Contents 1 Structure 2 Genes 3 Function 3.1 Effects in females 3.2 Effects in males 4 Normal levels 5 Predicting ovulation 6 Disease states 6.1 Excess 6.2 Deficiency 7 As a medication 8 References 9 External links


Structure[edit] LH is a heterodimeric glycoprotein. Each monomeric unit is a glycoprotein molecule; one alpha and one beta subunit make the full, functional protein. Its structure is similar to that of the other glycoprotein hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The protein dimer contains 2 glycopeptidic subunits, labeled alpha and beta subunits, that are non-covalently associated (i.e., without any disulfide bridge linking them):[4] The alpha subunits of LH, FSH, TSH, and hCG are identical, and contain 92 amino acids in human but 96 amino acids in almost all other vertebrate species (glycoprotein hormones do not exist in invertebrates). The beta subunits vary. LH has a beta subunit of 120 amino acids (LHB) that confers its specific biologic action and is responsible for the specificity of the interaction with the LH receptor. This beta subunit contains an amino acid sequence that exhibits large homologies with that of the beta subunit of hCG and both stimulate the same receptor. However, the hCG beta subunit contains an additional 24 amino acids, and the two hormones differ in the composition of their sugar moieties. The different composition of these oligosaccharides affects bioactivity and speed of degradation. The biologic half-life of LH is 20 minutes, shorter than that of FSH (3–4 hours) and hCG (24 hours).[citation needed]


Genes[edit] The gene for the alpha subunit is located on chromosome 6q12.21. The luteinizing hormone beta subunit gene is localized in the LHB/CGB gene cluster on chromosome 19q13.32. In contrast to the alpha gene activity, beta LH subunit gene activity is restricted to the pituitary gonadotropic cells. It is regulated by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. Inhibin, activin, and sex hormones do not affect genetic activity for the beta subunit production of LH.


Function[edit] Effects of LH on the body In females: ovulation, maintaining of corpus luteum and secretion of progesterone. In males: testosterone secretion. Effects in females[edit] LH supports theca cells in the ovaries that provide androgens and hormonal precursors for estradiol production. At the time of menstruation, FSH initiates follicular growth, specifically affecting granulosa cells.[5] With the rise in estrogens, LH receptors are also expressed on the maturing follicle, which causes it to produce more estradiol. Eventually, when the follicle has fully matured, a spike in 17α-hydroxyprogesterone production by the follicle inhibits the production of estrogens, leading to a decrease in estrogen-mediated negative feedback of GnRH in the hypothalamus, which then stimulates the release of LH from the anterior pituitary.[6] However another theory of the LH peak is a positive feedback mechanism from estradiol. The levels keep rising through the follicular phase and when they reach an unknown threshold, this results in the peak of the LH.[7] This effect is opposite from the usual negative feedback mechanism presented at lower levels. In other words, the mechanism(s) are not yet clear. The increase in LH production only lasts for 24 to 48 hours. This "LH surge" triggers ovulation, thereby not only releasing the egg from the follicle, but also initiating the conversion of the residual follicle into a corpus luteum that, in turn, produces progesterone to prepare the endometrium for a possible implantation. LH is necessary to maintain luteal function for the second two weeks of the menstrual cycle. If pregnancy occurs, LH levels will decrease, and luteal function will instead be maintained by the action of hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), a hormone very similar to LH but secreted from the new placenta. Effects in males[edit] LH acts upon the Leydig cells of the testis and is regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).[8] The Leydig cells produce testosterone (T) under the control of LH, which regulates the expression of the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that is used to convert androstenedione, the hormone produced by the testes, to testosterone,[9] an androgen that exerts both endocrine activity and intratesticular activity on spermatogenesis. LH is released from the pituitary gland, and is controlled by pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. When T levels are low, GnRH is released by the hypothalamus, stimulating the pituitary gland to release LH.[8] As the levels of T increase, it will act on the hypothalamus and pituitary through a negative feedback loop and inhibit the release of GnRH and LH consequently.[9] Androgens (T, DHT) inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) in pineal, leading to increased melatonin and reduced LH and FSH by melatonin-induced increase of GnIH synthesis and secretion. T can also be aromatized into estradiol (E2) to inhibit LH. E2 decreases pulse amplitude and responsiveness to GnRH from the hypothalamus onto the pituitary.[10] Gonadal steroids (estrogens and androgens) generally have negative feedback effects on GnRH-1 release at the level of the hypothalamus and at the gonadotropes, reducing their sensitivity to GnRH. Positive feedback by estrogens also occurs in the gonadal axis of female mammals and is responsible for the midcycle surge of LH that stimulates ovulation. Although estrogens inhibit kisspeptin (Kp) release from kiss1 neurons in the ARC, estrogens stimulate Kp release from the Kp neurons in the AVPV. As estrogens' levels gradually increase the positive effect predominates, leading to the LH surge. GABA-secreting neurons that innervate GnRH-1 neurons also can stimulate GnRH-1 release. These GABA neurons also possess ERs and may be responsible for the GnRH-1 surge. Part of the inhibitory action of endorphins on GnRH-1 release is through inhibition of these GABA neurons. Rupture of the ovarian follicle at ovulation causes a drastic reduction in estrogen synthesis and a marked increase in secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum in the ovary, reinstating a predominantly negative feedback on hypothalamic secretion of GnRH-1.[11] Changes in LH and testosterone (T) blood levels and pulse secretions are induced by changes in sexual arousal in human males.[12]


