could arise between these countries relying on the Nile for their water supply, economic and social developments.[5]

Modern achievements and exploration[edit] The White Nile Expedition, led by South African national Hendrik Coetzee, became the first to navigate the White Nile's entire length of approximately 3,700 kilometres (2,300 mi). The expedition began at the White Nile's source, Lake Victoria in Uganda, on 17 January 2004 and arrived safely at the Mediterranean in Rosetta, four and a half months later.[62] The Blue Nile Expedition, led by geologist Pasquale Scaturro and his partner, kayaker and documentary filmmaker Gordon Brown became the first people to descend the entire Blue Nile, from Lake Tana in Ethiopia to the beaches of Alexandria on the Mediterranean. Their approximately 5,230 kilometres (3,250 mi) journey took 114 days: from 25 December 2003 to 28 April 2004. Though their expedition included others, Brown and Scaturro were the only ones to complete the entire journey.[63] Although they descended whitewater manually the team used outboard motors for much of their journey. On 29 January 2005 Canadian Les Jickling and New Zealander Mark Tanner completed the first human powered transit of Ethiopia's Blue Nile. Their journey of over 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi) took five months. They recount that they paddled through two war zones, regions notorious for bandits, and were arrested at gunpoint.[64] On 30 April 2005 a team led by South Africans Peter Meredith and Hendrik Coetzee became the first to navigate the major remote source of the White Nile, the Akagera river that starts as the Ruvyironza in Bururi Province, Burundi, and ends at Lake Victoria, Uganda.

Crossings[edit] Crossings from Khartoum to the Mediterranean Sea[edit] [clarification needed] The following bridges cross the Blue Nile and connect Khartoum to Khartoum North: Mac Nimir Bridge Blue Nile Road & Railway Bridge Burri Bridge Elmansheya Bridge Soda bridge The following bridges cross the White Nile and connect Khartoum to Omdurman: White Nile Bridge Fitayhab Bridge Al Dabbaseen Bridge (under construction)[when?] Omhuraz Bridge (proposed)[citation needed] the following bridges cross from Omdurman: to Khartoum North: Shambat Bridge Halfia Bridge The following bridges cross to Tuti from Khartoum states three cities Khartoum-tuti Bridge Omdurman-Tuti Suspension Bridge (proposed)[citation needed] Khartoum North-tuti Bridge (proposed)[citation needed] Other bridges Shandi Bridge, Shendi Atbarah Bridge, Atbarah Merowe Dam, Merowe Merowe Bridge, Merowe Aswan Bridge, Aswan Luxor Bridge, Luxor Suhag Bridge, Suhag Assiut Bridge, Assiut Al Minya Bridge, Minya Al Marazeek Bridge, Helwan First Ring Road Bridge (Moneeb Crossing), Cairo Abbas Bridge, Cairo University Bridge, Cairo Qasr al-Nil Bridge, Cairo 6th October Bridge, Cairo Abu El Ela Bridge, Cairo (removed in 1998) New Abu El Ela Bridge, Cairo Imbaba Bridge, Cairo Rod Elfarag Bridge, Cairo Second Ring Road Bridge, Cairo Banha Bridge, Banha Samanoud Bridge, Samanoud Mansoura 2 Bridges, Mansoura Talkha Bridge, Talkha Shirbine high Bridge Shirbine Bridge Kafr Sad - Farscor Bridge International Coastal Road Bridge Damietta high Bridge, Damietta Damietta Bridge, Damietta Kafr El Zayat Bridges, Kafr El Zayat Zefta Bridge, Zefta This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. Crossings from Rwanda to Khartoum[edit] Nalubaale Bridge, Jinja, Uganda (Formerly Owen Falls Bridge) Karuma Bridge, Karuma, Uganda Pakwach Bridge, Uganda This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Images and media of the Nile[edit] Riverboat on the Nile, Egypt 1900 Marsh along the Nile A river boat crossing the Nile in Uganda Murchison Falls in Uganda, between Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga The Nile in Luxor The river Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.

