Contents 1 Sexual jealousy 2 Romantic jealousy 2.1 Communicative responses 3 Gender-based differences 4 In animals 5 Etymology 6 Theories 6.1 Scientific definitions 6.1.1 Comparison with envy 6.2 In psychology 6.3 In sociology 7 Applications 7.1 In fiction, film, and art 7.2 In religion 8 See also 9 References 10 Notes 11 Further reading 12 External links

Sexual jealousy[edit] Main article: Sexual jealousy Sexual jealousy may be triggered when a person's significant other displays sexual interest in another person.[10] The feeling of jealousy may be just as powerful if one partner suspects the other is guilty of infidelity. Fearing that their partner will experience sexual jealousy the person who has been unfaithful may lie about their actions in order to protect their partner. Experts often believe that sexual jealousy is in fact a biological imperative. It may be part of a mechanism by which humans and other animals ensure access to the best reproductive partners. It seems that male jealousy in heterosexual relationships may be influenced by their female partner's phase in her menstrual cycle. In the period around and shortly before ovulation, males are found to display more mate-retention tactics, which are linked to jealousy (Burriss & Little, 2006).[11] Furthermore, a male is more likely to employ mate-retention tactics if their partner shows more interest in other males, which is more likely to occur in the pre-ovulation phase (Gangestad, Thornhill & Garver, 2002.)[12]

Romantic jealousy[edit] Romantic jealousy arises as a result of romantic interest. It is defined as “a complex of thoughts, feelings, and actions that follow threats to self-esteem and/or threats to the existence or quality of the relationship when those threats are generated by the perception of a real or potential romantic attraction between one's partner and a (perhaps imaginary) rival.”[13] Different from sexual jealousy, romantic jealousy is triggered by threats to self and relationship (rather than sexual interest in another person). Factors, such as feelings of inadequacy as a partner, sexual exclusivity, and having put relatively more effort into the relationship, are positively related to relationship jealousy in both genders. Communicative responses[edit] As romantic jealousy is a complicated reaction that has multiple components, i.e., thoughts, feelings, and actions, one aspect of romantic jealousy that is under study is communicative responses. Communicative responses serve three critical functions in a romantic relationship, i.e., reducing uncertainty, maintaining or repairing relationship, and restoring self-esteem.[14] If done properly, communicative responses can lead to more satisfying relationships after experiencing romantic jealousy.[15][16] There are two subsets of communicative responses: interactive responses and general behavior responses. Interactive responses is face-to-face and partner-directed while general behavior responses may not occur interactively.[14] Guerrero and colleagues further categorize multiple types of communicative responses of romantic jealousy. Interactive responses can be broken down to six types falling in different places on continua of threat and directness: Avoidance/Denial (low threat and low directness). Example: becoming silent; pretending nothing is wrong. Integrative Communication (low threat and high directness). Example: explaining feelings; calmly questioning partner. Active Distancing (medium threat and medium directness). Example: decreasing affection. Negative Affect Expression (medium threat and medium directness). Example: venting frustration; crying or sulking. Distributive Communication (high threat and high directness). Example: acting rude; making hurtful or abrasive comments. Violent Communication/Threats (high threat and high directness). Example: using physical force. Guerrero and colleagues have also proposed five general behavior responses. The five sub-types differ in whether a response is 1) directed at partner or rival(s), 2) directed at discovery or repair, and 3) positively or negatively valenced: Surveillance/ Restriction (rival-targeted, discovery-oriented, commonly negatively valenced). Example: observing rival; trying to restrict contact with partner. Rival Contacts (rival-targeted, discovery-oriented/repair-oriented, commonly negatively valenced). Example: confronting rival. Manipulation Attempts (partner-targeted, repair-oriented, negatively valenced). Example: tricking partner to test loyalty; trying to make partner feel guilty. Compensatory Restoration (partner-targeted, repair-oriented, commonly positively valenced). Example: sending flowers to partner. Violent Behavior (-, -, negatively valenced). Example: slamming doors. While some of these communicative responses are destructive and aggressive, e.g., distributive communication and active distancing, some individuals respond to jealousy in a more constructive way.[17] Integrative communication, compensatory restoration, and negative affect expression have been shown to lead to positive relation outcomes.[18] One factor that affects the type of communicative responses elicited in an individual is emotions. Jealousy anger is associated with more aggressive communicative response while irritation tends to lead to more constructive communicative behaviors.