Normal levels[edit] Reference ranges for the blood content of luteinizing hormone (LH) during the menstrual cycle.[13] The ranges denoted By biological stage may be used in closely monitored menstrual cycles in regard to other markers of its biological progression, with the time scale being compressed or stretched to how much faster or slower, respectively, the cycle progresses compared to an average cycle. The ranges denoted Inter-cycle variability are more appropriate to use in non-monitored cycles with only the beginning of menstruation known, but where the woman accurately knows her average cycle lengths and time of ovulation, and that they are somewhat averagely regular, with the time scale being compressed or stretched to how much a woman's average cycle length is shorter or longer, respectively, than the average of the population. The ranges denoted Inter-woman variability are more appropriate to use when the average cycle lengths and time of ovulation are unknown, but only the beginning of menstruation is given. LH levels are normally low during childhood and, in women, high after menopause. As LH is secreted as pulses, it is necessary to follow its concentration over a sufficient period of time to get proper information about its blood level. During the reproductive years, typical levels are between 1–20 IU/L. Physiologic high LH levels are seen during the LH surge (v.s.); typically they last 48 hours. In males over 18 years of age, reference ranges have been estimated to be 1.8–8.6 IU/L.[14] LH is measured in international units (IU). When quantifying the amount of LH in a sample in IUs, it is important to know which international standard your lot of LH was calibrated against, as they can vary broadly from year to year. For human urinary LH, one IU is most recently defined as 1/189th of an ampule denoted 96/602 and distributed by the NIBSC, corresponding to approximately 0.04656µg of LH protein for a single IU, but older standard versions are still widely in use.[15][16]


Predicting ovulation[edit] Chance of fertilization by menstrual cycle day relative to ovulation.[17] The detection of a surge in release of luteinizing hormone indicates impending ovulation. LH can be detected by urinary ovulation predictor kits (OPK, also LH-kit) that are performed, typically daily, around the time ovulation may be expected.[18] A conversion from a negative to a positive reading would suggest that ovulation is about to occur within 24–48 hours, giving women two days to engage in sexual intercourse or artificial insemination with the intention of conceiving.[19] No significant difference has been found between testing LH in the morning versus in the evening, in relation to conception rates,[20] and recommendations of what time in the day to take the test varies between manufacturers and healthcare workers.[21] Tests may be read manually using a colour-change paper strip, or digitally with the assistance of reading electronics. Tests for luteinising hormone may be combined with testing for estradiol in tests such as the Clearblue fertility monitor.[22] The sensitivity of LH tests are measured in milli international unit, with tests commonly available in the range 10–40 m.i.u. (the lower the number, the higher the sensitivity).[citation needed] As sperm can stay viable in the woman for several days, LH tests are not recommended for contraceptive practices, as the LH surge typically occurs after the beginning of the fertile window.


Disease states[edit] Excess[edit] In children with precocious puberty of pituitary or central origin, LH and FSH levels may be in the reproductive range instead of the low levels typical for their age. During the reproductive years, relatively elevated LH is frequently seen in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome; however, it would be unusual for them to have LH levels outside of the normal reproductive range. Persistently high LH levels are indicative of situations where the normal restricting feedback from the gonad is absent, leading to a pituitary production of both LH and FSH. While this is typical in menopause, it is abnormal in the reproductive years. There it may be a sign of: Premature menopause Gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome Castration Swyer syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome Certain forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia Testicular failure Pregnancy - BetaHCG can mimic LH so tests may show elevated LH Note: A medical drug for inhibiting luteinizing hormone secretion is Butinazocine.[23] Deficiency[edit] Diminished secretion of LH can result in failure of gonadal function (hypogonadism). This condition is typically manifest in males as failure in production of normal numbers of sperm. In females, amenorrhea is commonly observed. Conditions with very low LH secretions include: Pasqualini syndrome[24][25][26] Kallmann syndrome Hypothalamic suppression Hypopituitarism Eating disorder Female athlete triad Hyperprolactinemia Hypogonadism Gonadal suppression therapy GnRH antagonist GnRH agonist (inducing an initial stimulation (flare up) followed by permanent blockage of the GnRH pituitary receptor)


As a medication[edit] LH is available mixed with FSH in the form of menotropin, and other forms of urinary gonadotropins. More purified forms of urinary gonadotropins may reduce the LH portion in relation to FSH. Recombinant LH is available as lutropin alfa (Luveris).[27] All these medications have to be given parenterally. They are commonly used in infertility therapy to stimulate follicular development, the notable one being in IVF therapy. Often, HCG medication is used as an LH substitute because it activates the same receptor. Medically used hCG is derived from urine of pregnant women, is less costly, and has a longer half-life than LH.


