Contents 1 Etymology 2 Physical appearance 3 Biology 4 Infestations and impacts 5 As an invasive species 6 UK survey 7 Gallery 8 In human culture 8.1 As a logo or brand 9 References 10 External links

Etymology The name coccinellids is derived from the Latin word coccineus meaning "scarlet".[9] The name "ladybird" originated in Britain where the insects became known as "Our Lady's bird" or the Lady beetle.[10][11] Mary (Our Lady) was often depicted wearing a red cloak in early paintings, and the spots of the seven-spot ladybird (the most common in Europe) were said to symbolise her seven joys and seven sorrows.[10][unreliable source?] In the United States, the name was adapted to "ladybug". Common names in some other European languages have the same association, for example, the German name Marienkäfer translates to Marybeetle.[12]

Physical appearance Clitostethus arcuatus larva, pupa and adults Most coccinellids have round to elliptical, dome-shaped bodies with six short legs. Depending on the species, they can have spots, stripes, or no markings at all. Seven-spotted coccinellids are red or orange with three spots on each side and one in the middle; they have a black head with white patches on each side. As well as the usual yellow and deep red colourings, many coccinellid species are mostly, or entirely, black, dark grey, gray, or brown, and may be difficult for non-entomologists to recognise as coccinellids at all. Conversely, non-entomologists might easily mistake many other small beetles for coccinellids. For example, the tortoise beetles, like the ladybird beetles, look similar because they are shaped so that they can cling to a flat surface so closely that ants and many other enemies cannot grip them. Non-entomologists are prone to misidentify a wide variety of beetle species in other families as "ladybirds", i.e. coccinellids. Beetles are particularly prone to such misidentification if they are spotted in red, orange or yellow and black. Examples include the much larger scarabaeid grapevine beetles and spotted species of the Chrysomelidae, Melyridae and others. Conversely, laymen may fail to identify unmarked species of Coccinellidae as "ladybirds". Other beetles that have a defensive hemispherical shape, like that of the Coccinellidae (for example the Cassidinae), also are often taken for ladybirds. A common myth, totally unfounded, is that the number of spots on the insect's back indicates its age.[13][14] In fact, the underlying pattern and colouration are determined by the species and genetics of the beetle, and develop as the insect matures. In some species its appearance is fixed by the time it emerges from its pupa, though in most it may take some days for the colour of the adult beetle to mature and stabilise. Generally, the mature colour tends to be fuller and darker than the colour of the callow.[citation needed]

Biology See also: List of Coccinellidae genera Basic anatomy of a ladybird Coccinellids are best known as predators of Sternorrhyncha such as aphids and scale insects, but the range of prey species that various Coccinellidae may attack is much wider. A genus of small black ladybirds, Stethorus, presents one example of predation on non-Sternorrhyncha; they specialise in mites as prey, notably Tetranychus spider mites. Stethorus species accordingly are important in certain examples of biological control.[15] They are natural predators of a range of serious pests, such as the European corn borer, a moth that costs US agriculture industry more than $1 billion annually in crop losses and population control.[16][17] Various larger species of Coccinellidae attack caterpillars and other beetle larvae.[15] Several genera feed on various insects or their eggs; for example, Coleomegilla species are significant predators of the eggs and larvae of moths such as species of Spodoptera and the Plutellidae.[18] Larvae and eggs of ladybirds, either their own or of other species, can also be important food resources when alternative prey are scarce. As a family, the Coccinellidae used to be regarded as purely carnivorous,[19] but they are now known to be far more omnivorous than previously thought, both as a family and in individual species; examination of gut contents of apparently specialist predators commonly yield residues of pollen and other plant materials. Besides the prey they favour, most predatory coccinellids include other items in their diets, including honeydew, pollen, plant sap, nectar, and various fungi. The significance of such nonprey items in their diets is still under investigation and discussion.[20] Apart from the generalist aphid and scale predators and incidental substances of botanical origin, many Coccinellidae do favour or even specialise in certain prey types. This makes some of them particularly valuable as agents in biological control programmes. Determination of specialisation need not be a trivial matter, though; for example the larva of the Vedalia ladybird Rodolia cardinalis is a specialist predator on a few species of Monophlebidae, in particular Icerya purchasi, which is the most notorious of the cottony cushion scale species. However, the adult R. cardinalis can subsist for some months on a wider range of insects plus some nectar.[21] Certain species of coccinellids are thought to lay extra infertile eggs with the fertile eggs, apparently to provide a backup food source for the larvae when they hatch. The ratio of infertile to fertile eggs increases with scarcity of food at the time of egg laying. Such a strategy amounts to the production of trophic eggs.[22] Some species in the subfamily Epilachninae are herbivores, and can be very destructive agricultural pests (e.g., the Mexican bean beetle). Again, in the subfamily Coccinellinae, members of the tribe Halyziini and the genus Tythaspis are mycophagous. Aggregating ladybirds in Colorado Springs, Colorado While predatory species are often used as biological control agents, introduced species of coccinellids are not necessarily benign. Species such as Harmonia axyridis or Coccinella septempunctata in North America outcompete and displace native coccinellids and become pests themselves.