Contents 1 Overview 2 Symbol 3 Sex determination 3.1 Genetic determination 3.2 Environmental determination 4 Secondary sex characteristics 5 See also 6 References


Overview[edit] The existence of two sexes seems to have been selected independently across different evolutionary lineages (see convergent evolution). The repeated pattern is sexual reproduction in isogamous species with two or more mating types with gametes of identical form and behavior (but different at the molecular level) to anisogamous species with gametes of male and female types to oogamous species in which the female gamete is very much larger than the male and has no ability to move. There is a good argument that this pattern was driven by the physical constraints on the mechanisms by which two gametes get together as required for sexual reproduction.[2] Accordingly, sex is defined operationally across species by the type of gametes produced (i.e.: spermatozoa vs. ova) and differences between males and females in one lineage are not always predictive of differences in another. Male/female dimorphism between organisms or reproductive organs of different sexes is not limited to animals; male gametes are produced by chytrids, diatoms and land plants, among others. In land plants, female and male designate not only the female and male gamete-producing organisms and structures but also the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants. As of the year 2012, the United Arab Emirates has the highest ratio of human males in the world, followed by Qatar.[3]


Symbol[edit] A common symbol used to represent the male sex is the Mars symbol, ♂ (Unicode: U+2642 Alt codes: Alt+11)—a circle with an arrow pointing northeast. The symbol is identical to the planetary symbol of Mars. It was first used to denote sex by Carl Linnaeus in 1751. The symbol is often called a stylized representation of the Roman god Mars' shield and spear. According to Stearn, however, all the historical evidence favours that it is derived from θρ, the contraction of the Greek name for the planet, Thouros.[4]


Sex determination[edit] Main article: Sex-determination system Photograph of an adult male human, with an adult female for comparison. Note that both models have partially shaved body hair. The sex of a particular organism may be determined by a number of factors. These may be genetic or environmental, or may naturally change during the course of an organism's life. Although most species with male and female sexes have individuals that are either male or female, hermaphroditic animals, such as worms, have both male and female reproductive organs. Genetic determination[edit] Most mammals, including humans, are genetically determined as such by the XY sex-determination system where males have an XY (as opposed to XX) sex chromosome. It is also possible in a variety of species, including humans, to be XXY or have other intersex/hermaphroditic qualities, though one would still be considered genotypically (if not necessarily phenotypically) male so long as one has a Y-chromosome. During reproduction, a male can give either an X sperm or a Y sperm, while a female can only give an X egg. A Y sperm and an X egg produce a male, while an X sperm and an X egg produce a female. The part of the Y-chromosome which is responsible for maleness is the sex-determining region of the Y-chromosome, the SRY. The SRY activates Sox9, which forms feedforward loops with FGF9 and PGD2 in the gonads, allowing the levels of these genes to stay high enough in order to cause male development;[5] for example, Fgf9 is responsible for development of the spermatic cords and the multiplication of Sertoli cells, both of which are crucial to male sexual development.[6] The ZW sex-determination system, where males have a ZZ (as opposed to ZW) sex chromosome may be found in birds and some insects (mostly butterflies and moths) and other organisms. Members of the insect order Hymenoptera, such as ants and bees, are often determined by haplodiploidy, where most males are haploid and females and some sterile males are diploid.[citation needed] Environmental determination[edit] In some species of reptiles, including alligators, sex is determined by the temperature at which the egg is incubated. Other species, such as some snails, practice sex change: adults start out male, then become female. In tropical clown fish, the dominant individual in a group becomes female while the other ones are male.[citation needed] In some arthropods, sex is determined by infection. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia alter their sexuality; some species consist entirely of ZZ individuals, with sex determined by the presence of Wolbachia.[citation needed]


Secondary sex characteristics[edit] Main article: Secondary sex characteristic In those species with two sexes, males may differ from females in ways other than the production of spermatozoa. In many insects and fish, the male is smaller than the female. In seed plants, which exhibit alternation of generations, the female and male parts are both included within the sporophyte sex organ of a single organism. In mammals, including humans, males are typically larger than females. In birds, the male often exhibits a colorful plumage that attracts females.[citation needed]


See also[edit] Look up male in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to males. Boy Female Gender Male plant Male pregnancy Man Masculinity Gentleman