References[edit] ^ Ujihara M, Yamamoto K, Nomura K, Toyoshima S, Demura H, Nakamura Y, Ohmura K, Osawa T (June 1992). "Subunit-specific sulphation of oligosaccharides relating to charge-heterogeneity in porcine lutrophin isoforms". Glycobiology. 2 (3): 225–31. doi:10.1093/glycob/2.3.225. PMID 1498420.  ^ a b Physiology: 5/5ch9/s5ch9_5 - Essentials of Human Physiology ^ Louvet JP, Harman SM, Ross GT (May 1975). "Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, human interstitial cell stimulating hormone and human follicle-stimulating hormone on ovarian weights in estrogen-primed hypophysectomized immature female rats". Endocrinology. 96 (5): 1179–86. doi:10.1210/endo-96-5-1179. PMID 1122882.  ^ Jiang X, Dias JA, He X (January 2014). "Structural biology of glycoprotein hormones and their receptors: insights to signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 382 (1): 424–51. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2013.08.021. PMID 24001578.  ^ Bowen, R. (13 May 2004). "Gonadotropins: Luteinizing and Follicle Stimulating Hormones". Colorado State University. Retrieved 12 March 2012.  ^ Mahesh VB (January 2012). "Hirsutism, virilism, polycystic ovarian disease, and the steroid-gonadotropin-feedback system: a career retrospective". American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. 302 (1): E4–E18. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00488.2011. PMC 3328092 . PMID 22028409.  ^ Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology 2006 page 1021 ^ a b "Male Medical Fertility Treatment: HCG + LH + Recombinant FSH To Increase Sperm Count Through Spermatogenisis". Archived from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015. [unreliable medical source?] ^ a b "The onset of puberty is controlled by two major hormones: FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH signals the release of testosterone". Retrieved 6 April 2015. [unreliable medical source?] ^ Pitteloud N, Dwyer AA, DeCruz S, Lee H, Boepple PA, Crowley WF, Hayes FJ (March 2008). "Inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion by testosterone in men requires aromatization for its pituitary but not its hypothalamic effects: evidence from the tandem study of normal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-deficient men". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 93 (3): 784–91. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-2156. PMC 2266963 . PMID 18073301.  ^ Norris DO, Carr JA (2013). Vertebrate Endocrinology. Academic Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-12-396465-6.  ^ Stoléru SG, Ennaji A, Cournot A, Spira A (1993). "LH pulsatile secretion and testosterone blood levels are influenced by sexual arousal in human males". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 18 (3): 205–18. doi:10.1016/0306-4530(93)90005-6. PMID 8516424.  ^ Häggström, Mikael (2014). "Reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during the menstrual cycle". WikiJournal of Medicine. 1 (1). doi:10.15347/wjm/2014.001. ISSN 2002-4436.  ^ Mayo Medical Laboratories - Test ID: LH, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Serum, retrieved December 2012 ^ World Health Organization Proposed International Standard for Luteinizing Hormone. WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization. World Health Organization. Geneva. 2003. ^ WHO International Standard, Luteinizing Hormone, Human, Recombinant. National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. ^ Dunson, D.B.; Baird, D.D.; Wilcox, A.J.; Weinberg, C.R. (1999). "Day-specific probabilities of clinical pregnancy based on two studies with imperfect measures of ovulation". Human Reproduction. 14 (7): 1835–1839. doi:10.1093/humrep/14.7.1835. ISSN 1460-2350.  ^ Nielsen MS, Barton SD, Hatasaka HH, Stanford JB (August 2001). "Comparison of several one-step home urinary luteinizing hormone detection test kits to OvuQuick". Fertility and Sterility. 76 (2): 384–7. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(01)01881-7. PMID 11476792.  ^ "Ovulation Predictor Kit Frequently Asked Questions". Fertility Plus. Archived from the original on March 12, 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2012. [unreliable medical source?] ^ Martinez AR, Bernardus RE, Vermeiden JP, Schoemaker J (1994). "Time schedules of intrauterine insemination after urinary luteinizing hormone surge detection and pregnancy results". Gynecol Endocrinol. 8 (1): 1–5. PMID 8059611. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Page 67 in: Godwin I. Meniru (2001). Cambridge Guide to Infertility Management and Assisted Reproduction. Cambridge University Press.  ^ "How to Get Pregnant". OPregnancy.com. 2009. Archived from the original on March 12, 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2012. [unreliable medical source?] ^ U.S. Patent 4,406,904 ^ Weiss J, Axelrod L, Whitcomb RW, Harris PE, Crowley WF, Jameson JL (January 1992). "Hypogonadism caused by a single amino acid substitution in the beta subunit of luteinizing hormone". The New England Journal of Medicine. 326 (3): 179–83. doi:10.1056/NEJM199201163260306. PMID 1727547.  ^ Valdes-Socin H, Salvi R, Daly AF, Gaillard RC, Quatresooz P, Tebeu PM, Pralong FP, Beckers A (December 2004). "Hypogonadism in a patient with a mutation in the luteinizing hormone beta-subunit gene". The New England Journal of Medicine. 351 (25): 2619–25. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa040326. PMID 15602022.  ^ Valdes-Socin H, Daly AF, Beckers A (2017). "Luteinizing Hormone Deficiency: Historical Views and Future Perspectives" (PDF). Austin Andrology. 2 (1): 1015.  ^ Luveris information[unreliable medical source?] Archived June 18, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.