[23] The main predators of coccinellids are usually birds, but they are also the prey of frogs, wasps, spiders, and dragonflies. The bright colours of many coccinellids discourage some potential predators from making a meal of them. This phenomenon, called aposematism, works because predators learn by experience to associate certain prey phenotypes with a bad taste. A further defence, known as "reflex bleeding", exists in which an alkaloid toxin is exuded through the joints of the exoskeleton, triggered by mechanical stimulation (such as by predator attack) in both larval and adult beetles, deterring feeding. Coccinellids in temperate regions enter diapause during the winter, so they often are among the first insects to appear in the spring. Some species (e.g., Hippodamia convergens) gather into groups and move to higher elevations, such as a mountain, to enter diapause. Most coccinellids overwinter as adults, aggregating on the south sides of large objects such as trees or houses during the winter months, dispersing in response to increasing day length in the spring.[24] Predatory coccinellids are usually found on plants which harbour their prey. They lay their eggs near their prey, to increase the likelihood the larvae will find the prey easily. In Harmonia axyridis, eggs hatch in three to four days from clutches numbering from a few to several dozen. Depending on resource availability, the larvae pass through four instars over 10–14 days, after which pupation occurs. After a teneral period of several days, the adults become reproductively active and are able to reproduce again later, although they may become reproductively quiescent if eclosing late in the season. Total life span is one to two years on average.[25]

Infestations and impacts Coccinellids covering a branch In the United States, coccinellids usually begin to appear indoors in the autumn when they leave their summer feeding sites in fields, forests, and yards and search out places to spend the winter. Typically, when temperatures warm to the mid-60s F (around 18 °C) in the late afternoon, following a period of cooler weather, they will swarm onto or into buildings illuminated by the sun. Swarms of coccinellids fly to buildings in September through November depending on location and weather conditions. Homes or other buildings near fields or woods are particularly prone to infestation.[26] After an abnormally long period of hot, dry weather in the summer of 1976 in the UK, a marked increase in the aphid population was followed by a "plague" of ladybirds, with many reports of people being bitten as the supply of aphids dwindled.[27][28] The presence of coccinellids in grape harvests can cause ladybird taint in wines produced from the grapes.[29]

As an invasive species Harmonia axyridis (the harlequin ladybird) is an example of how an animal might be partly welcome and partly harmful. It was introduced into North America from Asia in 1916 to control aphids, but is now the most common species, outcompeting many of the native species.[30] It has since spread to much of western Europe, reaching the UK in 2004.[30][31] It has become something of a domestic and agricultural pest in some regions, and gives cause for ecological concern. It has similarly arrived in parts of Africa, where it has proved variously unwelcome, perhaps most prominently in vine-related crops.[32]

UK survey The atlas Ladybirds (Coccinellidae) of Britain and Ireland published in 2011[33] showed a decline of more than 20% in native species due to environmental changes and competition from foreign invaders. The distribution maps, compiled over a 20-year period with help from thousands of volunteers, showed a decline in the numbers of the common 10-spot and 14-spot ladybirds and a number of other species, including the 11-spot, 22-spot, cream-spot, water and hieroglyphic ladybirds, Coccidula rufa, Rhyzobius litura and Nephus redtenbacheri. Conversely, increases were seen in the numbers of harlequin, orange, pine, and 24-spot ladybirds, as well as Rhyzobius chrysomeloides. The kidney spot ladybird was recorded in Scotland for the first time in recent years, and the 13-spot was found to have recolonised Cornwall, Devon, and the New Forest. The most commonly recorded species was the 7-spot, closely followed by the Asian harlequin — an invader that arrived from continental Europe in 2003 after being introduced to control pests. An 'explosion' in the number of orange ladybirds, which feed on mildew, is thought to have been due to the warmer, damper conditions that now prevail in parts of England.[34]

Gallery Play media HD video of a ladybird near an anthill Brumoides suturalis is an example of a longitudinally striped member of the Coccinellidae. Unusually for a Coccinellid, the mature Rhyzobius chrysomeloides is brown and unspotted. Coccinella transversalis, elytra in the open position. In this coccinellid, the black spots are so large they meet. A specimen of Harmonia axyridis in South Africa, freshly out of its pupa. Its black spots will develop as its exoskeleton hardens. A coccinellid photographed freshly out of its pupa, and two and four hours later. Henosepilachna guttatopustulata, a herbivore and one of the largest ladybirds, feeding on a potato leaf. This species is multicoloured. This yellow-shouldered ladybird (Apolinus lividigaster) feeding on an aphid has only two colour spots. Some species have none. Coccinella septempunctata Larva Pupal stage Eggs with the head of a match to show the scale Larva of Harmonia axyridis eating another one that was beginning to pupate Full wings of a Harmonia axyridis taking flight Coccinella septempunctata A yellow, twenty-two spot ladybird (Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata). Play media A brownish Scymnus sp. (tribe Scymnini) Ladybird starting flight. Ladybird feeding on a tiny bug on the seed head of a grass plant. Ladybirds mating on a leaf.

