Contents 1 Morphology 2 Phylogeny 2.1 Three domains view 2.2 Derived clade view 2.3 Two domains view 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading


Morphology[edit] Considered as a clade, the Neomura are a very diverse group, containing all of the multicellular species, as well as all of the most extremophilic species, but they all share certain molecular characteristics. All neomurans have histones to help with chromosome packaging, and most have introns. All use the molecule methionine as the initiator amino acid for protein synthesis (bacteria use formylmethionine). Finally, all neomurans use several kinds of RNA polymerase, whereas bacteria use only one.


Phylogeny[edit] There are several hypotheses for the phylogenetic relationships between archaeans and eukaryotes. Three domains view[edit] When Carl Woese first published his three-domain system, it was believed that the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota were equally old and equally related on the tree of life. However certain evidence began to suggest that Eukaryota and Archaea were more closely related to each other than either was to Bacteria. This evidence included the common use of cholesterols and proteasomes, which are complex molecules not found in most bacteria, leading to the inference that the root of life lay between Bacteria on the one hand, and Archaea and Eukaryota combined on the other, i.e. that there were two primary branches of life subsequent to the LUCA – Bacteria and Neomura (not then called by this name). Bacteria (Neomura) Eukaryota Archaea The "three primary domains" (3D) scenario was one of the two hypotheses considered plausible in a 2010 review of the origin of eukaryotes.[2] Derived clade view[edit] In a 2002 paper, and subsequent papers, Thomas Cavalier-Smith and coworkers have promulgated a hypothesis that Neomura was a clade deeply nested with Eubacteria with Actinobacteria as its sister group. He wrote, "Eukaryotes and archaebacteria form the clade neomura and are sisters, as shown decisively by genes fragmented only in archaebacteria and by many sequence trees. This sisterhood refutes all theories that eukaryotes originated by merging an archaebacterium and an α-proteobacterium, which also fail to account for numerous features shared specifically by eukaryotes and actinobacteria."[1] These include the presence of cholesterols and proteasomes in Actinobacteria as well as in Neomura. Features of this complexity are unlikely to evolve more than once in separate branches, so either there was a horizontal transfer of those two pathways, or Neomura evolved from this particular branch of the bacterial tree. LUCA  Chlorobacteria Hadobacteria Cyanobacteria Gracilicutes Eurybacteria Endobacteria Actinobacteria  Neomura  Archaea Eukaryota Two domains view[edit] As early as 2010, the major competitor to the three domains scenario for the origin of eukaryotes was the "two domains" (2D) scenario, in which eukaryotes emerged from within the archaea.[2] The discovery of a major group within the Archaea, Lokiarchaeota, to which eukaryotes are more genetically similar than to other archaeans, is not consistent with the Neomura hypothesis. Instead, it supports the hypothesis that eukaryotes emerged from within one group of archaeans:[3] Bacteria Eukaryota archaeans   archaeans   Archaea A 2016 study supports the 2D view. Its "new view of the tree of life" shows eukaryotes as a small group nested within Archaea, in particular within the TACK superphylum. However, the origin of eukaryotes remains unresolved, and the two domain and three domain scenarios remain viable hypotheses.[4]


See also[edit] Protocell


References[edit] ^ a b Cavalier-Smith T (March 2002). "The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52 (Pt 2): 297–354. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-2-297. PMID 11931142.  ^ a b Gribaldo, Simonetta; Poole, Anthony M.; Daubin, Vincent; Forterre, Patrick & Brochier-Armanet, Céline (2010-10-01). "The origin of eukaryotes and their relationship with the Archaea: are we at a phylogenomic impasse?". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 8 (10): 743–752. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2426.  ^ López-García, Purificación & Moreira, David (2015). "Open Questions on the Origin of Eukaryotes". Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 30 (11): 697–708. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2015.09.005.  ^ Hug, Laura A.; Baker, Brett J.; Anantharaman, Karthik; Brown, Christopher T.; Probst, Alexander J.; Castelle, Cindy J.; Butterfield, Cristina N.; Hernsdorf, Alex W.; Amano, Yuki; Ise, Kotaro; Suzuki, Yohey; Dudek, Natasha; Relman, David A.; Finstad, Kari M.; Amundson, Ronald; Thomas, Brian C. & Banfield, Jillian F. (2016-04-11). "A new view of the tree of life". Nature Microbiology. 1 (5): 16048. doi:10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.48. 


Further reading[edit] Wikispecies has information related to Neomura Wikimedia Commons has media related to Neomura. Cavalier-Smith T (1987). "The origin of eukaryotic and archaebacterial cells". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 503: 17–54. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1987.tb40596.x. PMID 3113314.  Cavalier-Smith T (January 2002). "The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52 (Pt 1): 7–76. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-1-7. PMID 11837318.  Cavalier-Smith T (2006). "Rooting the tree of life by transition analyses". Biol. Direct. 1: 19. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-1-19. PMC 1586193 . PMID 16834776.  Skophammer RG, Servin JA, Herbold CW, Lake JA (August 2007). "Evidence for a gram-positive, eubacterial root of the tree of life". Mol. Biol. Evol. 24 (8): 1761–8. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm096. PMID 17513883.  Cox, C. J.; Foster, P. G.; Hirt, R. P.; Harris, S. R.; Embley, T. M. (10 December 2008). "The archaebacterial origin of eukaryotes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (51): 20356–20361. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810647105. PMC 2629343 . PMID 19073919.  Cavalier-Smith, T. (2 September 2014). "The Neomuran Revolution and Phagotrophic Origin of Eukaryotes and Cilia in the Light of Intracellular Coevolution and a Revised Tree of Life". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6 (9): a016006–a016006. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016006. PMC 4142966 . PMID 25183828.  v t e Prokaryotes: Archaea classification Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Animal Fungi) Euryarchaeota Euryarchaeota Archaeoglobi Archaeoglobales Halobacteria Halobacteriales Methanobacteria Methanobacteriales Methanococci Methanococcales Methanomicrobia Methanocellales Methanomicrobiales Methanosarcinales Methanopyri Methanopyrales Thermococci Thermococcales Thermoplasmata Thermoplasmatales DPANN Diapherotrites "Ca. Iainarchaeum" Parvarchaeota "Ca. Micrarchaeum"・ "Ca. Parvarchaeum" Aenigmarchaeota "Ca. Aenigmarchaeum" Nanohaloarchaea "Ca. Nanosalina"・ "Ca. Nanosalinarum" Nanoarchaeota Nanoarchaeum TACK+ASGARD TACK Crenarchaeota Thermoprotei Acidilobales Desulfurococcales Fervidicoccales Sulfolobales Thermoproteales Thaumarchaeota Nitrososphaeria Cenarchaeales "Nitrosopumilales" Nitrososphaerales Korarchaeota "Ca. Korarchaeum cryptofilum" Aigarchaeota "Ca. Caldiarchaeum subterraneum" Geoarchaeota Geoarchaeota Bathyarchaeota Bathyarchaeota ASGARD "Ca. Lokiarchaeum" Odinarchaeota Thorarchaeota Heimdallarchaeota v t e Eukaryota Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Animal Fungi) Diaphoretickes Archaeplastida Glaucophyta Rhodophyta Viridiplantae Plantae s.s. Chlorophyta Streptophyta Cryptista Corbihelia Cryptophyta Haptista Centroheliozoa Haptophyta SAR Halvaria Alveolata Ciliates Miozoa Acavomonadia Colponemidia Myzozoa Stramenopiles (heterokonts) Bicosoecea Developea Hyphochytrea Ochrophyta Peronosporomycota Pirsoniomycota Placidozoa Platysulcea Sagenista Rhizaria Filosa Phytomyxea Retaria Ectoreta Marimyxia Vampyrellidea Incertae sedis Kamera lens Excavata Ancyromonadida Malawimonadea Metamonada (Anaeromonada, Trichozoa) Discoba Jakobea Tsukubea Discicristata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Podiata Amorphea Amoebozoa Conosa (Archamoebae, Semiconosia) Lobosa (Cutosea, Discosea, Tubulinea) Obazoa Apusomonadida Breviatea Opisthokonta Holomycota Cristidiscoidea Opisthosporidia Aphelida Cryptomycota Microsporidia True fungi Holozoa Choanoflagellates Filasterea Metazoa or Animals Teretosporea Mesomycetozoea Corallochytrea Varisulca (paraphyletic) Diphyllatea Discocelida Mantamonadida Micronucleariida Rigifilida Incertae sedis Ancoracysta twista Parakaryon myojinensis †Acritarcha †Charnia †Gakarusia †Galaxiopsis †Grypania †Leptoteichos Major kingdoms are underlined. See also: protist. Sources and alternative views: Wikispecies. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Neomura&oldid=793369027" Categories: PhylogeneticsTaxa named by Thomas Cavalier-SmithHidden categories: Articles containing potentially dated statements from August 2017All articles containing potentially dated statements


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Bacterial PhylaCladeDomain (biology)ArchaeaEukaryoteThomas Cavalier-SmithEvolutionBacteriaPeptidoglycanCell WallGlycoproteinExtremophileHistoneChromosomeIntronMethionineAmino AcidProtein SynthesisFormylmethionineRNARNA PolymeraseCarl WoeseThree-domain SystemBacteriaCholesterolProteasomeLUCAThomas Cavalier-SmithActinobacteriaCholesterolProteasomeConvergent EvolutionHorizontal Gene TransferLast Universal Common AncestorChlorobacteriaHadobacteriaCyanobacteriaGracilicutesEurybacteriaFirmicutesActinobacteriaArchaeaEukaryoteLokiarchaeotaTACKProtocellDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierWikispeciesDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierTemplate:Archaea ClassificationTemplate Talk:Archaea ClassificationProkaryoteArchaeaDomain (biology)Template:Archaea ClassificationTemplate:Bacteria ClassificationTemplate:EukaryotaKingdom (biology)Template:Plant ClassificationTemplate:HacrobiaTemplate:HeterokontTemplate:AlveolataTemplate:RhizariaTemplate:ExcavataTemplate:AmoebozoaTemplate:Opisthokont ProtistsTemplate:AnimaliaTemplate:Fungi ClassificationEuryarchaeotaEuryarchaeotaArchaeoglobiArchaeoglobalesHaloarchaeaHalobacterialesMethanobacteriaMethanobacterialesMethanococciMethanococcalesMethanomicrobiaMethanomicrobialesMethanosarcinalesMethanopyriMethanopyralesThermococciThermococcalesThermoplasmataThermoplasmatalesDPANNDiapherotritesCandidatusParvarchaeotaAenigmarchaeotaNanohaloarchaeaNanoarchaeotaNanoarchaeumProteoarchaeotaTACKCrenarchaeotaThermoproteiAcidilobalesDesulfurococcalesFervidicoccalesSulfolobalesThermoprotealesThaumarchaeotaNitrososphaeriaCenarchaealesNitrosopumilalesNitrososphaeralesKorarchaeotaKorarchaeum CryptofilumAigarchaeotaCaldiarchaeum SubterraneumGeoarchaeotaGeoarchaeotaBathyarchaeotaBathyarchaeotaLokiarchaeumOdinarchaeotaThorarchaeotaHeimdallarchaeotaTemplate:EukaryotaTemplate Talk:EukaryotaEukaryoteDomain (biology)Template:Archaea ClassificationTemplate:Bacteria ClassificationTemplate:EukaryotaKingdom (biology)Template:Plant ClassificationTemplate:HacrobiaTemplate:HeterokontTemplate:AlveolataTemplate:RhizariaTemplate:ExcavataTemplate:AmoebozoaTemplate:Opisthokont ProtistsTemplate:AnimaliaTemplate:Fungi ClassificationPlants+HC+SAR MegagroupPlantGlaucophyteRed AlgaeViridiplantaePlantGreen AlgaeStreptophytaCryptistaCorbiheliaCryptophytaHaptistaCentroheliozoaHaptophytaSAR SupergroupHalvariaAlveolateCiliateMyzozoaHeterokontBicosoecidHyphochytriomycotaOchrophytaOomycotaPirsonialesPlacidozoaSagenistaRhizariaFilosaPhytomyxeaRetariaIncertae SedisKamera LensExcavataAncyromonadidaMalawimonadeaMetamonadaAnaeromonadaTrichozoaDiscobaJakobeaTsukubeaDiscicristataEuglenozoaPercolozoaPodiataAmorpheaAmoebozoaConosaArchamoebaeSemiconosiaLobosaCutoseaDiscoseaTubulineaObazoaApusomonadidaBreviateaOpisthokontHolomycotaCristidiscoideaOpisthosporidiaAphelidaCryptomycotaMicrosporidiaFungusHolozoaChoanoflagellateFilastereaAnimalTeretosporeaMesomycetozoeaCorallochytreaVarisulcaMantamonadidaRigifilidaIncertae SedisAncoracysta TwistaParakaryon MyojinensisAcritarchCharniaGrypaniaKingdom (biology)ProtistHelp:CategoryCategory:PhylogeneticsCategory:Taxa Named By Thomas Cavalier-SmithCategory:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From August 2017Category:All Articles Containing Potentially Dated StatementsDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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