External links[edit] Luteinizing Hormone at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e Gonadotropins and GnRH (G03G) Gonadotropin preparations Gonadotropins Follicle-stimulating hormone Human chorionic gonadotropin Luteinizing hormone Menotropin Urofollitropin Progonadotropins Sex steroid antagonists (via disinhibition of the HPG axis): Antiandrogens (e.g., flutamide, bicalutamide, enzalutamide) Antiestrogens/SERMs (e.g., tamoxifen, clomifene, enclomifene) Aromatase inhibitors (e.g., anastrozole) GnRH agonists (e.g., GnRH) Antigonadotropins Sex steroids (via negative feedback on the HPG axis): Androgens (incl. anabolic steroids, e.g., nandrolone, oxandrolone) D2 receptor antagonists (prolactin releasers) (incl., domperidone, metoclopramide, risperidone, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, sulpiride) Estrogens (incl., bifluranol, estradiol, ethinylestradiol, diethylstilbestrol, paroxypropione) Progestogens (incl. progestins, e.g., chlormadinone acetate, cyproterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, gestonorone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate) Others (mixed mechanisms of action): Danazol Gestrinone Others (unknown mechanism of action): Metallibure GnRH modulators Agonists Azagly-nafarelin Buserelin Deslorelin Fertirelin Gonadorelin Goserelin Histrelin Lecirelin Leuprorelin (leuprolide) Nafarelin Peforelin Salmon GnRH Triptorelin Antagonists Abarelix Cetrorelix Degarelix Elagolix† Ganirelix Relugolix§ #WHO-EM ‡Withdrawn from market Clinical trials: †Phase III §Never to phase III See also: Androgens and antiandrogens • Estrogens and antiestrogens • Progestogens and antiprogestogens v t e Hormones Endocrine glands Hypothalamic- pituitary Hypothalamus GnRH TRH Dopamine CRH GHRH Somatostatin (GHIH) MCH Posterior pituitary Oxytocin Vasopressin Anterior pituitary FSH LH TSH Prolactin POMC CLIP ACTH MSH Endorphins Lipotropin GH Adrenal axis Adrenal cortex aldosterone cortisol cortisone DHEA DHEA-S androstenedione Adrenal medulla epinephrine norepinephrine Thyroid Thyroid hormone T3 T4 Calcitonin Thyroid axis Parathyroid PTH Gonadal axis Testis testosterone AMH inhibin Ovary estradiol progesterone activin and inhibin relaxin Placenta hCG HPL estrogen progesterone Pancreas glucagon insulin amylin somatostatin pancreatic polypeptide Pineal gland melatonin N,N-dimethyltryptamine 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine Other Thymus Thymosins Thymosin α1 Beta thymosins Thymopoietin Thymulin Digestive system Stomach gastrin ghrelin Duodenum CCK Incretins GIP GLP-1 secretin motilin VIP Ileum enteroglucagon peptide YY Liver/other Insulin-like growth factor IGF-1 IGF-2 Adipose tissue leptin adiponectin resistin Skeleton Osteocalcin Kidney renin EPO calcitriol prostaglandin Heart Natriuretic peptide ANP BNP v t e Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators Adiponectin AdipoR1 Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin ADP-355 ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon (–)-Arctigenin Arctiin Gramine Matairesinol Antagonists: Peptide: ADP-400 AdipoR2 Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin ADP-355 ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon Deoxyschizandrin Parthenolide Syringing Taxifoliol Antagonists: Peptide: ADP-400 Angiotensin See here instead. Bradykinin Agonists: Bradykinin Kallidin Antagonists: FR-173657 Icatibant LF22-0542 CGRP Agonists: Amylin CGRP Pramlintide Antagonists: Atogepant BI 44370 TA CGRP (8-37) MK-3207 Olcegepant Rimegepant SB-268262 Telcagepant Ubrogepant Antibodies: Eptinezumab Erenumab Fremanezumab Galcanezumab Cholecystokinin CCKA Agonists: Cholecystokinin Antagonists: Amiglumide Asperlicin Devazepide Dexloxiglumide Lintitript Lorglumide Loxiglumide Pranazepide Proglumide Tarazepide Tomoglumide CCKB Agonists: Cholecystokinin CCK-4 Gastrin Pentagastrin (CCK-5) Antagonists: Ceclazepide CI-988 (PD-134308) Itriglumide L-365,360 Netazepide Proglumide Spiroglumide Unsorted Antagonists: Nastorazepide CRH CRF1 Agonists: Cortagine Corticorelin Corticotropin releasing hormone Sauvagine Stressin I Urocortin Antagonists: Antalarmin Astressin-B CP-154,526 Emicerfont