Contents 1 Observations 2 Reception 3 Methods 4 Bibliography 5 References 6 External links


Observations[edit] Hooke most famously describes a fly's eye and a plant cell (where he coined that term because plant cells, which are walled, reminded him of the cells in a honeycomb[1]). Known for its spectacular copperplate engravings of the miniature world, particularly its fold-out plates of insects, the text itself reinforces the tremendous power of the new microscope. The plates of insects fold out to be larger than the large folio itself, the engraving of the louse in particular folding out to four times the size of the book. Although the book is best known for demonstrating the power of the microscope, Micrographia also describes distant planetary bodies, the wave theory of light, the organic origin of fossils, and other philosophical and scientific interests of its author. Hooke also selected several objects of human origin; among these objects were the jagged edge of a honed razor and the point of a needle, seeming blunt under the microscope. His goal may well have been as a way to contrast the flawed products of mankind with the perfection of nature (and hence, in the spirit of the times, of biblical creation).[2] Gallery Microscope manufactured by Christopher White of London for Robert Hooke. Hooke is believed to have used this microscope for the observations that formed the basis of Micrographia. (M-030 00276) Courtesy - Billings Microscope Collection, National Museum of Health and Medicine, AFIP). Hooke's drawing of a louse Hooke's drawing of a flea Hooke's microscope. Hooke was the first to apply the word "cell" to biological objects: Cork. Hooke's drawing of a gnat. Hooke's drawing of a grey dronefly. Hooke's drawing of a blue fly.


Reception[edit] Published under the aegis of The Royal Society, the popularity of the book helped further the society's image and mission of being the UK's leading scientific organization. Micrographia's illustrations of the miniature world captured the public's imagination in a radically new way; Samuel Pepys called it "the most ingenious book that I ever read in my life."[3]


Methods[edit] In 2007, Janice Neri, a professor of art history and visual culture, studied Hooke's artistic influences and processes with the help of some newly rediscovered notes and drawings that appear to show some of his work leading up to Micrographia.[4] She observes, "Hooke's use of the term "schema" to identify his plates indicates that he approached his images in a diagrammatic manner and implies the study or visual dissection of the objects portrayed." Identifying Hooke's schema as 'organization tools,' she emphasizes:[5] Hooke built up his images from numerous observations made from multiple vantage points, under varying lighting conditions, and with lenses of differing powers. Similarly his specimens required a great deal of manipulation and preparation in order to make them visible through the microscope. Additionally: "Hooke often enclosed the objects he presented within a round frame, thus offering viewers an evocation of the experience of looking through the lens of a microscope."[5]


Bibliography[edit] Robert Hooke. Micrographia: or, Some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses. London: J. Martyn and J. Allestry, 1665. (first edition).


References[edit] ^ "... I could exceedingly plainly perceive it to be all perforated and porous, much like a Honey-comb, but that the pores of it were not regular [..] these pores, or cells, [..] were indeed the first microscopical pores I ever saw, and perhaps, that were ever seen, for I had not met with any Writer or Person, that had made any mention of them before this. . ." – Hooke describing his observations on a thin slice of cork. Robert Hooke ^ Fara P (June 2009). "A microscopic reality tale". Nature. 459 (4 June 2009): 642–644. Bibcode:2009Natur.459..642F. doi:10.1038/459642a. PMID 19494897.  ^ "Samuel Pepys Diary, 21 January 1665". Retrieved 13 December 2015.  ^ Sample, Ian (8 February 2006). "Eureka! Lost manuscript found in cupboard". https://www.theguardian.com. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 January 2014.  External link in |website= (help) ^ a b Neri, Janice (2008). "Between Observation and Image: Representations of Insects in Robert Hooke's Micrographia". In O'Malley, Therese; Meyers, Amy R. W. The Art of Natural History. National Gallery of Art. pp. 83–107. ISBN 978-0-300-16024-6. 