Annotated bibliography[edit] The following is an annotated bibliography of key written documents for the Western exploration of the Nile. 17th century Historia da Ethiopia, Pedro Páez (aka Pero Pais), Portugal, 1620 A Jesuit missionary who was sent from Goa to Ethiopia in 1589 and remained in the area until his death in 1622. Credited with being the first European to view the source of the Blue Nile which he describes in this volume. Voyage historique d'Abissinie, Jerónimo Lobo (aka Girolamo Lobo), Piero Matini, Firenze; 1693 One of the most important and earliest sources on Ethiopia and the Nile. Jerónimo Lobo (1595-1687), a Jesuit priest, stayed in Ethiopia, mostly in Tigre, for 9 years and travelled to Lake Tana and the Blue Nile, reaching the province of Damot. When the Jesuits were expelled from the country, he too had to leave and did so via Massaua and Suakin. "He was the best expert on Ethiopian matters. After Pais, Lobo is the second European to describe the sources of the Blue Nile and he did so more exactly than Bruce" (transl. from Henze). 18th century Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile in the Years – 1768, 1770, 1771, 1772, and 1773, James Bruce of Kinnaird. J. Ruthven for G. GJ. and J. Robinson et al., Edinburgh, 1790 (5 Volumes) With time on his hands and at the urging of a friend, Bruce composed this account of his travels on the African continent, including comments on the history and religion of Egypt, an account of Indian trade, a history of Abyssinia, and other material. Although Bruce would not be confused with "a great scholar or a judicious critic, few books of equal compass are equally entertaining; and few such monuments exist of the energy and enterprise of a single traveller" (DNB). "The result of his travels was a very great enrichment of the knowledge of geography and ethnography" (Cox II, p. 389.) Bruce was one of the earliest westerners to search for the source of the Nile. In November 1770 he reached the source of the Blue Nile, and though he acknowledged that the White Nile was the larger stream, he claimed that the Blue Nile was the Nile of the ancients and that he was thus the discoverer of its source. The account of his travels was written twelve years after his journey and without reference to his journals, which gave critics grounds for disbelief, but the substantial accuracy of the book has since been amply demonstrated. 1800–1850 Egypt And Mohammed Ali, Or Travels In The Valley of The Nile, James Augustus St. John, Longman, London, 1834 St. John traveled extensively in Egypt and Nubia in 1832–33, mainly on foot. He gives a very interesting picture of Egyptian life and politics under Mohammed Ali, a large part of volume II deals with the Egyptian campaign in Syria. Travels in Ethiopia Above the Second Cateract of the Nile; Exhibiting the State of That Country and Its Various Inhabitants Under the Dominion of Mohammed Ali; and Illustrating the Antiquities, Arts, and History of the Ancient Kingdom of Meroe, G. A.Hoskins. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman, London; 1835. Modern Egypt and Thebes: Being a Description of Egypt; Including Information Required for Travelers in That Country, Sir Gardner Wilkinson, John Murray, London, 1843 The first known English travelers guide to the Lower Nile Basin. 1850–1900 Lake Regions of Central Equatorial Africa, with Notices of The Lunar Mountains and the Sources of the White Nile; being The Results of an Expedition Undertaken under the Patronage of Her Majesty's Government and the Royal Geographical Society of London, In the Years 1857–1859, Sir Richard Burton. W. Clowes, London; 1860 Sir Richard Burton's presentation of his expedition with John Speke. Ultimately, Burton's view of the sources of the Nile failed and Speke's prevailed. Travels, researches, and missionary labours, during eighteen years' residence in eastern Africa. Together with journeys to Jagga, Usambara, Ukambani, Shoa, Abessinia, and Khartum; and a coasting voyage from Mombaz to Cape Delgado. With an appendix respecting the snow-capped mountains of eastern Africa; the sources of the Nile; the languages and literature of Abessinia And eastern Africa, etc. etc., Rev Dr. J. Krapf, Trubner and Co, London; 1860; Ticknor and Fields, Boston; 1860 Krapf went to East Africa in the service of the English Church Missionary Society, arriving at Mombasa, Kenya in 1844 and staying in East Africa until 1853. While stationed there he was the first to report the existence of Lake Baringo and a sighting of the snow-clad Kilimanjaro. Krapf, during his travels, collected information from the Arab traders operating inland from the coast. From the traders Krapf and his companions learned of great lakes and snow-capped mountains, which Krapf claimed to have seen for himself, much to the ridicule of English explorers who could not believe the idea of snow on the equator. However, Krapf was correct and had seen Mounts Kilimanjaro and Kenya, the first European to do so. Egypt, Soudan and Central Africa: With Explorations From Khartoum on the White Nile to the Regions of the Equator, Being Sketches from Sixteen Years' Travel, John Petherick. William Blackwood, Edinburgh; 1861 Petherick was a well known Welsh traveler in East Central Africa where he had adopted the profession of mining engineer. This work describes sixteen years of his travel throughout Africa. In 1845, he entered the service of Mehemet Ali, and was employed in examining Upper Egypt, Nubia, the Red Sea coast and Kordofan in an unsuccessful search for coal. In 1848, he left the Egyptian service and established himself at El Obeid as a trader and was, at the same time made British Consul for the Sudan. In 1853, he removed to Khartoum and became an ivory trader. He traveled extensively in the Bahr-el-Ghazal region, then almost unknown, exploring the Jur, Yalo and other affluents of the Ghazal and in 1858 he penetrated the Niam-Niam country. Petherick's additions to the knowledge of natural history were considerable, being responsible for the discovery of a number of new species. In 1859, he returned to England where he became acquainted with John Speke, then arranging for an expedition to discover the source of the Nile. While in England, Petherick married and published this account of his travels. He got the idea to join Speke in his travels, and in this volume is an actual subscription and list of subscribers to raise money to send Petherick to join Speke. His subsequent adventures as a consul in Africa were published in a later work. Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile, John Hanning Speke. William Blackwood, Edinburgh, 1863; Harper & Brothers, New York; 1864 Speke had previously made an expedition with Sir Richard Burton under the auspices of the Indian government, during which Speke was convinced that he had discovered the source of the Nile. Burton, however, disagreed and ridiculed Speke's account. Speke set off on another expedition, recounted here, in the company of Captain Grant. During the course of this expedition he not only produced further evidence for his discoveries but he also met (later Sir) Samuel and Florence Baker. Speke and Burton provided them with essential information which helped Baker in the discovery of the Albert Nyanza.[65] The importance of Speke's discoveries can hardly be overestimated. In discovering the source reservoir of the Nile he succeeded in solving the problem of all ages; he and Grant were the first Europeans to cross Equatorial Eastern Africa and gained for the world a knowledge of about 800 km (500 mi) of a portion of Eastern Africa previously totally unknown.

See also[edit] Africa portal Geography portal Bujagali Hydroelectric Power Station Egyptian Public Works Kiira Hydroelectric Power Station Water politics in the Nile Basin Merowe Dam Nalubaale Hydroelectric Power Station Orders of magnitude Vid Flumina, a river of liquid methane and ethane on Saturn's moon Titan

References[edit] ^ Nile River at GEOnet Names Server ^ "Nile River". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015.  ^ Amazon Longer Than Nile River, Scientists Say Archived 15 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Oloo, Adams (2007). "The Quest for Cooperation in the Nile Water Conflicts: A Case for Eritrea" (PDF). African Sociological Review. 11 (1). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.  ^ a b Mohamed Helmy Mahmoud Moustafa Elsanabary"Teleconnection, Modeling, Climate Anomalies Impact and Forecasting of Rainfall and Streamflow of the Upper Blue Nile River Basin". Canada: University of Alberta. 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2012  ^ BGN/PCGN. "Romanization System for Amharic Archived 13 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.". 1967. Hosted at the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, 2013. Accessed 28 Feb 2014. ^ See also: BGN/PCGN romanization. ^ The river's outflow from that lake occurs at 12°02′09″N 37°15′53″E / 12.03583°N 37.26472°E / 12.03583; 37.26472 ^ "What's the Blue Nile and the White Nile? - Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017.  ^ "Nile". Oxford English Dictionary (3 ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. December 2009.  ^ a b c  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Nile § Name". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 693.  ^ An overview is given by: Carles Múrcia (2006). Greek: Νεῖλος : El nom grec del riu Nil pot ser d’origen amazic? Archived 4 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Aula Orientalis 24: 269-292 ^ «Τηθὺς δ᾽ Ὠκεανῷ Ποταμοὺς τέκε δινήεντας, Νεῖλόν τ᾽ Ἀλφειόν τε καὶ Ἠριδανὸν βαθυδίνην» (Hesiod, "Theogony", 337-8). ^ "Nile". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Nile". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 695.  ^ "The Nile River". Nile Basin Initiative. 2011. Archived from the original on 2 September 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2011.  ^ EarthTrends: The Environmental Information Portal Archived 27 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ McLeay, Cam (2 July 2006). "The Truth About the Source of R. Nile". New Vision. Archived from the original on 9 April 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.  ^ "Nile River". Archived from the original on 10 January 2007. Retrieved 5 February 2011.  ^ "Team Reaches Nile's 'True Source'". BBC News. 31 March 2006. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ Described in Joanna Lumley's Nile, 7 pm to 8 pm, ITV, Sunday 12 August 2011. ^ "Journey to the source of the Nile". Telegraph. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012.  ^ Next on Egypt's to-do: Ethiopia and the Nile Archived 9 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Arabic bahr can refer to either seas or large rivers.[11] ^ Hurst H.E.; et al. (2011). "The Nile Basins |volume 1 The Hydrology of the Blue Nile and Akbara and the Main Nile to Aswan, with some Reference to the Projects Nile control Dept. paper 12" (PDF). Cairo: Government Printing office. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 July 2011.  ^ J. V. Sutcliffe & Y. P. Parks (1999). "12". The Hydrology of the Nile (PDF). IAHS Special Publication no. 5. p. 161. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 November 2010.  ^ Robert J. Stern, Mohamed Gamal Abdelsalam: The Origin of the Great Bend of the Nile from SIR-C/X-SAR Imaginary. In: Science, New Series, Vol.274, Issue 5293 (Dec.6,1996), pp.1696-1698 ^ as per Strabos Geographika book XVII ^ Egyptian Dust Plume, Red Sea Archived 22 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Blue Nile River | river, Africa". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017.  ^ Marshall et al., "Late Pleistocene and Holocene environmental and climatic change from Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 September 2006.  (247 KB), 2006 ^ "Two Niles Meet : Image of the Day". 26 April 2013. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017.  ^ Shahin, Mamdouh (2002). Hydrology and Water Resources of Africa. Springer. pp. 276, 287–288. ISBN 1-4020-0866-X. ; online at Google Books Archived 14 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Sobat River". Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 21 January 2008.  ^ Keding, Birgit (2000). "New Data on the Holocene Occupation of the Wadi Howar Region (Eastern Sahara/Sudan)". Studies in African Archaeology. 7: 89–104.  ^ Carmignani, Luigi; Salvini, Riccardo; Bonciani, Filippo (2009). "Did the Nile River flow to the Gulf of Sirt during the late Miocene?" (PDF). Bollettino della Societa Geologica Italiana (Italian Journal of Geoscience). 128 (2): 403–408. doi:10.3301/IJG.2009.128.2.403.  ^ Salvini, Riccardo; Carmignani, Luigi; Francionib, Mirko; Casazzaa, Paolo (2015). "Elevation modelling and palaeo-environmental interpretation in the Siwa area (Egypt): Application of SAR interferometry and radargrammetry to COSMO-SkyMed imagery". Catena. 129: 46–62. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2015.02.017.  ^ Although the ancestral Sahara Desert initially developed at least 7 million years ago, it grew during interglacial periods and shrank during glacial ones. The growth of the current Sahara began about 6,000 years ago. Schuster, Mathieu; et al. (2006). "The age of the Sahara desert" (PDF). Science. 311 (5762): 821–821. doi:10.1126/science.1120161.  ^ Warren, John (2006). Evaporites:Sediments, Resources and Hydrocarbons. Berlin: Springer. p. 352. ISBN 3-540-26011-0.  ^ Said, R. (1981). The geological evolution of the River Nile. Springer Verlag. ^ Williams, M.A.J.; Williams, F. (1980). Evolution of Nile Basin. In M.A.J. Williams and H. Faure (eds). The Sahara and the Nile. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 207–224. ^ Salama, R.B. (1987). "The evolution of the River Nile, The buried saline rift lakes in Sudan". J. African Earth Sciences. 6 (6): 899–913. doi:10.1016/0899-5362(87)90049-2.  ^ Salama, R.B. (1997). Rift Basins of Sudan. African Basins, Sedimentary Basins of the World. 3. Edited by R.C. Selley (Series Editor K.J. Hsu) pp. 105–149. ElSevier, Amsterdam. ^ a b Springer, Lisa; Neil Morris (15 January 2010). Art and Culture of Ancient Egypt. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-4358-3589-4.  ^ a b Chisholm 1911, p. 698. ^ Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile ^ History of Ethiopia, circa 1622 ^ Historia geral da Ethiopia a Alta, 1660 ^ Mundus Subterraneus, 1664 ^ The Present State of Egypt, 1678. ^ S. Whiteway, editor and translator, The Portuguese Expedition to Abyssinia in 1441–1543, 1902. (Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint, 1967), p. 241. ^ Natural History, 5.10 ^ Chisholm 1911, p. 693. ^ Shahin, Mamdouh (2002). Hydrology and Water Resources of Africa. Springer. pp. 286–287. ISBN 1-4020-0866-X. ; online at Google Books Archived 14 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Big Canal To Change Course of Nile River" Archived 5 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. October 1933. Popular Science (short article on top-right of page with map). ^ H. A. W. Morrice and W. N. Allan, Planning for the ultimate hydraulic development of the Nile Valley, Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 14, 101, 1959. doi:10.1680/iicep.1959.11963 ^ M. P. Barnett, Comment on the Nile Valley Calculations, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, vol. 19, 223, 1957. JSTOR 2983815 ^ D. F. Manzer and M. P. Barnett, Analysis by Simulation: Programming Techniques for a High-Speed Digital Computer, in Arthur Maas et al, Design of Water Resource Systems, pp. 324–390, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1962. ^ a b Blue Peace for the Nile, 2009 Archived 8 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.; Report by Strategic Foresight Group ^ The Nile Basin Initiative Archived 27 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Cambanis, Thanassis (25 September 2010). "Egypt and Thirsty Neighbors Are at Odds Over Nile". New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ National Geographic released a feature film about the expedition in late 2005 entitled The Longest River. ^ They chronicled their adventure with an IMAX camera and two handheld video cams, sharing their story in the IMAX film Mystery of the Nile released in 2005, and in a book of the same title. ^ Mark Tanner, Paddling the Blue Nile in Flood Archived 1 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 1 November 2014 ^ Dorothy Middleton, ‘Baker , Florence Barbara Maria, Lady Baker (1841–1916)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 11 Sept 2015

Further reading[edit] Jeal, Tim (2011). Explorers of the Nile: The Triumph and Tragedy of a Great Victorian Adventure. ISBN 978-0-300-14935-7 Tvedt, Terje, ed. The River Nile in the Post-Colonial Age: Conflict and Cooperation Among the Nile Basin Countries (I.B. Tauris, 2010) 293 pages; studies of the river's finite resources as shared by multiple nations in the post-colonial era; includes research by scholars from Burundi, Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nile. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nile. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nile A Struggle Over the Nile – slideshow by The New York Times Thesis Analyzing Nile River Negotiations Geographic data related to Nile at OpenStreetMap v t e Ancient Egypt topics Outline Index Major topics Glossary of artifacts Agriculture Architecture (Egyptian Revival architecture) Art Astronomy Chronology Cities (list) Clothing Cuisine Dynasties Funerary practices Geography Great Royal Wives History Language Literature Mathematics Medicine Military Music Mythology People Pharaohs (list) Philosophy Religion Sites Technology Trade Writing Egyptology Egyptologists Museums Book Category Ancient Egypt portal WikiProject Commons v t e People and things in the Quran Characters Non-humans Allâh ("The God") Names of Allah found in the Quran Beings in Jannah (Paradise, literally 'Garden') Ghilman & Wildan Houri Zaqqum Animals Related The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob feared could attack Joseph The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Non-related Ḥimār (domesticated donkey or wild ass) Qaswarah ('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter') Jinns Iblīs the Devil Ifrit Marid Qareen Prophets Mentioned Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael) Dhabih Ullah Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd (Solomon son of David) ‘Uzair (Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā (John the Baptist the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob) Isrâ’îl (Israel) Yūnus (Jonah) Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish (or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish (or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale") Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb (Joseph son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah) Ulu-l-‘Azm Muḥammad Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad ʿĪsā (Jesus) Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary) Mūsā Kalīmullāh (Moses He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh (Abraham Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah) Debatable ones Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?) Implied Ermia/Jeremiah Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yusha' ibn Nūn/Joshua (companion and successor of Musa) People of Prophets Mentioned evil ones Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir'aun (Pharaoh of Moses) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qarun/Korah (cousin of Musa/Moses) As-Sāmirī Abu Lahab Specified good ones Zechariah's wife Adam's immediate relatives Martyred son Wife Women of Moses Moses' mother Sister Wife Sister-in-law Isaac's mother Zayd Non-specified good ones Abiona/Amtelai daughter of Karnebo (mother of Ibrahim) Bathsheba (wife of Dawud, mother of Sulayman) Hājar/Hagar (wife of Ibrahim, mother of Isma'il) Hannah/Anne daughter of Faquz (mother of Maryam, wife of Imran) Imran/Amram (father of Musa) Lamech (father of Nuh) Rāhil/Rachel (wife of Ya'qub, mother of Yūsuf) Rahma/Dinah (wife of Ayyub) Shamkha bint Anush/Betenos (mother of Nuh) Son of Luqman Implied Asiya bint Muzahim/Bithiah (wife of Fir'aun) Asif ibn Barkhiya (vizier and successor of Sulayman) Bilquis (Queen of Saba/Sheba) Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Benyamin/Benjamin Habib the Carpenter (believer of Ya-Sin) Kaleb/Caleb (companion of Yusha') Khidr Magicians of Fir'aun Simon Cephas/Simon Peter Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Potiphar (Al-Aziz) Shaddad Simeon (son of Ya'qub) Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr) Valid ibn Rayyan (king of Egypt in the account of Yūsuf) Zuleikha (wife of al-Aziz) Groups Mentioned Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian apostles Disciples of Jesus Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of the City (People of Ya-Sin) People of Yathrib or Medina Folk of Dawud Folk of Lut Folk of Musa and Harun Nation of Nuh Tribes, ethnicities or families A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins) 'Ād (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Tubba‘ (People of Tubba) People of Saba'/Sheba Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh) Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland") Ajam Ar-Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah ("Companions of the Wood") Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household") Household of Abraham Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad Household of Salih People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad) Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad) Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina who helped Muhammad and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers') People of Mecca Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab) Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh) Implicitly mentioned Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba Religious groups Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munafiqun (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb) Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil) Ruhban (Christian monks) Qissis (Christian priest) Yahūd (Jews) Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi Sabians Polytheists Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham and Lot Locations Mentioned Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah ("The Land The Blessed") Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy") In the Arabian Peninsula (excluding Madyan) Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills") Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars) Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca) Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah Saba’ (Sheba) ‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba) Rass In Mesopotamia: Al-Jūdiyy Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed") Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh) Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa) Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai) Mount Sinai or Mount Tabor Mu'tafikat (Sodom) Implied Antioch Antakya Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas & 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier") Black Stone (Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira & Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile River Palestine River Paradise of Shaddad Religious locations Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration") Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām ("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly: Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque Salat (Synagogue) Non-human physical entities Religious texts Al-Injîl (The Gospel of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah) Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone Az-Zabûr (The Psalms of David) Related objects Forbidden fruit of Adam Heavenly Food of Christian Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Tabut al-Sakina (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil Mentioned idols (cult images) 'Ansāb Idols of Israelites: Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites Idols of Noah's people: Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq Idols of Quraysh: Lāt Manāṫ 'Uzza Jibt and Taghut Events Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim (Flood of the Great Dam of Marib in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage (Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār Implied The event of Ghadir