Hypericin LWH-234 NBI-27914 Pexacerfont R-121919 TS-041 Verucerfont CRF2 Agonists: Corticorelin Corticotropin releasing hormone Sauvagine Urocortin Antagonists: Astressin-B Cytokine See here instead. Endothelin Agonists: Endothelin 1 Endothelin 2 Endothelin 3 IRL-1620 Antagonists: A-192621 ACT-132577 Ambrisentan Aprocitentan Atrasentan Avosentan Bosentan BQ-123 BQ-788 Clazosentan Darusentan Edonentan Enrasentan Fandosentan Feloprentan Macitentan Nebentan Sitaxentan Sparsentan Tezosentan Zibotentan Galanin GAL1 Agonists: Galanin Galanin (1-15) Galanin-like peptide Galmic Galnon NAX 810-2 Antagonists: C7 Dithiepine-1,1,4,4-tetroxide Galantide (M15) M32 M35 M40 SCH-202596 GAL2 Agonists: Galanin Galanin (1-15) Galanin (2-11) Galanin-like peptide Galmic Galnon J18 NAX 810-2 Antagonists: C7 Galantide (M15) M32 M35 M40 M871 GAL3 Agonists: Galanin Galanin (1-15) Galmic Galnon Antagonists: C7 Galantide (M15) GalR3ant HT-2157 M32 M35 M40 SNAP-37889 SNAP-398299 Ghrelin/GHS See here instead. GH See here instead. GHRH See here instead. GLP GLP-1 Agonists: Albiglutide Beinaglutide Dulaglutide Efpeglenatide Exenatide GLP-1 Langlenatide Liraglutide Lixisenatide Oxyntomodulin Semaglutide Taspoglutide GLP-2 Agonists: Elsiglutide Glepaglutide GLP-2 Teduglutide Others Propeptides: Preproglucagon Proglucagon Glucagon Agonists: Dasiglucagon Glucagon Oxyntomodulin Antagonists: Adomeglivant L-168,049 LGD-6972 Propeptides: Preproglucagon Proglucagon GnRH Agonists: Peptide: Avorelin Azagly-nafarelin Buserelin Deslorelin Fertirelin GnRH Gonadorelin Goserelin Histrelin Leuprorelin (leuprolide) Lutrelin Nafarelin Peforelin Triptorelin Zoptarelin doxorubicin Antagonists: Peptide: Abarelix Acyline Cetrorelix Degarelix Detirelix Ganirelix Iturelix Ozarelix Prazarelix Ramorelix Teverelix (antarelix); Non-peptide: ASP-1707 Elagolix KLH-2109 (OBE-2109) Relugolix Sufugolix Gonadotropin LH/CG Agonists: Choriogonadotropin alfa Human chorionic gonadotropin Luteinizing hormone Lutropin alfa Menotropin (human menopausal gonadotropin) FSH Agonists: Corifollitropin alfa Follicle-stimulating hormone Follitropin alfa Follitropin beta Follitropin epsilon Menotropin (human menopausal gonadotropin) Urofollitropin Varfollitropin alfa NAMs: ADX-61623 Growth factor See here instead. Insulin Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05) Insulin-like growth factor 1 Insulin-like growth factor 2 Insulin Insulin aspart Insulin degludec Insulin detemir Insulin glargine Insulin glulisine Insulin lispro Mecasermin Mecasermin rinfabate Antagonists: BMS-754807 S661 S961 Kinase inhibitors: Linsitinib Antibodies: Xentuzumab (against IGF-1 and IGF-2) Kisspeptin Agonists: Kisspeptin Kisspeptin-10 Antagonists: Kisspeptin-234 Leptin Agonists: Leptin Metreleptin MCH MCH1 Agonists: Melanin concentrating hormone Antagonists: ATC-0065 ATC-0175 GW-803430 NGD-4715 SNAP-7941 SNAP-94847 MCH2 Agonists: Melanin concentrating hormone Melanocortin See here instead. Neuropeptide FF Agonists: Neuropeptide AF Neuropeptide FF Neuropeptide SF (RFRP-1) Neuropeptide VF (RFRP-3) Antagonists: BIBP-3226 RF9 Neuropeptide S Agonists: Neuropeptide S Antagonists: ML-154 SHA-68 Neuropeptide Y Y1 Agonists: Neuropeptide Y Peptide YY Antagonists: BIBO-3304 BIBP-3226 BVD-10 GR-231118 PD-160170 Y2 Agonists: 2-Thiouridine 5'-triphosphate Neuropeptide Y Neuropeptide Y (13-36) Peptide YY Peptide YY (3-36) Antagonists: BIIE-0246 JNJ-5207787 SF-11 Y4 Agonists: GR-231118 Neuropeptide Y Pancreatic polypeptide Peptide YY Antagonists: UR-AK49 Y5 Agonists: BWX-46 Neuropeptide Y Peptide YY Antagonists: CGP-71683 FMS-586 L-152,804 Lu AA-33810 MK-0557 NTNCB Velneperit (S-2367) Neurotensin NTS1 Agonists: Neurotensin Neuromedin N Antagonists: Meclinertant SR-142948 NTS2 Agonists: Neurotensin Antagonists: Levocabastine SR-142948 Opioid See here instead. Orexin OX1 Agonists: Orexin (A, B) Antagonists: ACT-335827 ACT-462206 Almorexant Filorexant Lemborexant SB-334867 SB-408124 SB-649868 Suvorexant TCS-1102 OX2 Agonists: Orexin (A, B) SB-668875 Antagonists: ACT-335827 ACT-462206 Almorexant EMPA Filorexant JNJ-10397049 Lemborexant MK-1064 SB-649868 Seltorexant Suvorexant TCS-1102 TCS-OX2-29 Oxytocin See here