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hooke's Micrographia Diagrams from the National Library of Wales. Project Gutenberg Micrographia text Turning the Pages-virtual copy of the book from the National Library of Medicine Micrographia - full digital facsimile at Linda Hall Library Transcribing the Hooke Folio Micrographia on the Internet Archive v t e History of biology Fields, disciplines Agricultural science Anatomy Biochemistry Biotechnology Botany Ecology Evolutionary thought Genetics Geology Immunology Medicine Model organisms Molecular biology Molecular evolution Paleontology Phycology Plant systematics RNA biology Zoology (since 1859) Zoology (through 1859) Institutions Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Laboratory of Molecular Biology Marine Biological Laboratory Max Planck Society Pasteur Institute Rockefeller University Rothamsted Experimental Station Stazione Zoologica Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute Theories, concepts Germ theory of disease Central dogma of molecular biology Darwinism Great chain of being Hierarchy of life Lamarckism One gene–one enzyme hypothesis Protocell RNA world hypothesis Sequence hypothesis Spontaneous generation History Classical antiquity Aristotle Aristotle's biology On Generation and Corruption History of Animals Theophrastus Historia Plantarum Dioscorides De Materia Medica Galen Renaissance, Early Modern Conrad Gessner Historia animalium Andreas Vesalius De humani corporis fabrica William Harvey De Motu Cordis Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Micrographia Francesco Redi Evolution 19th century Linnaeus Systema Naturae Buffon Histoire Naturelle Lamarck Philosophie Zoologique Humboldt Charles Lyell Principles of Geology Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species The Descent of Man Gregor Mendel Alfred Russel Wallace Henry Walter Bates Modern synthesis William Bateson Theodosius Dobzhansky Genetics and the Origin of Species R. A. Fisher E. B. Ford J. B. S. Haldane Ernst Mayr Thomas Hunt Morgan George Gaylord Simpson Hugo de Vries Sewall Wright Recent Stephen Jay Gould W. D. Hamilton Lynn Margulis Aleksandr Oparin George C. Williams Carl Woese Microbiology Ferdinand Cohn Alexander Fleming Felix d'Herelle Robert Koch Louis Pasteur Lazzaro Spallanzani Sergei Winogradsky Develop. biol., Evo-devo Karl Ernst von Baer Gavin de Beer Sean B. Carroll Scott F. Gilbert Walter Gehring Ernst Haeckel François Jacob Edward B. Lewis Jacques Monod Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Eric Wieschaus E. B. Wilson Genetics, Molecular biology Experiments Griffith's (1928) Luria–Delbrück (1943) Avery–MacLeod–McCarty (1944) Miller–Urey (1952) Hershey–Chase (1952) Meselson–Stahl (1958) Crick, Brenner et al. (1961) Nirenberg–Matthaei (1961) Nirenberg–Leder (1964) People Barbara McClintock George Beadle Seymour Benzer Rosalind Franklin Photo 51 James D. Watson and Francis Crick "Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids" Linus Pauling "Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease" Fred Sanger Max Perutz John Kendrew Sydney Brenner Joshua Lederberg Walter Gilbert Kary Mullis Emmanuelle Charpentier Jennifer Doudna Ecology Rachel Carson Frederic Clements Charles Elton Henry Gleason Arthur Tansley Eugenius Warming Ethology Karl von Frisch Jane Goodall Konrad Lorenz Ivan Pavlov Niko Tinbergen Related History of science Philosophy of biology Teleology Ethnobotany Eugenics History of the creation-evolution controversy Human Genome Project Humboldtian science Natural history Natural philosophy Natural theology Relationship between religion and science Timeline of biology and organic chemistry Category Commons Portal Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Micrographia&oldid=819826807" Categories: English non-fiction literatureBiology books1665 booksMicroscopesMicroscopyCell imagingRoyal Society1665 in scienceHidden categories: CS1 errors: external linksUse dmy dates from January 2017All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from February 2017Commons category without a link on WikidataArticles with Internet Archive links


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