Gender-based differences[edit] According to the Parental Investment Model based on parental investment theory, more men than women ratify sex differences in jealousy. In addition, more women over men consider emotional infidelity (fear of abandonment) as more distressing than sexual infidelity.[citation needed] According to the attachment theory, sex and attachment style makes significant and unique interactive contributions to the distress experienced. Security within the relationship also heavily contributes to one’s level of distress. These findings imply that psychological and cultural mechanisms regarding sex differences may play a larger role than expected (Levy, Blatt, Schachner.) The attachment theory also claims to reveal how infants' attachment patterns are the basis for self-report measures of adult attachment. (Levy, Blatt & Shaner, 1998). Although there are no sex differences in childhood attachment, individuals with dismissing behavior was more concerned with the sexual aspect of relationships (Schachner & shaer, 2004). As a coping mechanism these individuals would report sexual infidelity as more harmful. Moreover, research shows that audit attachment styles strongly conclude with the type of infidelity that occurred. Thus psychological and cultural mechanisms are implied as unvarying differences in jealousy that play a role in sexual attachment.[19] Emotional jealousy was predicted to be nine times more responsive in females than in males. The emotional jealousy predicted in females also held turn to state that females experiencing emotional jealousy are more violent than men experiencing emotional jealousy. There are distinct emotional responses to gender differences in romantic relationships (Buss, Green & Saboni 2004). For example, due to paternity uncertainty in males, jealousy increases in males over sexual infidelity rather than emotional. According to research more women are likely to be upset by signs of resource withdraw (i.e. another female) than by sexual infidelity. A large amount of data[which?] supports this notion. However, one must consider for jealousy the life stage or experience one encounters in reference to the diverse responses to infidelity available. Research states that a componential view of jealousy consist of specific set of emotions that serve the reproductive role.[citation needed] However, research shows that both men and women would be equally angry and point the blame for sexual infidelity, but women would be more hurt by emotional infidelity. Despite this fact, anger surfaces when both parties involved is responsible for some type of uncontrollable behavior, sexual conduct is not exempt. (Sabbini and Silver, Averill 1995). Some behavior and actions are controllable such as sexual behavior. However hurt feelings are activated by relationship deviation. No evidence is known to be sexually dimorphic in both college and adult convenience samples. The Jealousy Specific Innate Model (JSIM) proved to not be innate, but may be sensitive to situational factors. As a result, it may only activate at stages in on. One study discovered serious relationships are reserved for older adults rather than undergraduates. For example, Buss et al. (1992) predicted that male jealousy decreases as females reproductive values decreases. A second possibility that the JSIM effect is not innate but is from one culture (Desieno et al., 2002) Kitayana (2004) have highlighted differences in socio-economic status specific such as the divide between high school and collegiate individuals. Moreover, individuals of both genders were angrier and blamed their partners more for sexual infidelities but were more hurt by emotional (Sabini & Green 2004). Jealousy is composed of lower-level emotional states (e.g., anger and hurt) which may be triggered by a variety of events, not by differences in individuals' life stage. Although research has recognized the importance of early childhood experiences for the development of competence in intimate relationships, early family environment is recently being examined as well (Richardson and Guyer, 1998). Research on self-esteem and attachment theory suggest that individuals internalize early experiences within the family which subconsciously translates into their personal view of worth of themselves and the value of being close to other individuals, especially in an interpersonal relationship (Steinberg, Davila, & Fincham, 2006).[20]

In animals[edit] A study by researches at the University of California, San Diego, replicated jealousy studies done on humans on canines. They reported, in a paper published in PLOS ONE in 2014, that a significant number of dogs exhibited jealous behaviors when their human companions paid attention to dog-like toys, compared to when their human companions paid attention to nonsocial objects.[21]

Etymology[edit] The word stems from the French jalousie, formed from jaloux (jealous), and further from Low Latin zelosus (full of zeal), in turn from the Greek word ζήλος (zēlos), sometimes "jealousy", but more often in a positive sense "emulation, ardour, zeal"[22][23] (with a root connoting "to boil, ferment"; or "yeast"). Since William Shakespeare's use of terms like "green-eyed monster",[24] the color green has been associated with jealousy and envy, from which the expressions "green with envy", are derived.

Theories[edit] Scientific definitions[edit] People do not express jealousy through a single emotion or a single behavior.[25][26][27] They instead express jealousy through diverse emotions and behaviors, which makes it difficult to form a scientific definition of jealousy. Scientists instead define jealousy in their own words, as illustrated by the following examples: "Romantic jealousy is here defined as a complex of thoughts, feelings, and actions which follow threats to self-esteem and/or threats to the existence or quality of the relationship, when those threats are generated by the perception of a real or potential attraction between one's partner and a (perhaps imaginary) rival." (White, 1981, p. 24)[28] "Jealousy, then, is any aversive reaction that occurs as the result of a partner's extradyadic relationship that is real, imagined, or considered likely to occur." (Bringle & Buunk, 1991, page 135)[29] "Jealousy is conceptualized as a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral response to a relationship threat. In the case of sexual jealousy, this threat emanates from knowing or suspecting that one's partner has had (or desires to have) sexual activity with a third party. In the case of emotional jealousy, an individual feels threatened by her or his partner's emotional involvement with and/or love for a third party." (Guerrero, Spitzberg, & Yoshimura, 2004, page 311)[30] "Jealousy is defined as a protective reaction to a perceived threat to a valued relationship, arising from a situation in which the partner's involvement with an activity and/or another person is contrary to the jealous person's definition of their relationship." (Bevan, 2004, page 195)[31] "Jealousy is triggered by the threat of separation from, or loss of, a romantic partner, when that threat is attributed to the possibility of the partner's romantic interest in another person." (Sharpteen & Kirkpatrick, 1997, page 628)[32] These definitions of jealousy share two basic themes. First, all the definitions imply a triad composed of a jealous individual, a partner, and a perception of a third party or rival. Second, all the definitions describe jealousy as a reaction to a perceived threat to the relationship between two people, or a dyad. Jealous reactions typically involve aversive emotions and/or behaviors that are assumed to be protective for their attachment relationships. These themes form the essential meaning of jealousy in most scientific studies. Comparison with envy[edit] Popular culture uses the word jealousy as a synonym for envy. Many dictionary definitions include a reference to envy or envious feelings. In fact, the overlapping use of jealousy and envy has a long history. The terms are used indiscriminately in such popular 'feelgood' books as Nancy Friday's Jealousy, where the expression 'jealousy' applies to a broad range of passions, from envy to lust and greed. While this kind of usage blurs the boundaries between categories that are intellectually valuable and psychologically justifiable, such confusion is understandable in that historical explorations of the term indicate that these boundaries have long posed problems. Margot Grzywacz's fascinating etymological survey of the word in Romance and Germanic languages[33] asserts, indeed, that the concept was one of those that proved to be the most difficult to express in language and was therefore among the last to find an unambiguous term. Classical Latin used invidia, without strictly differentiating between envy and jealousy. It was not until the postclassical era that Latin borrowed the late and poetic Greek word zelotypia and the associated adjective zelosus. It is from this adjective that are derived French jaloux, Provençal gelos, Italian geloso, and Spanish celoso. (Lloyd, 1995, page 4)[34] Perhaps the overlapping use of jealousy and envy occurs because people can experience both at the same time. A person may envy the characteristics or possessions of someone who also happens to be a romantic rival.[35] In fact, one may even interpret romantic jealousy as a form of envy.[36] A jealous person may envy the affection that his or her partner gives to a rival — affection the jealous person feels entitled to himself or herself. People often use the word jealousy as a broad label that applies to both experiences of jealousy and experiences of envy.[37] Although popular culture often uses jealousy and envy as synonyms, modern philosophers and psychologists have argued for conceptual distinctions between jealousy and envy. For example, philosopher John Rawls[38] distinguishes between jealousy and envy on the ground that jealousy involves the wish to keep what one has, and envy the wish to get what one does not have. Thus, a child is jealous of her parents' attention to a sibling, but envious of her friend's new bicycle. Psychologists Laura Guerrero and Peter Andersen have proposed the same distinction.