In human culture Ladybirds on Jurmala beach, Latvia Coccinellids are, and have been for very many years, an insect of interest and favour for children. The insects had many regional names (now mostly disused) in English, such as variations on Bishop-Barnaby (Norfolk and Suffolk dialect) – Barnabee, Burnabee, the Bishop-that-burneth, and bishy bishy barnabee.[35][36] The etymology is unclear, but it may be from St. Barnabas' feast in June, when the insect appears, or a corruption of "Bishop-that-burneth", from the fiery elytra of the beetles.[37] The ladybird was immortalised in the popular children's nursery rhyme Ladybird Ladybird: Ladybird, ladybird, fly away home Your house is on fire and your children are gone All except one, and that's Little Anne For she has crept under the warming pan. This poem has its counterpart in German as Marienwürmchen, collected in Des Knaben Wunderhorn, and set to music by Robert Schumann as Op. 79, No. 13, and a Polish nursery rhyme, "Little Ladybirds' Anthem", of which a part ("fly to the sky, little ladybird, bring me a piece of bread") became a saying.[38] Many cultures consider coccinellids lucky and have nursery rhymes or local names for the insects that reflect this. For instance, the Turkish name for the insect is uğur böceği, literally meaning "good luck bug". In many countries, including Russia, Turkey, and Italy, the sight of a coccinellid is either a call to make a wish or a sign that a wish will soon be granted. In Christian areas, coccinellids are often associated with the Virgin Mary and the name that the insect bears in the various languages of Europe corresponds to this. Though historically many European languages referenced Freyja, the fertility goddess of Norse mythology, in the names, the Virgin Mary has now largely supplanted her, so that, for example, freyjuhœna (Old Norse) and Frouehenge have been changed into marihøne (Norwegian) and Marienkäfer (German), which corresponds with Our Lady's bird.[39] Sometimes, the insect is referred to as belonging directly to God (Irish bóín Dé, Polish boża krówka, Russian божья коровка (bozhya korovka), all meaning "God's [little] cow").[40] In Dutch it is called lieveheersbeestje, meaning "little animal of our Good Lord". In both Hebrew and Yiddish, it is called "Moshe Rabbenu's (i.e. Moses's) little cow" or "little horse", apparently an adaptation from Slavic languages. Occasionally, it is called "little Messiah".[41] As a logo or brand Symbol of the Dutch Foundation Against Senseless Violence The bold colours and simple shapes have led to use as a logo for a wide range of organisations and companies, including: Ladybird Books (part of Penguin Group)[42][43] Ladybird range of children's clothing sold by former and Woolworth's chain store in the UK[44] The ladybird street tile (pictured) is a symbol against senseless violence in the Netherlands, and is often placed on the sites of deadly crimes.[45] In addition, it has been chosen as: US state insect of Delaware, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, and Tennessee, though only New York has selected a species native to the United States (Coccinella novemnotata); the other states have all adopted an invasive European species (Coccinella septempunctata).[46] An "official national mascot"[47] for Alpha Sigma Alpha, a national sorority in the United States The mascot of Candanchú,[48] a ski resort situated near the town of Canfranc in the High Aragon of the western Pyrenees (Province of Huesca, Spain)

References ^ a b "Coccinellidae Latreille, 1807". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 24 July 2012.  ^ "Wikispecies: Microweiseinae". 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2013.  ^ "coccinellid". The New Oxford Dictionary of English. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1998. p. 351. ISBN 0-19-861263-X. coccinellid /,kɒksɪ'nɛlɪd/ noun a beetle of a family (coccinelidae) that includes the ladybirds  ^ Seago, A. E.; Giorgi, J. A.; Li, J.; Ślipińskia, A. (July 2011). "Phylogeny, classification and evolution of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) based on simultaneous analysis of molecular and morphological data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 60 (1): 137–151. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.015. PMID 21426943.  ^ Judy Allen & Tudor Humphries (2000). Are You A Ladybug?, Kingfisher, p. 30 ^ Seago, Ainsley E.; Giorgi, Jose Adriano; Li, Jiahui; Slipinski, Adam (15 March 2011). "Phylogeny, classification and evolution of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) based on simultaneous analysis of molecular and morphological data" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 60: 137–151. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.015. PMID 21426943. Retrieved 14 February 2016.  ^ White, R.E. 1983. A field guide to the beetles of North America. Peterson Field Guide Series #29. ^ Society, National Geographic. "Ladybugs, Ladybug Pictures, Ladybug Facts – National Geographic". Retrieved October 4, 2016.  ^ Brown, L., ed. (2007). The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1 (6 ed.). p. 441.  ^ a b Anonymous. "Why are ladybirds so-called?". UK Ladybird survey. Retrieved 15 October 2010.  ^ Samaha, John M. "Marian Roots of the Name". Our Lady's Bug. Dayton, Ohio: International Marian Research Institute. Retrieved 15 October 2010.  ^ Anonymous. "common name: ladybirds, ladybird beetles, lady beetles, ladybugs (of Florida)". Featured creatures. University of Florida. Retrieved 8 April 2010.  ^ "Everything Ladybug! The source for Ladybug Stuff!". Retrieved 22 June 2010.  ^ Anonymous. "Ladybird spotters". UK Ladybird survey. Retrieved 17 June 2010.  ^ a b Hodek, Ivo; Honek, A. ; van Emden, Helmut F. Ecology and Behaviour of the Ladybird Beetles. Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell 2012. ISBN 978-1-4051-8422-9 ^ "European corn borer - Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)". Retrieved 13 November 2017.  ^ "The European Corn Borer". Retrieved 13 November 2017.  ^ Roger, Caroline. Mechanisms of Prey Selection in the Ladybeetle Coleomegilla Maculata. Thesis. Department of Natural Resource Sciences. Macdonald campus of McGill University Montréal. Canada 1999 ISBN 0-612-50249-X ^ Smart, John (1963). British Museum (Natural History) Instructions for Collectors NO. 4A. Insects. London: Trustees of the British Museum.  ^ Almeida, Lúcia M. ; Corrêa, Geovan H. Giorgi, José A. ; Grossi, Paschoal C. New record of predatory ladybird beetle (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) feeding on extrafloral nectaries. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 55(3): 447–450, setembro, 2011 ^ Sands, D. P. A. and R. G. Van Driesche. 2000. Evaluating host specificity of agents for biological control of arthropods: rationale, methodology and interpretation, pp. 69-83. In Van Driesche, R. G., T. A. Heard, A. S. McClay, and R. Reardon (eds.). Proceedings of Session: Host Specificity Testing of Exotic Arthropod Biological Control Agents: The Biological Basis for Improvement in Safety. Xth International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. 4–14 July 1999. Bozeman, Montana. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Bulletin FHTET-99-1, Morgantown, West Virginia, U.S.A. ^ J. Perry & B. Roitberg (2005). "Ladybird mothers mitigate offspring starvation risk by laying trophic eggs". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 58 (6): 578–586. doi:10.1007/s00265-005-0947-1.  ^ "TrekNature – LADY BEETLES Photo".  ^ A. Honek, Z. Martinkova & S. Pekar (2007). "Aggregation characteristics of three species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) at hibernation sites" (PDF). European Journal of Entomology. 104 (1): 51–56. doi:10.14411/eje.2007.008.  ^ "What Is the Life Span of a Ladybug?". Sciencing. Retrieved 24 December 2017.  ^ University of Kentucky-College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service ^ Anonymous (5 July 2001). "Phew, what a scorcher!". The Northern Echo. Archived from the original on 4 July 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2010.  ^ Wainwright, Martin (17 May 2006). "The great drought". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 8 April 2010.  ^ Easton, Sally (2 February 2012). "Ladybird contamination on the rise". The Drinks Business. Union Press Ltd. Retrieved 21 June 2013.  ^ a b Anonymous (5 October 2004). "'Deadly ladybird' sighted in UK". BBC News. Retrieved 17 June 2010.  ^ Anonymous. "The Harlequin Ladybird has landed!". The Harlequin ladybird survey. Retrieved 17 June 2010.  ^ "Invasive Species South Africa - Protecting Biodiversity from Invasion - Harlequin ladybird citizen science project". Retrieved 24 December 2017.  ^ Roy, Helen; Peter Brown; Robert Frost; Remy Poland (15 June 2011). Ladybirds (Coccinellidae) of Britain and Ireland. The Field Studies Council. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-906698-20-1.  ^ Sample, Ian (15 June 2011). "Spot check finds Britain's native ladybirds struggling to compete with alien invaders". The Guardian. Guardian Newspapers ltd. p. 3. Retrieved 17 June 2011.  ^ Timmins, Nicholas (14 October 1994). "The Tories in Bournemouth: Teachers promised support as Shephard calls truce". The Independent. London.  ^ Edward Moor (1823). Suffolk Words and Phrases: Or, An Attempt to Collect the Lingual Localisms of that County. J. Loder. pp. 33–.  ^ Lewie C. Roache (1960) Ladybug, Ladybug: What's in a Name? The Coleopterists Bulletin 14(1):21-25. ^ "szkolnastrona – Przedszkole Publiczne im. 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External links Look up ladybird in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coccinellidae. Wikispecies has information related to Coccinellidae BugGuide Family Coccinellidae - Lady Beetles Ladybirds of Australia Harlequin Ladybird survey in the British Isles Biological control: Predators: Lady beetles Cornell University's Guide to natural enemies in North America Nedvěd O., Kovář I., 2012: Appendix: List of genera in tribes and subfamilies. In: Hodek I., Honěk A., van Emden H.F. (2012) Ecology and Behaviour of the Ladybird Beetles (Coccinellidae). John Wiley and Sons Ltd. pp. 526–531. National Geographic Kids – Ladybugs Ladybird beetles of Florida on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures website. Ladybird beetles – recent immigrants to Florida on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures website. The Lost Ladybug Project Ongoing North American Ladybeetle Survey and Citizen Science Project based at Cornell University – Submit Photos Camila Domonoske (May 20, 2017). "Scientists Sneak A Peek At How Ladybugs Fold Their Wings". NPR.  v t e Extant Coleoptera families Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota Suborder Archostemata Crowsoniellidae (Crowsoniella relicta) Cupedidae (reticulated beetles) Jurodidae (Sikhotealinia zhiltzovae) Micromalthidae (telephone-pole beetle) Ommatidae Suborder Adephaga Extant families Amphizoidae (trout-stream beetles) Aspidytidae Carabidae (ground beetles) Dytiscidae (predaceous diving beetles) Gyrinidae (whirligig beetles) Haliplidae (crawling water beetles) Hygrobiidae Meruidae (Meru phyllisae) Noteridae (burrowing water beetles) Rhysodidae (wrinkled bark beetles) Trachypachidae (false ground beetles) Suborder Myxophaga Hydroscaphidae (skiff beetles) Lepiceridae Sphaeriusidae Torridincolidae Suborder Polyphaga Bostrichiformia Bostrichoidea Anobiidae (furniture beetles, death watch beetles, spider beetles) Bostrichidae (auger beetles) Dermestidae (skin beetles) Jacobsoniidae (Jacobson's beetles) Nosodendridae (wounded-tree beetles) Derodontoidea Derodontidae (tooth-necked fungus beetles) Cucujiformia Chrysomeloidea Cerambycidae (longhorn beetles) Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles) Disteniidae Megalopodidae Orsodacnidae Oxypeltidae Vesperidae Cleroidea Acanthocnemidae (Acanthocnemus nigricans) Chaetosomatidae Cleridae (checkered beetles) Melyridae (soft-wing flower beetles) Phloiophilidae (Phloiophilus edwardsi) Phycosecidae Prionoceridae Trogossitidae (bark-gnawing beetles) Cucujoidea Alexiidae Biphyllidae (false skin beetles) Boganiidae Bothrideridae (dry bark beetles) Byturidae (fruitworm beetles) Cavognathidae Cerylonidae (minute bark beetles) Coccinellidae (lady beetles, or God's cows) Corylophidae (minute fungus beetles) Cryptophagidae (silken fungus beetles) Cucujidae (flat bark beetles) Cyclaxyridae Discolomatidae Endomychidae (handsome fungus beetles) Erotylidae (pleasing fungus beetles) Helotidae Hobartiidae Kateretidae (short-winged flower beetles) Laemophloeidae (lined flat bark beetles) Lamingtoniidae (Lamingtonium binnaberrense) Latridiidae (minute brown scavenger beetles) Monotomidae (root-eating beetles) Myraboliidae Nitidulidae (sap beetles) Passandridae (parasitic flat bark beetles) Phalacridae (shining flower beetles) Phloeostichidae Propalticidae Protocucujidae Silvanidae (silvanid flat bark beetles) Smicripidae (palmetto beetles) Sphindidae (dry-fungus beetles) Curculionoidea (weevils) Anthribidae (fungus weevils) Attelabidae (leaf-rolling weevils) Belidae (primitive weevils) Brentidae (straight snout weevils, New York weevil) Caridae Curculionidae (true weevils, bark beetles, ambrosia beetles) Nemonychidae (pine flower weevils) Lymexyloidea Lymexylidae (ship-timber beetles) Tenebrionoidea Aderidae (ant-like leaf beetles) Anthicidae (ant-like flower beetles) Archeocrypticidae (cryptic fungus beetles) Boridae (conifer bark beetles) Chalcodryidae Ciidae (minute tree-fungus beetles) Melandryidae (false darkling beetles) Meloidae (blister beetles) Mordellidae (tumbling flower beetles) Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) Mycteridae (palm and flower beetles) Oedemeridae (false blister beetle) Perimylopidae, or Promecheilidae Prostomidae (jugular-horned beetles) Pterogeniidae Pyrochroidae (fire-coloured beetles) Pythidae (dead log bark beetles) Ripiphoridae (wedge-shaped beetles) Salpingidae (narrow-waisted bark beetles) Scraptiidae (false flower beetles) Stenotrachelidae (false longhorn beetles) Synchroidae (synchroa bark beetles) Tenebrionidae (darkling beetles) Tetratomidae (polypore fungus beetles) Trachelostenidae Trictenotomidae Ulodidae Zopheridae (ironclad beetles, cylindrical bark beetles) Elateriformia Buprestoidea Buprestidae (jewel beetles, or metallic wood-boring beetles) Schizopodidae Byrrhoidea Byrrhidae (pill beetles) Callirhipidae (cedar beetles) Chelonariidae (turtle beetles) Cneoglossidae Dryopidae (long-toed water beetles) Elmidae (riffle beetles) Eulichadidae (forest stream beetles) Heteroceridae (variegated mud-loving beetles) Limnichidae (minute mud beetles) Lutrochidae (travertine beetles) Psephenidae (water-penny beetles) Ptilodactylidae Dascilloidea Dascillidae (soft bodied plant beetles) Rhipiceridae (cicada beetle, cicada parasite beetles) Elateroidea Anischiidae Artematopodidae (soft-bodied plant beetles) Brachypsectridae (Texas beetles) Cantharidae (soldier beetles) Cerophytidae (rare click beetles) Drilidae Elateridae (click beetles) Eucnemidae (false click beetles) Lampyridae (fireflies) Lycidae (net-winged beetles) Omalisidae Omethidae (false fireflies) Phengodidae (glowworm beetles, long-lipped beetles) Plastoceridae (Plastocerus angulosus) Podabrocephalidae Rhagophthalmidae Rhinorhipidae (Rhinorhipus tamborinensis) Throscidae (false metallic wood-boring beetles) Scirtoidea Clambidae Decliniidae (Declinia relicta) Eucinetidae (plate-thigh beetles) Scirtidae Scarabaeiformia Scarabaeoidea Belohinidae (Belohina inexpectata) Bolboceratidae Ceratocanthidae Diphyllostomatidae (false stag beetles) Geotrupidae (dor beetles) Glaphyridae (bumble bee scarab beetles) Glaresidae (enigmatic scarab beetles) Hybosoridae (scavenger scarab beetles) Lucanidae (stag beetles) Ochodaeidae (sand-loving scarab beetles) Passalidae (betsy beetles) Pleocomidae (rain beetles) Scarabaeidae (scarabs) Trogidae (hide beetles) Staphyliniformia Histeroidea Histeridae (clown beetles) Sphaeritidae (false clown beetles) Synteliidae Hydrophiloidea Epimetopidae Georissidae (minute mud-loving beetles) Helophoridae Hydrochidae Hydrophilidae (water scavenger beetles) Spercheidae Staphylinoidea Agyrtidae (primitive carrion beetles) Hydraenidae Leiodidae (round fungus beetles) Ptiliidae (feather-winged beetles) Scydmaenidae (ant-like stone beetles) Silphidae (carrion beetles) Staphylinidae (rove beetles) List of subgroups of the order Coleoptera v t e Insects in culture Aspects of insects in culture In the arts Insects in art Beetlewing Insects in film Insects in literature Insects in music List of insect-inspired songs Insects on stamps In fishing Fishing bait Fly fishing Artificial fly Fly tying Maggot Mayfly Mealworm In medicine Apitherapy Apitoxin Melittin Maggot Spanish fly Cantharidin In mythology Bee