Khumm Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship) Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 129365562 GND: 4042339-6 NDL: 00628842 Retrieved from "" Categories: NileInternational rivers of AfricaNile basinRivers of EgyptRivers of SudanRivers of South SudanRivers of UgandaGeography of ancient EgyptHebrew Bible riversNational parks of EgyptWater transport in EgyptRivers of AfricaHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksArticles with inconsistent citation formatsWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource referenceArticles containing Greek-language textCoordinates on WikidataGeobox usage tracking for river typeArticles containing Arabic-language textArticles containing Coptic-language textArticles containing Amharic-language textArticles containing Latin-language textArticles containing Ancient Greek-language textWikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2011All articles with vague or ambiguous timeVague or ambiguous time from August 2011All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from August 2011Incomplete lists from August 2008Incomplete lists from April 2009Pages using div col with deprecated parametersUse dmy dates from October 2010Wikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersArticles containing video clips

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikibooksWikiquote Languages АдыгэбзэАдыгабзэAfrikaansAlemannischአማርኛÆngliscالعربيةAragonésܐܪܡܝܐArmãneashtiঅসমীয়াAsturianuAvañe'ẽAzərbaycancaتۆرکجهবাংলাBân-lâm-gúБашҡортсаБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎भोजपुरीBislamaБългарскиBoarischBosanskiBrezhonegБуряадCatalàЧӑвашлаCebuanoČeštinaChi-ChewaChiShonaCorsuCymraegDanskDavvisámegiellaDeutschދިވެހިބަސްDolnoserbskiEestiΕλληνικάЭрзяньEspañolEsperantoEstremeñuEuskaraفارسیFiji HindiFøroysktFrançaisFryskFulfuldeGaeilgeGàidhligGalego贛語ગુજરાતી한국어Հայերենहिन्दीHornjoserbsceHrvatskiIlokanoBahasa IndonesiaInterlinguaИронIsiXhosaÍslenskaItalianoעבריתBasa Jawaಕನ್ನಡქართულიҚазақшаKernowekKinyarwandaKiswahiliKongoKreyòl ayisyenKurdîКыргызчаLadinoЛезгиLatinaLatviešuLëtzebuergeschLietuviųLimburgsLingálaLivvinkarjalaLa .lojban.MagyarमैथिलीМакедонскиമലയാളംमराठीმარგალურიمصرىBahasa MelayuMìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄MirandésМонголမြန်မာဘာသာNāhuatlDorerin NaoeroNederlandsNedersaksiesनेपालीनेपाल भाषा日本語NapulitanoНохчийнNordfriiskNorskNorsk nynorskOccitanОлык марийOromooOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаਪੰਜਾਬੀپنجابیPatoisПерем КомиPiemontèisPlattdüütschPolskiΠοντιακάPortuguêsQaraqalpaqshaQırımtatarcaRomânăRumantschRuna SimiРусиньскыйРусскийСаха тылаसंस्कृतम्ScotsSeelterskSesotho sa LeboaShqipSicilianuසිංහලSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaŚlůnskiSoomaaligaکوردیСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்TaqbaylitTarandíneТатарча/tatarçaతెలుగుไทยТоҷикӣᏣᎳᎩTürkçeTürkmençeThuɔŋjäŋУдмуртУкраїнськаاردوVènetoVepsän kel’Tiếng ViệtVõroWinaray吴语ייִדישYorùbá粵語Žemaitėška中文डोटेलीKabɩyɛ Edit links This page was last edited on 16 January 2018, at 09:41. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"1.128","walltime":"1.346","ppvisitednodes":{"value":8405,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":318263,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":29042,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":17,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":19,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 1106.940 1 -total"," 26.17% 289.716 1 Template:Geobox"," 22.62% 250.377 1 Template:Reflist"," 12.52% 138.566 2 Template:Lang-ar"," 10.20% 112.947 13 Template:Navbox"," 6.12% 67.771 37 Template:Convert"," 4.90% 54.188 3 Template:Cite_encyclopedia"," 4.49% 49.717 4 Template:Fix"," 4.47% 49.509 4 Template:Coord"," 4.10% 45.396 7 Template:Geobox2_unit"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.499","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":23604364,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1306","timestamp":"20180116094120","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":115,"wgHostname":"mw1239"});});

Nile_River - Photos and All Basic Informations

Nile_River More Links

Nile (disambiguation)Country/Countries In Which The Site LiesEgyptSudanSouth SudanEthiopiaUgandaDemocratic Republic Of The CongoKenyaTanzaniaRwandaBurundiEritreaJinja, UgandaJubaKhartoumCairoWhite NileBlue NileLake TanaEthiopiaKhartoumEgyptGeographic Coordinate SystemArabic LanguageEgyptian ArabicStandard ArabicCoptic LanguageEgyptian LanguageBiblical HebrewRiverNortheast AfricaList Of Rivers By LengthAmazon RiverDrainage BasinTanzaniaUgandaRwandaBurundiDemocratic Republic Of The CongoKenyaEthiopiaEritreaSouth SudanRepublic Of The SudanEgyptTributaryWhite NileBlue NileHeadwatersWaterSiltAfrican Great LakesLake VictoriaAmharic LanguageLake TanaKhartoumDesertNile DeltaMediterranean SeaHistory Of EgyptHistory Of SudanAswanAncient EgyptEgyptian LanguageCoptic LanguageSahidicBohairicLatinAncient GreekHesiodTheogonyNilus (mythology)PotamoiOceanusTethys (mythology)Semitic LanguagesArabicWhite NileEnlargeDenderaSPOT (satellite)EnlargeDrainage DivideEnlargeBeni SuefEnlargeComposite ImageKhartoumWhite NileLake NoBlue NileEast African RiftDrainage BasinMainstem (hydrology)EvapotranspirationGroundwaterSource (river Or Stream)Lake VictoriaKagera RiverBukobaRuvyironza RiverBururi ProvinceBurundiNyabarongoNyungwe ForestRusumo FallsEnlargeRukararaDry SeasonGish AbayRipon FallsJinja, UgandaVictoria NileLake KyogaMasindi PortKaruma FallsMurchison FallsLake Albert (Africa)River DeltaDR CongoAlbert NileSouth SudanNimuleWhite NileConfluenceAchwa RiverBahr El Ghazal RiverLake NoWhite NileClayFlooding Of The NileAswan DamAnabranchBahr El ZerafMongalla, South SudanSuddEvaporationTranspirationSobat RiverMalakalRenk, South