[39] They claim the jealous person "perceives that he or she possesses a valued relationship, but is in danger of losing it or at least of having it altered in an undesirable manner," whereas the envious person "does not possess a valued commodity, but wishes to possess it." Gerrod Parrott draws attention to the distinct thoughts and feelings that occur in jealousy and envy.[40][41] The common experience of jealousy for many people may involve: Fear of loss Suspicion of or anger about a perceived betrayal Low self-esteem and sadness over perceived loss Uncertainty and loneliness Fear of losing an important person to another Distrust The experience of envy involves: Feelings of inferiority Longing Resentment of circumstances Ill will towards envied person often accompanied by guilt about these feelings Motivation to improve Desire to possess the attractive rival's qualities Disapproval of feelings Parrot acknowledges that people can experience envy and jealousy at the same time. Feelings of envy about a rival can even intensify the experience of jealousy.[42] Still, the differences between envy and jealousy in terms of thoughts and feelings justify their distinction in philosophy and science. In psychology[edit] Jealousy involves an entire "emotional episode," including a complex "narrative": the circumstances that lead up to jealousy, jealousy itself as emotion, any attempt at self regulation, subsequent actions and events and the resolution of the episode (Parrott, 2001, p. 306). The narrative can originate from experienced facts, thoughts, perceptions, memories, but also imagination, guess and assumptions. The more society and culture matter in the formation of these factors, the more jealousy can have a social and cultural origin. By contrast, Goldie (2000, p. 228) shows how jealousy can be a "cognitively impenetrable state", where education and rational belief matter very little. One possible explanation of the origin of jealousy in evolutionary psychology is that the emotion evolved in order to maximize the success of our genes: it is a biologically based emotion (Prinz after Buss and Larsen, 2004, p. 120) selected to foster the certainty about the paternity of one’s own offspring. A jealous behavior, in men, is directed into avoiding sexual betrayal and a consequent waste of resources and effort in taking care of someone else’s offspring. There are, additionally, cultural or social explanations of the origin of jealousy. According to one, the narrative from which jealousy arises can be in great part made by the imagination. Imagination is strongly affected by a person's cultural milieu. The pattern of reasoning, the way one perceives situations, depends strongly on cultural context. It has elsewhere been suggested that jealousy is in fact a secondary emotion in reaction to one's needs not being met, be those needs for attachment, attention, reassurance or any other form of care that would be otherwise expected to arise from that primary romantic relationship. While mainstream psychology considers sexual arousal through jealousy a paraphilia, some authors on sexuality (Serge Kreutz, Instrumental Jealousy) have argued that jealousy in manageable dimensions can have a definite positive effect on sexual function and sexual satisfaction. Studies have also shown that jealousy sometimes heightens passion towards partners and increases the intensity of passionate sex.[43][44] Jealousy in children and teenagers has been observed more often in those with low self-esteem and can evoke aggressive reactions. One such study suggested that developing intimate friends can be followed by emotional insecurity and loneliness in some children when those intimate friends interact with others. Jealousy is linked to aggression and low self-esteem.[45] Research by Sybil Hart, Ph.D., at Texas Tech University indicates that children are capable of feeling and displaying jealousy at as young as six months.[46] Infants showed signs of distress when their mothers focused their attention on a lifelike doll. This research could explain why children and infants show distress when a sibling is born, creating the foundation for sibling rivalry.[47] In sociology[edit] Main article: Social aspects of jealousy Anthropologists have claimed that jealousy varies across cultures. Cultural learning can influence the situations that trigger jealousy and the manner in which jealousy is expressed. Attitudes toward jealousy can also change within a culture over time. For example, attitudes toward jealousy changed substantially during the 1960s and 1970s in the United States. People in the United States adopted much more negative views about jealousy.