Butterfly Cicada Dragonfly Praying mantis Scarab Entomophagy (as food) Adults Ant Cicada Cricket Grasshopper Termite Larvae Bamboo worm Darkling beetle Mealworm Mopani worm Rhinoceros beetle Silkworm Waxworm Witchetty grub Other aspects Biomimicry Cricket fighting Entomological warfare Flea circus Insects in religion Jingzhe Economic entomology Beneficial insects Pest control Encarsia formosa Ichneumon wasp Ladybird Pollination Bees crops pollinated Bumblebee Honey bee western Beetles Flies Lepidoptera Products Beekeeping Bee pollen Beeswax Honey Propolis Royal jelly Other insects Carmine/Cochineal Polish Chitin Kermes Sericulture Silk Lac/Shellac Model organism Drosophila melanogaster Harmful insects Crop pests Aphid Boll weevil Colorado potato beetle Cottony cushion scale Japanese beetle Locust Phylloxera Western corn rootworm Livestock pests Botfly Horn fly Horse-fly Screwworm fly Tsetse fly Warble fly Biting/stinging Insect bites and stings Insect sting allergy Bed bug Bee sting Flea Horse-fly Louse Mosquito Wasp Wood-eating Deathwatch beetle Furniture beetle House longhorn beetle Termite Woodworm Other pests Home-stored product entomology Clothes moth Cockroach Housefly Pioneers Jan Swammerdam Alfred Russel Wallace Jean-Henri Fabre Hans Zinsser (Rats, Lice and History) Lafcadio Hearn (Insect Literature) Related Living things in culture Arthropods Birds Fish Fungi Mammals Microbes Molluscs Reptiles Plants Zoomusicology Taxon identifiers Wd: Q25327 ADW: Coccinellidae BugGuide: 179 EoL: 7459 Fauna Europaea: 11062 Fossilworks: 69479 GBIF: 7782 ITIS: 114329 NCBI: 7080 WoRMS: 150712 Authority control LCCN: sh85073911 GND: 4130414-7 NDL: 00572879 Retrieved from "" Categories: Biological pest control beetlesCoccinellidaeCucujoidea 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This Article Is Semi-protected.Ladybird (disambiguation)Coccinella MagnificaTaxonomy (biology)AnimalArthropodInsectColeopteraPolyphagaCucujoideaPierre André LatreilleChilocorinaeÉtienne MulsantCoccidulinaeCoccinellinaeEpilachninaeMicroweiseinaeSticholotidinaeHelp:IPA/EnglishFamily (biology)BeetleElytraAntenna (biology)Vibidia DuodecimguttataNorth AmericaEntomologyInsectHemipteraHomopteraAphidScale InsectEpilachninaeMexican Bean BeetleParasitoidMary (mother Of Jesus)Seven Joys Of The VirginOur Lady Of SorrowsWikipedia:Identifying Reliable SourcesEnlargeTortoise BeetleScarabaeidaeGrapevine BeetlesChrysomelidaeMelyridaeTortoise BeetlePupaWikipedia:Citation NeededList Of Coccinellidae GeneraEnlargePredatorSternorrhynchaAphidsScale InsectsTetranychusBiological Pest ControlEuropean Corn BorerSpodopteraPlutellidaeCannibalism (zoology)Rodolia CardinalisMonophlebidaeIcerya PurchasiTrophic EggEpilachninaeHerbivoreAgricultural PestMexican Bean BeetleFungivoreEnlargeBiological ControlHarmonia AxyridisCoccinella SeptempunctataAposematismPhenotypeReflex BleedingDiapauseHippodamia ConvergensOverwinteringInstarPupaTeneralPupaEnlargeSummer Of 1976 (Europe)Ladybird TaintHarmonia AxyridisCornwallDevonNew ForestBrumoides SuturalisCoccinella TransversalisElytronExoskeletonHenosepilachna GuttatopustulataPotatoApolinus LividigasterLarvaPupaHarmonia AxyridisPsyllobora VigintiduopunctataEnlargeNorfolk DialectSuffolk DialectElytraNursery RhymeLadybird LadybirdBed WarmerDes Knaben WunderhornRobert SchumannPolandNursery RhymeVirgin MaryEuropeFreyjaFertilityGoddessNorse MythologyOld NorseNorwegian LanguageGerman LanguageBlessed Virgin MaryIrish LanguagePolish LanguageRussian LanguageDutch LanguageHebrewYiddishMoshe RabbenuMessiahEnlargeLogoLadybird BooksPenguin Group PlcSenseless ViolenceList Of U.S. State InsectsDelawareMassachusettsNew HampshireNew York (state)OhioTennesseeUnited StatesCoccinella NovemnotataCoccinella SeptempunctataAlpha Sigma AlphaSororityCandanchúCanfrancHigh AragonPyreneesProvince Of HuescaIntegrated Taxonomic Information SystemInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-19-861263-XDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4051-8422-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-612-50249-XBehavioral Ecology And SociobiologyDigital Object IdentifierEuropean Journal Of EntomologyDigital Object IdentifierThe Northern EchoThe GuardianBBC NewsInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-906698-20-1Notes And QueriesWikipedia:Link RotMichael WexInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-312-30741-1WikispeciesInstitute Of Food And Agricultural SciencesInstitute Of Food And Agricultural SciencesTemplate:ColeopteraTemplate Talk:ColeopteraBeetleAnimalArthropodInsectPterygotaNeopteraEndopterygotaArchostemataCrowsoniellidaeCupedidaeJurodidaeTelephone-pole BeetleOmmatidaeAdephagaExtant TaxonAmphizoaAspidytidaeGround BeetleDytiscidaeWhirligig BeetleHaliplidaeHygrobiaMeru (genus)NoteridaeRhysodidaeTrachypachidaeMyxophagaHydroscaphidaeLepiceridaeSphaeriusTorridincolidaePolyphagaBostrichiformiaBostrichoideaAnobiidaeBostrichidaeDermestidaeJacobsoniidaeNosodendridaeDerodontidaeDerodontidaeCucujiformiaChrysomeloideaLonghorn BeetleLeaf BeetleDisteniidaeMegalopodidaeOrsodacnidaeOxypeltidaeVesperidaeCleroideaAcanthocnemidaeChaetosomatidaeCleridaeMelyridaePhloiophilidaePhycosecidaePrionoceridaeTrogossitidaeCucujoideaAlexiidaeBiphyllidaeBoganiidaeBothrideridaeByturidaeCavognathidaeCerylonidaeCorylophidaeCryptophagidaeCucujidaeDiscolomatidaeEndomychidaeErotylidaeHelotidaeHobartiidaeKateretidaeLaemophloeidaeLamingtoniidaeLatridiidaeMonotomidaeSap BeetlePassandridaePhalacridaePhloeostichidaePropalticidaeProtocucujidaeSilvanidaeSmicripidaeSphindidaeWeevilAnthribidaeAttelabidaeBelidaeBrentidaeCaridaeCurculionidaeNemonychidaeLymexylidaeLymexylidaeTenebrionoideaAderidaeAnthicidaeArcheocrypticidaeBoridaeChalcodryidaeCiidaeMelandryidaeBlister BeetleMordellidaeMycetophagidaeMycteridaeOedemeridaePerimylopidaeProstomidaePterogeniidaeFire-coloured BeetlePythidaeRipiphoridaeSalpingidaeScraptiidaeStenotrachelidaeSynchroidaeDarkling BeetleTetratomidaeTrachelostenidaeTrictenotomidaeUlodidaeZopheridaeElateriformiaBuprestoideaBuprestidaeSchizopodidaeByrrhoideaByrrhidaeCallirhipidaeChelonariidaeCneoglossidaeDryopidaeElmidaeHeteroceridaeLutrochidaeWater-penny BeetlesDascilloideaElateroideaBrachypsectridaeSoldier BeetleCerophytidaeDrilidaeClick BeetleEucnemidaeFireflyLycidaeOmalisidaeOmethidaePhengodidaePlastoceridaeRhagophthalmidaeRhinorhipidaeScirtoideaClambidaeDecliniidaeEucinetidaeScirtidaeScarabaeoideaScarabaeoideaBelohinaBolboceratidaeFalse Stag BeetleGeotrupidaeGlaphyridaeGlaresisHybosoridaeStag BeetleOchodaeidaePassalidaeRain BeetleScarabaeidaeTrogidaeStaphyliniformiaHisteroideaHisteridaeSphaeritesSynteliaHydrophiloideaGeorissusHelophorusHydrophilidaeStaphylinoideaAgyrtidaeHydraenidaeLeiodidaePtiliidaeScydmaenidaeSilphidaeRove BeetleList Of Subgroups Of The Order ColeopteraTemplate:Insects In CultureTemplate Talk:Insects In CultureInsects In CultureInsectInsects In ArtBeetlewingInsects In FilmInsects In LiteratureInsects In MusicList Of Insect-inspired SongsInsects On StampsFishing BaitFly FishingArtificial FlyFly TyingMaggotMayflyMealwormInsects In MedicineApitherapyApitoxinMelittinMaggotSpanish FlyCantharidinInsects In MythologyBee (mythology)ButterflyCicada (mythology)DragonflyPraying MantisScarab (artifact)EntomophagyAntCicadaCricket (insect)GrasshopperTermiteBamboo WormDarkling BeetleMealwormMopani WormRhinoceros BeetleSilkwormWaxwormWitchetty GrubBiomimicryCricket FightingEntomological WarfareFlea CircusInsects In ReligionJingzheEconomic EntomologyBeneficial InsectsBiological Pest ControlEncarsia FormosaIchneumon WaspLadybirdEntomophilyBeeList Of Crop Plants Pollinated By BeesBumblebeeHoney BeeWestern Honey BeeBeetleDipteraLepidopteraBeekeepingBee PollenBeeswaxHoneyPropolisRoyal JellyCarminePolish CochinealChitinKermes (dye)SericultureSilkLacModel OrganismDrosophila MelanogasterPest (organism)AphidBoll WeevilColorado Potato BeetleCottony Cushion ScaleJapanese BeetleLocustPhylloxeraWestern Corn RootwormBotflyHorn FlyHorse-flyCochliomyiaTsetse FlyWarble FlyInsect Bites And StingsInsect Sting AllergyBed BugBee StingFleaHorse-flyLouseMosquitoWaspWoodwormDeathwatch BeetleFurniture BeetleHouse Longhorn BeetleTermiteWoodwormHome-stored Product EntomologyClothes MothCockroachHouseflyJan SwammerdamAlfred Russel WallaceJean-Henri FabreHans ZinsserLafcadio HearnLiving Things In CultureArthropods In CultureBirds In CultureFish In CultureFungi In Human CultureMammals In CultureMicrobes In Human 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