References[edit] ^ Creighton, Jolene. "Meet The Sex-Changing, Tongue-Eating Parasite:". From Quarks to Quasars. Retrieved 7 April 2014.  ^ Dusenbery, David B. (2009). Living at Micro Scale, Chapter 20. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. ISBN 978-0-674-03116-6. ^ "Gender Statistics Highlights from 2012 World Development Report". World DataBank, a compilation of databases by the World Bank. February 2012.  ^ The Origin of the Male and Female Symbols of Biology, William T. Stearn, Taxon, Vol. 11, No. 4 (May, 1962), pp. 109-113 ^ Moniot, Brigitte; Declosmenil, Faustine; Barrionuevo, Francisco; Scherer, Gerd; Aritake, Kosuke; Malki, Safia; Marzi, Laetitia; Cohen-Solal, Ann; Georg, Ina; Klattig, Jürgen; Englert, Christoph; Kim, Yuna; Capel, Blanche; Eguchi, Naomi; Urade, Yoshihiro; Boizet-Bonhoure, Brigitte; Poulat, Francis (2009). "The PGD2 pathway, independently of FGF9, amplifies SOX9 activity in Sertoli cells during male sexual differentiation". Development. 136 (11): 1813–1821. doi:10.1242/dev.032631. PMID 19429785.  ^ Kim, Y.; Kobayashi, A.; Sekido, R.; Dinapoli, L.; Brennan, J.; Chaboissier, M. C.; Poulat, F.; Behringer, R. R.; Lovell-Badge, R.; Capel, B. (2006). "Fgf9 and Wnt4 Act as Antagonistic Signals to Regulate Mammalian Sex Determination". PLoS Biology. 4 (6): e187. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040187. PMC 1463023 . PMID 16700629.  v t e Sex Biological terms Sexual dimorphism Male Female Sexual differentiation Feminization Virilization Sex-determination system XY ZW XO Temperature-dependent Haplodiploidy Heterogametic sex Homogametic sex Sex chromosome X chromosome Y chromosome Testis-determining factor Hermaphrodite Sequential hermaphroditism Intersex Sexual reproduction Evolution of sexual reproduction Anisogamy Isogamy Germ cell Reproductive system Sex organ Meiosis Gametogenesis Spermatogenesis Oogenesis Gamete spermatozoon ovum Fertilization External Internal Sexual selection Plant reproduction Fungal reproduction Sexual reproduction in animals Sexual intercourse Human reproduction Sexuality Plant sexuality Animal sexuality Human sexuality Mechanics Differentiation Activity Sex portal Biology portal v t e Gender and sexual identities Gender identities Gender Man Woman Male Female Androgyne Bigender Boi Cisgender Cross-dresser Gender bender Genderqueer Gender neutrality Postgenderism Gender variance Pangender Transgender Trans man Trans woman Transmasculine Transfeminine Transsexual Trigender Third gender, third sex Akava'ine Bakla Bissu Calabai Eunuch Fa'afafine Fakaleiti Femminiello Galli Hijra Kathoey Khanith Köçek Koekchuch Māhū Maknyah Mukhannathun Muxe Nullo Sworn virgin Takatāpui Third gender Travesti Tumtum Two-Spirit Winkte Other Skoptsy Sexual orientation, identities Gender binary Asexual Bisexual Heterosexual Homosexual Non-binary Ambiphilia, Androphilia, Gynephilia Monosexuality Pansexuality Polysexuality Third gender Two-Spirit Social Antisexuality Monogamous Polyamorous Other Attraction to transgender people Banjee Bi-curious Ex-gay Ex-ex-gay Gay Gray asexuality Heteroflexible Lesbian Kinsey scale Non-heterosexual Queer Questioning Romantic orientation Same gender loving See also Disorders of sex development Ego-dystonic sexual orientation Erotic target location error Gender roles Hermaphrodite Human female sexuality Human male sexuality Intersex Sex and gender distinction Sex assignment Sex change Sex reassignment surgery Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures Social construction of gender The NeuroGenderings Network Violence against women and men (gendercide) Gender studies portal Sexuality portal LGBT portal Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Male&oldid=817984873" Categories: GenderMalesMenSexHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from October 2017All articles needing additional referencesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from January 2012Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013Commons category with local link different than on Wikidata


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages AfrikaansAlemannischአማርኛالعربيةAragonésܐܪܡܝܐArmãneashtiAymar aruتۆرکجهবাংলাBân-lâm-gúБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎BoarischBosanskiBrezhonegCatalàЧӑвашлаChiShonaCymraegDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάЭрзяньEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisGàidhligGalego한국어हिन्दीIdoIgboIlokanoBahasa IndonesiaIsiXhosaÍslenskaItalianoעבריתLatinaLatviešuLietuviųLingálaMagyarमराठीBahasa MelayuNederlandsनेपालीनेपाल भाषा日本語NapulitanoNorskNorsk nynorskOccitanភាសាខ្មែរPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусиньскыйРусскийसंस्कृतम्ScotsSicilianuSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSoomaaligaکوردیСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиBasa SundaSuomiSvenskaதமிழ்Татарча/tatarçaతెలుగుไทยTürkçeУкраїнськаاردوTiếng ViệtVõroייִדיש粵語Žemaitėška中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 31 December 2017, at 20:12. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.280","walltime":"0.377","ppvisitednodes":{"value":1649,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":64496,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":2688,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":16,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":3,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 317.099 1 -total"," 36.97% 117.219 1 Template:Reflist"," 16.42% 52.063 1 Template:Refimprove"," 16.37% 51.900 4 Template:Citation_needed"," 15.49% 49.114 2 Template:Cite_web"," 14.28% 45.293 4 Template:Fix"," 11.05% 35.032 4 Template:Navbox"," 9.95% 31.560 1 Template:Ambox"," 9.46% 29.989 1 Template:ISBN"," 8.26% 26.187 1 Template:Commons_category"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.122","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":4190541,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1269","timestamp":"20180115210537","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":102,"wgHostname":"mw1270"});});


