Contents 1 Biography 2 Major works 3 References 4 External links


Biography[edit] He was the son of Anna van der Meij and Christiaan Hartsoeker (1626–1683), a Remonstrant minister in Moordrecht near Gouda. His father took the family to Alkmaar in 1661 and finally to Rotterdam in 1669. Nicolaas started to make a living as a lens maker in Rotterdam, and was instructed in optics by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In 1674, he and a fellow student, assisted by Van Leeuwenhoek, were the first to observe semen, a situation that would later lead to a priority dispute between Hartsoeker and Leeuwenhoek over the discovery of spermatozoids. In 1677, Hartsoeker met Christiaan Huygens and initiated him in the making of lenses. In June 1678, Hartsoeker accompanied, in the role of an assistant, Huygens on a trip to Paris, where they made a great impression with their microscopes. However, Huygens failed to mention Hartsoeker even once in a subsequent publication in France, leading to a fall-out between the two.[2] Hartsoeker returned to Rotterdam, where his parents still lived and where he married Elisabeth Vettekeucken in October 1680. His business as an instrument maker and wine merchant failed and, after the death of his father in August 1683, he moved his family in 1684 to Paris, where he made instruments for the Paris observatory and the academy. Hartsoeker also came up with contrivances for aiming very large aerial telescopes originally popularized by Huygens.[3] He remained there until 1698.[2] Illustration of homunculi in sperm, drawn by Hartsoeker in 1695. It is often said that in 1694, while observing human sperm through a microscope, Hartsoeker believed that he saw tiny men inside the sperm, which he called homunculi or animalcules. However, he only postulated their existence as part of his Spermist theory of conception and never claimed to have seen them.[4] The 1694 "Essay on dioptrics", in which this hypothesis appears[citation needed], was a highly lauded book, in fact tackling several misconceptions of the time. For example, Hartsoeker disavows the contemporary position (e.g. of Robert Hooke) that with refractor telescopes one soon would be able to see man-sized creatures on the moon, if any in fact existed.[2] At the end of the century, Hartsoeker had become quite famous. In 1699 he was elected member of the French Academy of Sciences and in 1704 of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, in both cases as one of the first foreign members. Czar Peter met him in Amsterdam and offered him the chair of mathematics in St Petersburg. Hartsoeker did not accept, but the czar did finance an observatory for him in Amsterdam. Later, in 1704, Hartsoeker accepted the offer of Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine to become "first mathematician and honorary professor of philosophy" at the University of Heidelberg. The last years of his life were spent in Utrecht.[2]


Major works[edit] Essai de dioptrique, Paris, 1694. Principes de la physique, Paris, 1696. Conjectures physiques, Amsterdam, 1706. Suite des conjectures physiques, Amsterdam, 1708. Eclaircissements sur les conjectures physiques, Amsterdam, 1710.


References[edit] ^ Davidson, Michael W. "Hartsoeker Screw-Barrel Microscope". Microscopy Primer: Museum of Mircoscopy. Florida State University.  ^ a b c d Dijksterhuis, Fokko Jan (2007). "Constructive thinking: a case for dioptrics". In Roberts, Lissa; Schaffer, Simon; Dear, Peter. The Mindful Hand: inquiry and invention from the late Renaissance to early industrialisation. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. pp. 59––82. ISBN 978-90-6984-483-1.  ^ Hartsoeker, Nicolaas (1710). "Nova methodus utendi vel" (in latin). Miscellanea Berolinensia ad incrementum scientiarum, ex scriptis Societati Regiae Scientiarum exhibitis edita. i: 261–262.  ^ Hill, K.A. (1985). "Hartsoeker's Homonculus: a corrective note". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 21 (2): 178–179. doi:10.1002/1520-6696(198504). 


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nicolas Hartsoeker. Digitized works by Nicolaas hartsoeker from the Linda Hall Library (1694) Essay de dioptrique (1696) Principes de physique (1706) Conjectures physiques Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 71525600 LCCN: n85802564 ISNI: 0000 0000 6300 7622 GND: 124799361 SELIBR: 317135 SUDOC: 07447894X BNF: cb13010358x (data) BPN: 58205252 BIBSYS: 99006899 IATH: w6gx7vf9 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nicolaas_Hartsoeker&oldid=806800242" Categories: 1656 births1725 deathsDutch biologists17th-century Dutch inventorsDutch mathematiciansDutch physicistsPeople from Gouda, South HollandMembers of the French Academy of SciencesMembers of the Prussian Academy of SciencesHeidelberg University facultyHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from May 2008Wikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with BPN identifiersWikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiersWikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers


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EnlargeGouda, South HollandUtrecht (city)NetherlandsMathematicianPhysicistMicroscopeCircaRemonstrantMinister (Christianity)MoordrechtGouda, South HollandAlkmaarRotterdamAntonie Van LeeuwenhoekSpermatozoidChristiaan HuygensParisMicroscopeWineParisParis ObservatoryAerial TelescopeEnlargeHomunculiAnimalculesPostulateSpermist TheoryWikipedia:Citation NeededRobert HookeRefractor TelescopeMoonFrench Academy Of SciencesPrussian Academy Of SciencesCzar PeterAmsterdamSt PetersburgObservatoryAmsterdamJohann Wilhelm, Elector PalatineUniversity Of HeidelbergUtrecht (city)Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie Van WetenschappenInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-90-6984-483-1Digital Object IdentifierLinda Hall LibraryHelp:Authority ControlVirtual International Authority FileLibrary Of Congress Control NumberInternational Standard Name IdentifierIntegrated Authority FileLIBRISSystème Universitaire De DocumentationBibliothèque Nationale De FranceBiografisch PortaalBIBSYSInstitute For Advanced Technology In The HumanitiesHelp:CategoryCategory:1656 BirthsCategory:1725 DeathsCategory:Dutch BiologistsCategory:17th-century Dutch InventorsCategory:Dutch MathematiciansCategory:Dutch PhysicistsCategory:People From Gouda, South HollandCategory:Members Of The French Academy Of SciencesCategory:Members Of The Prussian Academy Of SciencesCategory:Heidelberg University FacultyCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From May 2008Category:Wikipedia Articles With VIAF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With LCCN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With ISNI IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SELIBR IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With BNF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With BPN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With BIBSYS IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SNAC-ID IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer