Contents 1 Physiology of the photomotor reflex 2 Causes 2.1 Age 2.2 Diseases 2.3 Drugs 3 See also 4 References 5 External links


Physiology of the photomotor reflex[edit] Light entering the eye strikes three different photoreceptors in the retina: the familiar rods and cones used in image forming and the more newly discovered photosensitive ganglion cells. The ganglion cells give information about ambient light levels, and react sluggishly compared to the rods and cones. Signals from photosensitive ganglion cells have multiple functions including acute suppression of the hormone melatonin, entrainment of the body's circadian rhythms and regulation of the size of the pupil. The retinal photoceptors convert light stimuli into electric impulses. Nerves involved in the resizing of the pupil connect to the pretectal nucleus of the high midbrain, bypassing the lateral geniculate nucleus and the primary visual cortex. From the pretectal nucleus neurons send axons to neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus whose visceromotor axons run along both the left and right oculomotor nerves. Visceromotor nerve axons (which constitute a portion of cranial nerve III, along with the somatomotor portion derived from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus) synapse on ciliary ganglion neurons, whose parasympathetic axons innervate the iris sphincter muscle, producing miosis. This occurs because sympathetic activity from the ciliary ganglion is lost thus parasympathetics are not inhibited. Image


Causes[edit] Age[edit] senile miosis (a reduction in the size of a person's pupil in old age) Diseases[edit] Horner's syndrome Hemorrhage into pons (intracranial hemorrhage) Hereditary disorders Cluster Headaches with ptosis Iridocyclitis Fatal familial insomnia Drugs[edit] Opioids such as fentanyl, morphine, heroin and methadone (the notable exception being pethidine) Products containing nicotine such as cigarettes, chewing tobacco or gum. Imidazolines such as clonidine, naphazoline, oxymetazoline and tetrahydrozoline Antipsychotics, including risperidone, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, olanzapine, quetiapine and others Cholinergic agents such as acetylcholine Ondansetron (an anti-emetic) known by its brand name Zofran Some cancer chemotherapy drugs, including camptothecin derivatives Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) Some MAO Inhibitors. Pilocarpine eye drops and all other parasympathomimetics In some rare cases, when exposed to mustard gas. Organophosphates


See also[edit] Pupillary light reflex Adie syndrome Argyll Robertson pupil Cycloplegia Marcus Gunn pupil Parinaud's syndrome Syphilis Glaucoma


References[edit] ^ Farlex medical dictionary citing: Miller-Keane Encyclopedia & Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed. ^ Seidel, Henry M.; Jane W. Ball; Joyce E. Dains; G. William Benedict (2006-03-29). Mosby's Guide to Physical Examination. Mosby. ISBN 978-0-323-03573-6.  ^ Farlex medical dictionary citing: Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. ^ Farlex medical dictionary citing: Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition.


External links[edit] FP Notebook v t e Drugs used for glaucoma preparations and miosis (S01E) Sympathomimetics Apraclonidine Brimonidine (+timolol) Clonidine Dipivefrine Epinephrine Parasympathomimetics muscarinic Aceclidine Pilocarpine muscarinic/nicotinic Acetylcholine Carbachol acetylcholinesterase inhibitors Demecarium Ecothiopate Stigmine (Fluostigmine Neostigmine Physostigmine) Paraoxon Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/ (sulfonamides) Acetazolamide Brinzolamide (+timolol) Diclofenamide Dorzolamide (+timolol) Methazolamide Beta blocking agents Befunolol Betaxolol Carteolol Levobunolol Metipranolol Timolol Mepindolol Prostaglandin analogues (F2α) Bimatoprost (+timolol) Latanoprost (+timolol) Tafluprost Travoprost (+timolol) Unoprostone Other agents Dapiprazole Guanethidine Ripasudil v t e Diseases of the human eye (H00–H59 360–379) Adnexa Eyelid Inflammation Stye Chalazion Blepharitis Entropion Ectropion Lagophthalmos Blepharochalasis Ptosis Blepharophimosis Xanthelasma Eyelash Trichiasis Madarosis Lacrimal apparatus Dacryoadenitis Epiphora Dacryocystitis Xerophthalmia Orbit Exophthalmos Enophthalmos Orbital cellulitis Orbital lymphoma Periorbital cellulitis Conjunctiva Conjunctivitis allergic Pterygium Pinguecula Subconjunctival hemorrhage Globe Fibrous tunic Sclera Scleritis Episcleritis Cornea Keratitis herpetic acanthamoebic fungal Corneal ulcer Photokeratitis Thygeson's superficial punctate keratopathy Corneal dystrophy Fuchs' Meesmann Corneal ectasia Keratoconus Pellucid marginal degeneration Keratoglobus Terrien's marginal degeneration Post-LASIK ectasia Keratoconjunctivitis sicca Corneal neovascularization Kayser–Fleischer ring Haab's striae Arcus senilis Band keratopathy Vascular tunic Iris Ciliary body Uveitis Intermediate uveitis Hyphema Rubeosis iridis Persistent pupillary membrane Iridodialysis Synechia Choroid Choroideremia Choroiditis Chorioretinitis Lens Cataract Congenital cataract Childhood cataract Aphakia Ectopia lentis Retina Retinitis Chorioretinitis Cytomegalovirus retinitis Retinal detachment Retinoschisis Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion Central retinal artery occlusion Retinopathy diabetic hypertensive Purtscher's of prematurity Bietti's crystalline dystrophy Coats' disease Macular degeneration Retinitis pigmentosa Retinal haemorrhage Central serous retinopathy Macular edema Epiretinal membrane (Macular pucker) Vitelliform macular dystrophy Leber's congenital amaurosis Birdshot chorioretinopathy Other Glaucoma / Ocular hypertension / Primary juvenile glaucoma Floater Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy Red eye Globe rupture Keratomycosis Phthisis bulbi Persistent fetal vasculature / Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous Persistent tunica vasculosa lentis Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy Pathways Optic nerve Optic disc Optic neuritis optic papillitis Papilledema Foster Kennedy syndrome Optic atrophy Optic disc drusen Optic neuropathy Ischemic anterior (AION) posterior (PION) Kjer's Leber's hereditary Toxic and nutritional Strabismus Extraocular muscles Binocular vision Accommodation Paralytic strabismus Ophthalmoparesis Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia Kearns–Sayre syndrome palsies Oculomotor (III) Fourth-nerve (IV) Sixth-nerve (VI) Other strabismus Esotropia / Exotropia Hypertropia Heterophoria Esophoria Exophoria Cyclotropia Brown's syndrome Duane syndrome Other binocular Conjugate gaze palsy Convergence insufficiency Internuclear ophthalmoplegia One and a half syndrome Refraction Refractive error Hyperopia Myopia Astigmatism Anisometropia / Aniseikonia Presbyopia Vision disorders Blindness Amblyopia Leber's congenital amaurosis Diplopia Scotoma Color blindness Achromatopsia Dichromacy Monochromacy Nyctalopia Oguchi disease Blindness / Vision loss / Visual impairment Anopsia Hemianopsia binasal bitemporal homonymous Quadrantanopia subjective Asthenopia Hemeralopia Photophobia Scintillating scotoma Pupil Anisocoria Argyll Robertson pupil Marcus Gunn pupil Adie syndrome Miosis Mydriasis Cycloplegia Parinaud's syndrome Other Nystagmus Childhood blindness Infections Trachoma Onchocerciasis Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Miosis&oldid=812676464" Categories: Medical signsOphthalmologyHidden categories: Infobox medical condition


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages العربيةAzərbaycancaБългарскиBosanskiCatalàDanskDeutschEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisHrvatskiItalianoעבריתMagyarNederlands日本語NorskPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийSlovenčinaSlovenščinaСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSvenska Edit links This page was last edited on 29 November 2017, at 06:08. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.292","walltime":"0.359","ppvisitednodes":{"value":1675,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":154352,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":15172,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":12,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":0,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 268.972 1 -total"," 37.97% 102.118 1 Template:Infobox_medical_condition"," 26.49% 71.248 1 Template:Eye_pathology"," 26.42% 71.068 1 Template:Infobox"," 24.94% 67.076 1 Template:Navbox_with_collapsible_groups"," 21.16% 56.902 12 Template:Navbox"," 19.30% 51.912 1 Template:Reflist"," 15.48% 41.646 1 Template:Cite_book"," 9.17% 24.676 1 Template:Distinguish"," 5.66% 15.223 1 Template:Antiglaucoma_preparations_and_miotics"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.111","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":4186407,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1214","timestamp":"20180114120407","ttl":86400,"transientcontent":true}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":91,"wgHostname":"mw1265"});});


Miosis - Photos and All Basic Informations

Miosis More Links

MeiosisMitosisMyositisOpiateSpecialty (medicine)OphthalmologyInternational Statistical Classification Of Diseases And Related Health ProblemsICD-10International Statistical Classification Of Diseases And Related Health ProblemsList Of ICD-9 CodesDiseases DatabaseMedical Subject HeadingsPupillary ResponseAncient GreekMydriasisPupillary ResponseAnisocoriaPupilPhotoreceptor CellRetinaRod CellCone CellPhotosensitive Ganglion CellMelatoninEntrainment (chronobiology)Circadian RhythmPretectumMesencephalonLateral Geniculate NucleusVisual CortexEdinger-Westphal NucleusMotor NeuronOculomotor NerveCranial NerveCiliary GanglionIris Sphincter MuscleHorner's SyndromeHemorrhagePonsIntracranial HemorrhageCluster HeadachesPtosis (eyelid)IridocyclitisFatal Familial InsomniaOpioidFentanylMorphineHeroinMethadonePethidineNicotineChewing TobaccoImidazolineClonidineNaphazolineOxymetazolineTetrahydrozolineAntipsychoticsRisperidoneHaloperidolChlorpromazineOlanzapineQuetiapineCholinergicAcetylcholineOndansetronChemotherapyCamptothecinMirtazapineNoradrenergic And Specific Serotonergic AntidepressantNaSSAMAO InhibitorPilocarpineMustard GasOrganophosphatesPupillary Light ReflexAdie SyndromeArgyll Robertson PupilCycloplegiaMarcus Gunn PupilParinaud's SyndromeSyphilisGlaucomaMiller-Keane Encyclopedia & Dictionary Of Medicine, Nursing, And Allied HealthInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-323-03573-6Template:Antiglaucoma Preparations And MioticsTemplate Talk:Antiglaucoma Preparations And MioticsGlaucomaATC Code S01Sympathomimetic DrugApraclonidineBrimonidineBrimonidine/timololClonidineDipivefrineEpinephrineParasympathomimetic DrugMuscarinicAceclidinePilocarpineNicotinicAcetylcholineCarbacholAcetylcholinesterase InhibitorDemecarium BromideEchothiophateStigmineDiisopropyl FluorophosphateNeostigminePhysostigmineParaoxonCarbonic Anhydrase InhibitorSulfonamide (medicine)AcetazolamideBrinzolamideBrinzolamide/timololDiclofenamideDorzolamideDorzolamide/timololMethazolamideBeta BlockerBefunololBetaxololCarteololLevobunololMetipranololTimololMepindololProstaglandin AnalogueBimatoprostLatanoprostLatanoprost/timololTafluprostTravoprostUnoprostoneDapiprazoleGuanethidineRipasudilTemplate:Eye PathologyTemplate Talk:Eye PathologyEye DiseaseICD-10 Chapter VII: Diseases Of The Eye, AdnexaList Of ICD-9 Codes 360–389: Diseases Of The Sense OrgansAccessory Visual StructuresEyelidStyeChalazionBlepharitisEntropionEctropionLagophthalmosBlepharochalasisPtosis (eyelid)BlepharophimosisXanthelasmaEyelashTrichiasisMadarosisLacrimal ApparatusDacryoadenitisEpiphora (medicine)DacryocystitisXerophthalmiaOrbit (anatomy)ExophthalmosEnophthalmosOrbital CellulitisOrbital LymphomaPeriorbital CellulitisConjunctivaConjunctivitisAllergic ConjunctivitisPterygium (conjunctiva)PingueculaSubconjunctival HemorrhageGlobe (human Eye)Fibrous Tunic Of EyeballScleraScleritisEpiscleritisCorneaKeratitisHerpetic KeratitisAcanthamoeba KeratitisFungal KeratitisCorneal UlcerPhotokeratitisThygeson's Superficial Punctate KeratopathyCorneal DystrophyFuchs' DystrophyMeesmann Corneal DystrophyCorneal Ectatic DisordersKeratoconusPellucid Marginal DegenerationKeratoglobusTerrien's Marginal DegenerationPost-LASIK EctasiaKeratoconjunctivitisKeratoconjunctivitis SiccaCorneal NeovascularizationKayser–Fleischer RingHaab's StriaeArcus SenilisBand KeratopathyUveaIris (anatomy)Ciliary BodyUveitisIntermediate UveitisHyphemaRubeosis IridisPersistent Pupillary MembraneIridodialysisSynechia (eye)ChoroidChoroideremiaChoroiditisChorioretinitisLens (anatomy)CataractCongenital CataractChildhood CataractAphakiaEctopia LentisRetinal DiseaseRetinitisChorioretinitisCytomegalovirus RetinitisRetinal DetachmentRetinoschisisOcular Ischemic SyndromeCentral Retinal Vein OcclusionCentral Retinal Artery OcclusionRetinopathyDiabetic RetinopathyHypertensive RetinopathyPurtscher's RetinopathyRetinopathy Of PrematurityBietti's Crystalline DystrophyCoats' DiseaseMacular DegenerationRetinitis PigmentosaRetinal HaemorrhageCentral Serous RetinopathyMacular EdemaEpiretinal MembraneVitelliform Macular DystrophyLeber's Congenital AmaurosisBirdshot ChorioretinopathyGlaucomaOcular HypertensionPrimary Juvenile GlaucomaFloaterLeber's Hereditary Optic NeuropathyRed Eye (medicine)Globe RuptureFungal KeratitisPhthisis BulbiPersistent Fetal VasculaturePersistent Hyperplastic Primary VitreousPersistent Tunica Vasculosa LentisFamilial Exudative VitreoretinopathyVisual SystemOptic NerveOptic DiscOptic NeuritisOptic PapillitisPapilledemaFoster Kennedy SyndromeOptic AtrophyOptic Disc DrusenOptic NeuropathyIschemic Optic NeuropathyAnterior Ischemic Optic NeuropathyPosterior Ischemic Optic NeuropathyKjer's Optic NeuropathyLeber's Hereditary Optic NeuropathyToxic And Nutritional Optic NeuropathyStrabismusExtraocular MusclesBinocular VisionAccommodation (eye)StrabismusOphthalmoparesisChronic Progressive External OphthalmoplegiaKearns–Sayre SyndromeCranial Nerve DiseaseOculomotor Nerve PalsyFourth Nerve PalsySixth Nerve PalsyStrabismusEsotropiaExotropiaHypertropiaHeterophoriaEsophoriaExophoriaCyclotropiaBrown's SyndromeDuane SyndromeConjugate Gaze PalsyConvergence InsufficiencyInternuclear OphthalmoplegiaOne And A Half SyndromeRefractionRefractive ErrorFar-sightednessNear-sightednessAstigmatismAnisometropiaAniseikoniaPresbyopiaVision DisorderBlindnessAmblyopiaLeber's Congenital AmaurosisDiplopiaScotomaColor BlindnessAchromatopsiaDichromacyMonochromacyNyctalopiaOguchi DiseaseBlindnessVision LossVisual ImpairmentAnopsiaHemianopsiaBinasal HemianopsiaBitemporal HemianopsiaHomonymous HemianopsiaQuadrantanopiaAsthenopiaHemeralopiaPhotophobiaScintillating ScotomaPupilAnisocoriaArgyll Robertson PupilMarcus Gunn PupilAdie SyndromeMydriasisCycloplegiaParinaud's SyndromeNystagmusChildhood BlindnessEye DiseaseTrachomaOnchocerciasisHelp:CategoryCategory:Medical SignsCategory:OphthalmologyCategory:Infobox Medical ConditionDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link