SudanCataracts Of The NileSabaloka Game ReserveKhartoumAbu HamedNubian SwellCentral African Shear ZoneBayuda DesertAl Dabbah, SudanAswanEratosthenesLake NasserAswan High DamCairoDistributaryRosettaDamiettaNile DeltaAtbara RiverLake TanaBlue NileEnlargeBlue Nile FallsLake TanaBahir DarEthiopiaEnlargeNile DeltaEnlargeBlue NileGe'ez AlphabetAbay RiverEthiopiaArabic LanguageArabic TransliterationLake TanaTekezé RiverSobat RiverEthiopian HighlandsBahr El Ghazal RiverSobat RiverDrainage BasinOuaddaï HighlandsChadWadi HowarGharb DarfurSaharaEnlargeOikoumeneHerodotusEgyptian LanguageStone AgeLibyaGulf Of SidraQuaternary GlaciationRiver CaptureAsyutSaharaSatellite ImageryMioceneClasticMessinian Salinity CrisisLake MoerisLake TanganyikaVirunga MountainsZambiaTekezé RiverTertiaryPaleogeneNeogeneMellut RiftWhite Nile RiftBlue Nile RiftTectonicSuddBahr El Arab RiftHeadwaterEnlargeFeluccaHerodotusAncient EgyptWheatFlaxPapyrusDomestic BuffaloCamelHapyPharaohRaAkhet (hieroglyph And Season)Season Of The EmergenceShemuEnlargeJohn Hanning SpekeVictorian AgeLake VictoriaEnlargeHenry Morton StanleySuddSouth SudanAncient GreeksRoman EmpireSource (river Or Stream)AgatharcidesPtolemy II PhiladelphusEthiopian HighlandsLake TanaTabula RogerianaJames BruceJesuitPedro PáezAthanasius KircherJohann Michael VanslebTis IssatCiceroJerónimo LoboNiger RiverPliny The ElderMauretaniaMasaesyliEnlargeList Of ExplorersJohn Hanning SpekeRichard Francis BurtonVictoria Of The United KingdomDavid LivingstoneCongo RiverHenry Morton StanleyRipon FallsNapoleonLaird ShipyardLiverpoolSuez CanalSiege Of KhartoumSternwheelersGiza NecropolisThebes, EgyptEnlargeEnlargeKagera RiverRuvubu RiverRusumo FallsEnlargeEnlargeAswan High DamCataracts Of The NileSuddJonglei CanalLuxorThebes, EgyptGizaCairoFeluccaEdfuKom OmboHydrology Transport ModelLake NasserHorn Of AfricaNile Basin InitiativeEntebbeEthiopiaRwandaTanzaniaUgandaWhite NileSouth AfricaHendrik CoetzeeLake VictoriaUgandaRosettaBlue NileLake TanaEthiopiaAlexandria, EgyptWhitewaterOutboard MotorsCanadaNew ZealandKagera RiverRuvyironza RiverBururi ProvinceWikipedia:Please ClarifyMac Nimir BridgeBlue Nile Road & Railway BridgeElmansheya BridgeWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Dates And NumbersWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Citation NeededShendiAtbarahMerowe DamMerowe, SudanAswanLuxorAssiutMinya, EgyptHelwanCairoQasr Al-Nil Bridge6th October BridgeBoulak BridgeImbaba BridgeMansouraDamiettaDamiettaWikipedia:WikiProject ListsJinja, UgandaOwen FallsKarumaWikipedia:WikiProject ListsMurchison FallsLake VictoriaLake KyogaEdit Section: Annotated BibliographyPedro PáezGoaEthiopiaJerónimo LoboJesuitTigray ProvinceLake TanaDamotMassauaSuakinTravels To Discover The Source Of The NileJames BruceEthiopiaJames Augustus St. JohnNubiaMuhammad Ali Of EgyptSyriaMuhammad Ali Of EgyptSir Richard BurtonWilliam Clowes Ltd.John SpekeTicknor And FieldsMombasaKenyaLake BaringoKilimanjaroJohn PetherickWilliam BlackwoodRed SeaKordofanKhartoumBahr El Ghazal (region Of South Sudan)Jur RiverYaloGhazalZande PeopleJohn SpekeJohn Hanning SpekeWilliam BlackwoodSamuel BakerFlorence BakerAlbert NyanzaPortal:AfricaPortal:GeographyBujagali Hydroelectric Power StationEgyptian Public WorksKiira Hydroelectric Power StationWater Politics In The Nile BasinMerowe DamNalubaale Hydroelectric Power StationOrders Of Magnitude (length)Vid FluminaGEOnet Names ServerEncyclopædia BritannicaWayback MachineCanadaUniversity Of AlbertaUnited States Board On Geographic NamesPermanent Committee On Geographical Names For British Official UseWayback MachineNational Geospatial Intelligence AgencyBGN/PCGN RomanizationOxford English DictionaryOxford University PressEncyclopædia Britannica Eleventh EditionGreek LanguageWayback MachineEncyclopædia Britannica Eleventh EditionWayback MachineNew VisionJoanna LumleyITV (TV Network)Wayback MachineWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-4020-0866-XWayback MachineEncyclopædia BritannicaDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierBefore PresentDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3-540-26011-0Springer VerlagDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4358-3589-4Travels To Discover The Source Of The NileNatural History (Pliny)International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-4020-0866-XWayback MachineWayback MachinePopular ScienceDigital Object IdentifierJournal Of The Royal Statistical SocietyJSTORHarvard University PressWayback MachineWayback MachineNational Geographic SocietyIMAXMystery Of The NileWayback MachineTim JealInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-300-14935-7The New York TimesOpenStreetMapTemplate:Ancient Egypt TopicsTemplate Talk:Ancient Egypt TopicsAncient EgyptOutline Of Ancient EgyptIndex Of Ancient Egypt-related ArticlesPortal:Ancient Egypt/Main TopicsGlossary Of Ancient Egypt ArtifactsAncient Egyptian AgricultureAncient Egyptian ArchitectureEgyptian Revival ArchitectureArt Of Ancient EgyptEgyptian AstronomyEgyptian ChronologyUrban Planning In Ancient EgyptList Of Ancient Egyptian Towns And CitiesClothing In Ancient EgyptAncient Egyptian CuisineList Of Ancient Egyptian DynastiesAncient Egyptian Funerary PracticesCategory:Geography Of Ancient EgyptGreat Royal WifeHistory Of Ancient EgyptEgyptian LanguageAncient Egyptian LiteratureAncient Egyptian MathematicsAncient Egyptian MedicineMilitary Of Ancient EgyptMusic Of EgyptEgyptian MythologyList Of Ancient EgyptiansPharaohList Of PharaohsAncient Egyptian PhilosophyAncient Egyptian ReligionList Of Ancient Egyptian SitesAncient Egyptian TechnologyAncient Egyptian TradeWriting In Ancient EgyptGiza NecropolisEgyptologyList Of EgyptologistsList Of Museums Of Egyptian AntiquitiesBook:Ancient