instead. Prolactin Agonists: Growth hormone Human placental lactogen Placental growth hormone (growth hormone variant) Prolactin S179D-hPRL Somatotropin Antagonists: Δ1–9-G129R-hPRL Δ1–14-G129R-hPRL G120K-hGH G129R-hPRL Prolactin modulators: Prolactin inhibitors: D2 receptor agonists (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline); Prolactin releasers: D2 receptor antagonists (e.g., domperidone, metoclopramide, risperidone) Estrogens (e.g., estradiol) Progestogens (e.g., progesterone) PTH Agonists: Abaloparatide Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) Semparatide Teriparatide Relaxin Agonists: Insulin-like factor 3 Relaxin (1, 2, 3) Serelaxin Somatostatin See here instead. Tachykinin See here instead. TRH Agonists: Azetirelin Fertirelin Montirelin Orotirelin Posatirelin Protirelin Rovatirelin Taltirelin TRH (TRF) TSH Agonists: Thyrotropin alfa TSH (thyrotropin) Vasopressin See here instead. VIP/PACAP VIPR1 Agonists: Peptide: Bay 55-9837 LBT-3393 PACAP VIP VIPR2 Agonists: Peptide: LBT-3627 PACAP VIP PAC1 Agonists: PACAP PACAP (1-27) PACAP (1-38) Antagonists: PACAP (6-38) Unsorted PHI PHM PHV Others Endogenous: Adrenomedullin Apelin Asprosin Bombesin Calcitonin Carnosine CART CLIP DSIP Enteroglucagon Formyl peptide GALP GIP GRP Integrin ligands (collagens, fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminins, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, osteopontin, VCAM-1, vitronectin) Kininogens Motilin Natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, CNP, urodilatin) Nesfatin-1 Neuromedin B Neuromedin N Neuromedin S Neuromedin U Obestatin Osteocalcin Resistin Secretin Thymopoietin Thymosins Thymulin Urotensin-II VGF Exogenous: Lifitegrast (LFA-1 antagonist) See also Receptor/signaling modulators Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Luteinizing_hormone&oldid=820814805" Categories: Genes on human chromosome 6Genes on human chromosome 19Recombinant proteinsGlycoproteinsGonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropinsPeptide hormonesSex hormonesHuman hormonesHormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axisAnterior pituitary hormonesHidden categories: All articles lacking reliable referencesArticles lacking reliable references from May 2015CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listWebarchive template wayback linksProtein pages needing a pictureAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from November 2008Articles with unsourced statements from August 2009


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Luteinizing_hormone - Photos and All Basic Informations

Luteinizing_hormone More Links

Chorionic Gonadotropin AlphaChorionic Gonadotropin AlphaEntrezHuman Genome OrganisationOMIMNational Center For Biotechnology InformationSwiss-ProtLocus (genetics)Chromosome 6 (human)Luteinizing Hormone Beta PolypeptideLuteinizing Hormone Beta PolypeptideEntrezHuman Genome OrganisationOMIMNational Center For Biotechnology InformationSwiss-ProtLocus (genetics)Chromosome 19 (human)HormoneGonadotropic CellAnterior Pituitary GlandOvulationCorpus LuteumLeydig CellTestosteroneFollicle-stimulating HormoneProtein DimerGlycoproteinMonomerGlycoproteinFollicle-stimulating HormoneThyroid-stimulating HormoneHuman Chorionic GonadotropinAlpha Subunit Of Glycoprotein HormonesAmino AcidsAmino AcidsLH ReceptorHuman Chorionic GonadotropinOligosaccharideHalf-lifeWikipedia:Citation NeededGeneChromosome 6Chromosome 19Gonadotropin-releasing HormoneHypothalamusInhibinActivinSex HormoneEnlargeTheca CellAndrogenEstradiolMenstruationOvarian FollicleGranulosa CellOestrogenEstradiol17α-hydroxyprogesteroneOestrogenNegative FeedbackGnRHHypothalamusAnterior PituitaryEstradiolOvulationCorpus LuteumProgesteroneEndometriumImplantation (human Embryo)PregnancyHuman Chorionic GonadotropinLeydig CellsTestisGnRHTestosterone17β-hydroxysteroid DehydrogenaseAndrogenSpermatogenesisGnRHHypothalamusEstradiolOestrogenKisspeptinGamma-Aminobutyric AcidSexual ArousalEnlargeReference Ranges For Blood TestsMenstrual CycleChildhoodMenopauseInternational UnitsEnlargeEnlargeHuman FertilizationOvulationUrinarySexual IntercourseArtificial InseminationConceivingEstradiolFertility MonitorMilli International UnitWikipedia:Citation NeededContraceptivePrecocious PubertyPolycystic Ovary SyndromePremature MenopauseGonadal DysgenesisTurner SyndromeCastrationSwyer SyndromePolycystic Ovary SyndromeCongenital Adrenal HyperplasiaHypergonadotropic HypogonadismButinazocineAmenorrheaFertile Eunuch SyndromeKallmann SyndromeHypothalamic SuppressionHypopituitarismEating DisorderFemale Athlete TriadHyperprolactinemiaHypogonadismGnRH AntagonistGnRH AgonistMenotropinGonadotropinsIVFDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierWikipedia:Identifying Reliable Sources (medicine)Wikipedia:Identifying Reliable Sources (medicine)Digital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-12-396465-6Digital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberWorld Health OrganizationDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierWikipedia:Identifying Reliable Sources (medicine)PubMed IdentifierCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListWikipedia:Identifying Reliable Sources (medicine)Digital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierWikipedia:Identifying Reliable Sources (medicine)Wayback MachineMedical Subject HeadingsTemplate:Gonadotropins And GnRHTemplate Talk:Gonadotropins And GnRHGonadotropinGonadotropin-releasing HormoneATC Code G03Gonadotropin PreparationsGonadotropinFollicle-stimulating HormoneHuman Chorionic GonadotropinMenotropinUrofollitropinProgonadotropinHypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal AxisAntiandrogenFlutamideBicalutamideEnzalutamideAntiestrogenSelective Estrogen Receptor ModulatorsTamoxifenClomifeneEnclomifeneAromatase InhibitorAnastrozoleGnRH AgonistGonadotropin-releasing HormoneAntigonadotropinSex SteroidHypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal AxisAndrogenAnabolic SteroidNandroloneOxandroloneD2 ReceptorDopamine AntagonistProlactin ReleaserDomperidoneMetoclopramideRisperidoneHaloperidolChlorpromazineSulpirideEstrogen (medication)BifluranolEstradiol (medication)EthinylestradiolDiethylstilbestrolParoxypropioneProgestogenProgestinChlormadinone AcetateCyproterone AcetateHydroxyprogesterone 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PeptideIleumEnteroglucagonPeptide YYLiverInsulin-like Growth FactorInsulin-like Growth Factor 1Insulin-like Growth Factor 2Adipose TissueLeptinAdiponectinResistinHuman SkeletonOsteocalcinKidneyReninErythropoietinCalcitriolProstaglandinHeartNatriuretic PeptideAtrial Natriuretic PeptideBrain Natriuretic PeptideTemplate:Signaling Peptide/protein Receptor ModulatorsTemplate Talk:Signaling Peptide/protein Receptor ModulatorsPeptide ReceptorReceptor ModulatorAdiponectin ReceptorAdiponectin Receptor 1AdiponectinAdipoRon(–)-ArctigeninArctiinGramineMatairesinolAdiponectin Receptor 2AdiponectinAdipoRonDeoxyschizandrinParthenolideTaxifoliolAngiotensin ReceptorTemplate:Angiotensin Receptor ModulatorsBradykinin ReceptorBradykininKallidinIcatibantLF22-0542Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide ReceptorAmylinCalcitonin Gene-related PeptidePramlintideOlcegepantRimegepantTelcagepantEptinezumabErenumabFremanezumabGalcanezumabCholecystokinin ReceptorCholecystokinin A ReceptorCholecystokininAsperlicinDevazepideDexloxiglumideLorglumideProglumideCholecystokinin B ReceptorCholecystokininCCK-4GastrinPentagastrinCI-988ProglumideCorticotropin-releasing Hormone ReceptorCorticotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 1CorticorelinCorticotropin Releasing HormoneSauvagineUrocortinAntalarminAstressin-BCP-154,526EmicerfontHypericinPexacerfontVerucerfontCorticotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 2CorticorelinCorticotropin Releasing HormoneSauvagineUrocortinAstressin-BCytokine ReceptorTemplate:Cytokine Receptor ModulatorsEndothelin ReceptorEndothelin 1Endothelin 2Endothelin 3AmbrisentanAtrasentanBosentanBQ-123BQ-788DarusentanMacitentanSitaxentanTezosentanZibotentanGalanin ReceptorGalanin Receptor 1GalaninGalanin-like PeptideGalmicGalnonGalanin Receptor 2GalaninGalanin-like PeptideGalmicGalnonGalanin Receptor 3GalaninGalmicGalnonHT-2157SNAP-37889Growth Hormone Secretagogue ReceptorTemplate:GH/IGF-1 Axis Signaling ModulatorsGrowth Hormone