Males - Photos and All Basic Informations

Males More Links

Wikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalMaléMale (disambiguation)EnlargeMars (mythology)MarsAlchemical SymbolIronOrganismPhysiologicalSexSpermSpermatozoonFemaleOvumFertilizationSexual ReproductionMammalY ChromosomeTestosteroneMale Reproductive OrgansSex-determination SystemAnimalHomo SapiensGeneticsCymothoa ExiguaLineage (evolution)Convergent EvolutionIsogamyMating TypeAnisogamyGameteFemaleOogamySexual ReproductionOperational DefinitionSexual DimorphismChytridDiatomPlantSporophyteUnited Arab EmiratesQatarGender SymbolMars Symbol (disambiguation)UnicodeAlt CodesOrdinal DirectionMarsCarl LinnaeusRoman MythologyMars (mythology)Sex-determination SystemEnlargeHermaphroditeWormMammalHumanXY Sex-determination SystemChromosomeIntersexHermaphroditicReproductionFemaleSRYSox9FGF9PGD2GonadSpermatic CordSertoli CellZW Sex-determination SystemBirdInsectLepidopteraHymenopteraAntBeeHaplodiploidyHaploidDiploidWikipedia:Citation NeededAlligatorSnailClown FishWikipedia:Citation NeededArthropodBacteriumWolbachiaWikipedia:Citation NeededSecondary Sex CharacteristicAlternation Of GenerationsFlowerPlumageWikipedia:Citation NeededBoyFemaleGenderMale PlantMale PregnancyManMasculinityGentlemanInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-674-03116-6Digital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierTemplate:Sex (biology)Template Talk:Sex (biology)SexSexual DimorphismFemaleSexual DifferentiationFeminization (biology)VirilizationSex-determination SystemXY Sex-determination SystemZW Sex-determination SystemX0 Sex-determination SystemTemperature-dependent Sex DeterminationHaplodiploidyHeterogametic SexHeterogametic SexAllosomeX ChromosomeY ChromosomeTestis-determining FactorHermaphroditeSequential HermaphroditismIntersexSexual ReproductionEvolution Of Sexual ReproductionAnisogamyIsogamyGerm CellReproductive SystemSex OrganMeiosisGametogenesisSpermatogenesisOogenesisGameteSpermatozoonEgg CellFertilisationExternal FertilizationInternal FertilizationSexual SelectionPlant ReproductionMating In FungiSexual Reproduction In AnimalsSexual IntercourseHuman ReproductionHuman SexualityPlant Reproductive MorphologyAnimal Sexual BehaviourHuman SexualityMechanics Of Human SexualitySexual Differentiation In HumansHuman Sexual ActivityPortal:SexualityPortal:BiologyTemplate:Gender And Sexual IdentitiesTemplate Talk:Gender And Sexual IdentitiesGender IdentitySexual IdentityGender IdentityGenderManWomanFemaleAndrogynyBigenderBoi (slang)CisgenderCross-dressingGender BenderGenderqueerGender NeutralityPostgenderismGender VariancePangenderTransgenderTrans ManTrans WomanTransmasculineTransfeminineTranssexualismTrigenderThird GenderAkava'ineBaklaBissuCalabaiEunuchFa'afafineFakaleitiFemminielloGalliHijra (South Asia)KathoeyKhanithKöçekKoekchuchMāhūMaknyahMukhannathunMuxeNullo (body Modification)Balkan Sworn VirginsTakatāpuiThird GenderTravestiTumtum (Judaism)Two-SpiritWinkteSkoptsySexual OrientationSexual IdentityGender BinaryAsexualityBisexualityHeterosexualityHomosexualityBehavioral ScienceAndrophilia And GynephiliaMonosexualityPansexualityPolysexualityThird GenderTwo-SpiritSociosexual OrientationAntisexualismMonogamyPolyamoryAttraction To Transgender PeopleBanjeeBi-curiousEx-gay MovementEx-ex-gayGayGray AsexualityHeteroflexibleLesbianKinsey ScaleNon-heterosexualQueerQuestioning (sexuality And Gender)Romantic OrientationSame Gender LovingDisorders Of Sex DevelopmentEgo-dystonic Sexual OrientationErotic Target Location ErrorGender RoleHermaphroditeHuman Female SexualityHuman Male SexualityIntersexSex And Gender DistinctionSex AssignmentSex ChangeSex Reassignment SurgerySexuality And Gender Identity-based CulturesSocial Construction Of GenderThe NeuroGenderings NetworkViolence Against WomenViolence Against MenGendercidePortal:Gender StudiesPortal:SexualityPortal:LGBTHelp:CategoryCategory:GenderCategory:MalesCategory:MenCategory:SexCategory:Articles Needing Additional References From October 2017Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From January 2012Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From August 2013Category:Commons Category With Local Link Different Than On WikidataDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link