Egypt TopicsCategory:Ancient EgyptPortal:Ancient EgyptWikipedia:WikiProject Ancient EgyptTemplate:Characters And Names In The QuranTemplate Talk:Characters And Names In The QuranList Of Characters And Names Mentioned In The QuranGod In IslamGodNames Of God In IslamAllahJannahParadiseGardenGhilmanHouriZaqqumAnimalAl-BaqaraCowJoseph In IslamWolfSolomon In IslamHoopoeDogSeven SleepersJonahFishWhaleShe-Camel Of GodCamelAl-FilWar ElephantDonkeyOnagerQaswarahArabian LionBeast Of PreyHunterJinnDevil (Islam)SatanIfritMaridQareenProphets In IslamAdam In IslamAdamAl-YasaElishaJob In IslamJobDavid In IslamDavidDhul-KiflAaronHud (prophet)Idris (prophet)Enoch (ancestor Of Noah)ElijahJoachimIsaac In IslamIsaacIshmael In IslamIshmaelBinding Of IsaacLot In IslamLot (biblical Person)ṢāliḥShuaibList Of Minor Biblical FiguresSolomon In IslamSolomonUzairJohn The BaptistJohn The BaptistJacob In IslamJacobJonahJonahFishWhaleJoseph In IslamJosephZechariah (priest)Zechariah (priest)Ulu-l-‘AzmMuhammad In The QuranAhmadNames And Titles Of MuhammadJesus In IslamJesusMessiahMoses In IslamMosesAbraham In IslamAbrahamNoah In IslamNoahDhul-QarnaynCyrus The Great In The QuranLuqmanMary In IslamMary, Mother Of JesusTalutSaulGideonJeremiahSamuelSamuelJoshuaList Of Characters And Names Mentioned In The QuranAbraham In IslamTerahPharaoh Of The ExodusHaman (Islam)GoliathKorahSamiri (Islamic Figure)Abu LahabElizabeth (biblical Figure)Cain And Abel In IslamEveJochebedMiriamZipporahLeahSarahZayd Ibn HarithahBathshebaHagar In IslamSaint AnneAmramLamech (father Of Noah)RachelDinahLuqmanAsiyaBithiahAsiyaAsif Ibn BarkhiyaQueen Of ShebaBenjaminHabib The CarpenterCalebKhidrMoses In IslamPeter In IslamAbrahahBalaamBarsisaNebuchadnezzar IINimrodPotipharShaddadSimeon (Hebrew Bible)ZuleikhaSabbathApostle (Christian)Disciples Of Jesus In IslamNoah's ArkSeven SleepersSahab, JordanAl-FilAncient Towns In Saudi ArabiaPeople Of Ya-SinMedinaMedinaDavid In IslamLot In IslamMoses In IslamAaronNoah In IslamTribeEthnicitiesArabʿĀdCompanions Of The RassList Of Rulers Of Saba And HimyarSabaeansQurayshThamudSalehMada'in SalehAjamRûmRomansIsraelitesSodom And GomorrahAbraham In IslamElijahNoah In IslamMidianAṣ-ḥāb Al-AykahJonahGog And MagogJacobDaughters Of LotJoachimAhl Al-BaytBanu HashimGenealogy Of Khadijah's DaughtersWives Of MuhammadCoptsMuslim WorldSahabahMuhajirunAnsar (Islam)MeccaUmm JamilJob In IslamSolomon In IslamCain And Abel In IslamWives Aboard Noah's ArkLot's WifeSons Of NoahAmalekBanu NadirBanu QaynuqaBanu QurayzaIranian PeoplesUmayyad CaliphateBanu AusBanu KhazrajQuba MosqueDhimmiKafirZoroastriansMunafiqHypocrisyMuslimPeople Of The BookChristianMonkPriestJewHakhamRabbiSabiansPolytheismReligion In Pre-Islamic ArabiaAncient Mesopotamian PolytheismAl-Arḍ Al-MubārakahArabian PeninsulaHud (prophet)Iram Of The PillarsMedinaMedinaMount ArafatMada'in SalehBadr, Saudi ArabiaHunayn, Saudi ArabiaMeccaBakkahKaabaMasjid Al-HaramSafa And MarwahSabaeansShebaMarib DamAr RassMesopotamiaMount JudiAl-Munzal Al-MubârakBabylonJonah In IslamNinevehMidianEgyptSinai Peninsula In IslamValley Of TuwaBiblical Mount SinaiMount SinaiMount TaborSodom And GomorrahAntiochAntakyaAyla (city)Dhul-QarnaynBayt Al-MuqaddasJerichoMesopotamia In The QuranCanaanSeven SleepersHejazBlack StoneAl-Hijr Of IshmaelHiraJabal ThawrTa'ifTreaty Of HudaybiyyahJordan RiverShaddadChristian ChurchMihrabMonasteryMosqueSajdahAl-Mash‘ar Al-ḤarāmAl-Aqsa MosqueGreat Mosque Of MeccaDemolition Of Masjid Al-DirarQuba MosqueProphet's MosqueSynagogueIslamic Holy BooksGospel In IslamGospelQuranScrolls Of Abraham (Islam)Torah In IslamTorahScrolls Of MosesTablets Of StoneZaburPsalmsForbidden FruitDisciples Of Jesus In IslamNoah's ArkStaff Of MosesArk Of The CovenantQueen Of ShebaBaalGolden CalfStatueNasr (idol)Suwa'WaddYaghūthYa'uqAl-LatManātAl-‘UzzáBattle Of The TrenchBattle Of BadrBattle Of HunaynBattle Of KhaybarBattle Of TaboukBattle Of UhudConquest Of MeccaLaylat Al-MabitMubahalaSayl Al-‘ArimMaribThe Farewell PilgrimageTreaty Of HudaybiyyahUmrah Al-QazaThe Event Of Ghadir KhummHelp:Authority ControlVirtual International Authority FileIntegrated Authority FileNational Diet LibraryHelp:CategoryCategory:NileCategory:International Rivers Of AfricaCategory:Nile BasinCategory:Rivers Of EgyptCategory:Rivers Of SudanCategory:Rivers Of South SudanCategory:Rivers Of UgandaCategory:Geography Of Ancient EgyptCategory:Hebrew Bible RiversCategory:National Parks Of EgyptCategory:Water Transport In EgyptCategory:Rivers Of AfricaCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Articles With Inconsistent Citation FormatsCategory:Wikipedia Articles Incorporating A Citation From The 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica With Wikisource ReferenceCategory:Articles Containing Greek-language TextCategory:Coordinates On WikidataCategory:Geobox Usage Tracking For River TypeCategory:Articles Containing Arabic-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Coptic-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Amharic-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Latin-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Ancient Greek-language TextCategory:Wikipedia Articles Needing Clarification From August 2011Category:All Articles With Vague Or Ambiguous TimeCategory:Vague Or Ambiguous Time From August 2011Category:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From August 2011Category:Incomplete Lists From August 2008Category:Incomplete Lists From April 2009Category:Pages Using Div Col With Deprecated ParametersCategory:Use Dmy Dates From October 2010Category:Wikipedia Articles With VIAF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersCategory:Articles Containing Video ClipsDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link