ReceptorTemplate:GH/IGF-1 Axis Signaling ModulatorsGrowth-hormone-releasing Hormone ReceptorTemplate:GH/IGF-1 Axis Signaling ModulatorsGlucagon-like Peptide ReceptorGlucagon-like Peptide 1 ReceptorAlbiglutideDulaglutideExenatideGlucagon-like Peptide 1LiraglutideLixisenatideOxyntomodulinSemaglutideTaspoglutideGlucagon-like Peptide 2 ReceptorGlucagon-like Peptide 2TeduglutidePreproglucagonProglucagonGlucagon ReceptorGlucagonOxyntomodulinPreproglucagonProglucagonGonadotropin-releasing Hormone ReceptorBuserelinDeslorelinFertirelinGonadotropin-releasing HormoneGonadorelinGoserelinHistrelinLeuprorelinNafarelinTriptorelinZoptarelin DoxorubicinAbarelixCetrorelixDegarelixGanirelixOzarelixASP-1707ElagolixKLH-2109RelugolixSufugolixGonadotropin ReceptorLuteinizing Hormone/choriogonadotropin ReceptorChoriogonadotropin AlfaHuman Chorionic GonadotropinLutropin AlfaMenotropinFollicle-stimulating Hormone ReceptorCorifollitropin AlfaFollicle-stimulating HormoneFollitropin AlfaFollitropin BetaMenotropinUrofollitropinGrowth Factor ReceptorTemplate:Growth Factor Receptor ModulatorsInsulin ReceptorChaetochrominInsulin-like Growth Factor 1Insulin-like Growth Factor 2InsulinInsulin AspartInsulin DegludecInsulin DetemirInsulin GlargineInsulin GlulisineInsulin LisproMecaserminMecasermin RinfabateLinsitinibKiSS1-derived Peptide ReceptorKisspeptinLeptin ReceptorLeptinMetreleptinMelanin-concentrating Hormone ReceptorMelanin-concentrating Hormone Receptor 1Melanin Concentrating HormoneATC-0175GW-803430NGD-4715SNAP-7941SNAP-94847Melanin-concentrating Hormone Receptor 2Melanin Concentrating HormoneMelanocortin ReceptorTemplate:Melanocortin Receptor ModulatorsNeuropeptide FF ReceptorNeuropeptide FFBIBP-3226Neuropeptide S ReceptorNeuropeptide SML-154SHA-68Neuropeptide Y ReceptorNeuropeptide Y Receptor Y1Neuropeptide YPeptide YYBIBP-3226Neuropeptide Y Receptor Y2Neuropeptide YPeptide YYBIIE-0246Pancreatic Polypeptide Receptor 1Neuropeptide YPancreatic PolypeptidePeptide YYUR-AK49Neuropeptide Y Receptor Y5Neuropeptide YPeptide 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Signaling ModulatorsTachykinin ReceptorTemplate:Neurokinin Receptor ModulatorsThyrotropin-releasing Hormone ReceptorFertirelinProtirelinTaltirelinThyrotropin-releasing HormoneThyrotropin ReceptorThyrotropin AlfaThyroid-stimulating HormoneVasopressin ReceptorTemplate:Oxytocin And Vasopressin Receptor ModulatorsVasoactive Intestinal Peptide ReceptorPituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating PeptideVIPR1Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating PeptideVasoactive Intestinal PeptideVIPR2LBT-3627Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating PeptideVasoactive Intestinal PeptideADCYAP1R1Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating PeptideAdrenomedullinApelinAsprosinBombesinCalcitoninCarnosineCocaine And Amphetamine Regulated TranscriptCorticotropin-like Intermediate PeptideDelta Sleep-inducing PeptideEnteroglucagonFormyl PeptideGalanin-like PeptideGastric Inhibitory PolypeptideGastrin-releasing PeptideIntegrinCollagenFibrinogenFibronectinLamininICAM-1ICAM-2OsteopontinVCAM-1VitronectinKininogenMotilinNatriuretic PeptideAtrial Natriuretic PeptideBrain Natriuretic PeptideC-type Natriuretic PeptideUrodilatinNesfatin-1Neuromedin BNeuromedin NNeuromedin SNeuromedin UObestatinOsteocalcinResistinSecretinThymopoietinThymosinThymulinUrotensin-IIVGFLifitegrastTemplate:Receptor ModulatorsHelp:CategoryCategory:Genes On Human Chromosome 6Category:Genes On Human Chromosome 19Category:Recombinant ProteinsCategory:GlycoproteinsCategory:Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone And GonadotropinsCategory:Peptide HormonesCategory:Sex HormonesCategory:Human HormonesCategory:Hormones Of The Hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad AxisCategory:Anterior Pituitary HormonesCategory:All Articles Lacking Reliable ReferencesCategory:Articles Lacking Reliable References From May 2015Category:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Protein Pages Needing A PictureCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From November 2008Category:Articles With 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