Applications[edit] In fiction, film, and art[edit] A Japanese painting from 1750 shows a young woman catching her lover reading a love letter from a rival. Artistic depictions of jealousy occur in fiction, films, and other art forms such as painting and sculpture. Jealousy is a common theme in literature, art, theatre, and film. Often, it is presented as a demonstration of particularly deep feelings of love, rather than a destructive obsession. In religion[edit] Main article: Jealousy in religion Jealousy in religion examines how the scriptures and teachings of various religions deal with the topic of jealousy. Religions may be compared and contrasted on how they deal with two issues: concepts of divine jealousy, and rules about the provocation and expression of human jealousy. The Christian New Testament records that the Jewish chief priests and elders had handed Jesus over to Pontius Pilate to be crucified because they were jealous of his popularity.[48]

See also[edit] Compersion — jealousy's opposite — empathizing with a lover's joy with another. Crime of passion Delusional disorder, jealous subtype Pathological jealousy Emotion Relational transgression

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Notes[edit] ^ Draghi-Lorenz, R. (2000). Five-month-old infants can be jealous: Against cognitivist solipsism. Paper presented in a symposium convened for the XIIth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies (ICIS), 16–19 July, Brighton, UK. ^ Hart, S (2002). "Jealousy in 6-month-old infants". Infancy. 3: 395–402. doi:10.1207/s15327078in0303_6.  ^ Hart, S (2004). "When infants lose exclusive maternal attention: Is it jealousy?". Infancy. 6: 57–78. doi:10.1207/s15327078in0601_3.  ^ Shackelford, T.K.; Voracek, M.; Schmitt, D.P.; Buss, D.M.; Weekes-Shackelford, V.A.; Michalski, R.L. (2004). "early adulthood". Human Nature. 15: 283–300. doi:10.1007/s12110-004-1010-z.  ^ Buss, D.M. (2000). The Dangerous Passion: Why Jealousy is as Necessary as Love and Sex. New York: Free Press. ^ Buss DM (December 2001), "Human nature and culture: an evolutionary psychological perspective", J Pers, 69 (6): 955–78, doi:10.1111/1467-6494.696171, PMID 11767825.  ^ White, G.L., & Mullen, P.E. (1989). Jealousy: Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press. ^ Peter Salovey. The Psychology of Jealousy and Envy. 1991. ISBN 978-0-89862-555-4 ^ Rydell RJ, Bringle RG Differentiating reactive and suspicious jealousy Social Behavior and Personality An International Journal 35(8):1099-1114 Jan 2007 ^ Buunk, Bram; Hupka, Ralph B (1987). "Cross-Cultural Differences in the Elicitation of Sexual Jealousy". The Journal of Sexual Research. 23: 12–22. doi:10.1080/00224498709551338.  ^ Burriss, R., & Little, A. (2006). "Effects of partner conception risk phase of male perception of dominance in faces" (PDF). Evolution and Human Behaviour. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Gangestad, S. W., Thornhill, R., & Garver, C. E. (2002). "Changes in women's sexual interest and their partner's mate retention tactics across the menstrual cycle: evidence for shifting conflicts of interest" (PDF). The Royal Society. 269: 975–82. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1952. PMC 1690982 . PMID 12028782. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ White, Gregory L. (1 December 1981). "A model of romantic jealousy". Motivation and Emotion. 5 (4): 295–310. doi:10.1007/BF00992549. ISSN 0146-7239.  ^ a b Guerrero, Laura K.; Andersen, Peter A.; Jorgensen, Peter F.; Spitzberg, Brian H.; Eloy, Sylvie V. (1 December 1995). "Coping with the green‐eyed monster: Conceptualizing and measuring communicative responses to romantic jealousy". Western Journal of Communication. 59 (4): 270–304. doi:10.1080/10570319509374523. ISSN 1057-0314.  ^ Salovey, Peter; Rodin, Judith (1 March 1988). "Coping with Envy and Jealousy". Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 7 (1): 15–33. doi:10.1521/jscp.1988.7.1.15. ISSN 0736-7236.  ^ Bringle, Robert G; Renner, Patricia; Terry, Roger L; Davis, Susan (1 September 1983). "An analysis of situation and person components of jealousy". 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The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals. ^ Clanton, G. & Smith, L. (1977) Jealousy. New Jersey: Prentice- Hall, Inc. ^ Bram Buunk, B. (1984). Jealousy as related to attributions for the partner's behavior. Social Psychology Quarterly, 47, 107–112. ^ White, G.L. (1981). "Jealousy and partner's perceived motives for attraction to a rival". Social Psychology Quarterly. 44: 24–30. doi:10.2307/3033859.  ^ Bringle, R.G. & Buunk, B.P. (1991). Extradyadic relationships and sexual jealousy. In K. McKinney and S. Sprecher (Eds.), Sexuality in Close Relationships (pp. 135-153) Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ^ Guerrero, L.K., Spitzberg, B.H., & Yoshimura, S.M. (2004). Sexual and Emotional Jealousy. In J.H. Harvey, S. Sprecher, and A. Wenzel (Eds.), The Handbook of Sexuality in Close Relationships (pp. 311-345). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ^ Bevan, J.L. (2004). "General partner and relational uncertainty as consequences of another person's jealousy expression". 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Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ^ Guerrero, L.K., & Andersen, P.A. (1998). The dark side of jealousy and envy: desire, delusion, desperation, and destructive communication. In W.R. Cupach and B.H. Spitzberg (Eds.), The Dark Side of Close Relationships, (pp. ). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ^ Parrott, W.G. (1992). The emotional experiences of envy and jealousy. In P. Salovey (Ed.), The Psychology of Jealousy and Envy (pp. 3–29). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. ^ Staff, P.T. (Jan–Feb 1994), "A devastating difference", Psychology Today, Document ID 1544, archived from the original on 27 April 2006, retrieved 2006-07-08  ^ Pines, A.; Aronson, E. (1983). "Antecedents, correlates, and consequences of sexual jealousy". Journal of Personality. 51: 108–136. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1983.tb00857.x.  ^ Emotions and sexuality. In K. McKinney and S. Sprecher (Eds.), Sexuality, in close relationships (pp. 49–70). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ^ Pines, A. (1992). Romantic jealousy: Understanding and conquering the shadow of love. New York: St. Martin's Press. ^ "Study links jealousy with aggression, low self-esteem". Retrieved 2012-03-12.  ^ Hart, S.; Carrington, H. (2002). "Jealousy in six-month-old infants". Infancy. 3: 395–402. doi:10.1207/s15327078in0303_6.  ^ Hart, S.; Carrington, H.; Tronick, E. Z.; Carroll, S. (2004). "When infants lose exclusive maternal attention: Is it jealousy?". Infancy. 6: 57–78. doi:10.1207/s15327078in0601_3.  ^ Matthew 27:18; Mark 15:10

Further reading[edit] Peter Goldie. The Emotions, A Philosophical Exploration . Oxford University Press, 2000 W. Gerrod Parrott. Emotions in Social Psychology . Psychology Press, 2001 Jesse J. Prinz. Gut Reactions: A Perceptual Theory of Emotions. Oxford University Press, 2004 Staff, P.T. (Jan–Feb 1994), "A devastating difference", Psychology Today, Document ID 1544, archived from the original on 27 April 2006, retrieved 2006-07-08  Jealousy among the Sangha Quoting Jeremy Hayward from his book on Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche Warrior-King of Shambhala: Remembering Chögyam Trungpa Hart, S. L. & Legerstee, M. (Eds.) "Handbook of Jealousy: Theory, Research, and Multidisciplinary Approaches" . Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Pistole, M.; Roberts, A.; Mosko, J. E. (2010). "Commitment Predictors: Long-Distance Versus Geographically Close Relationships". Journal of Counseling & Development. 88 (2): 146. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2010.tb00003.x.  Levy, Kenneth N., Kelly, Kristen M Feb 2010; Sex Differences in Jealousy: A Contribution From Attachment Theory Psychological Science, vol. 21: pp. 168–173 Green, M. C.; Sabini, J. (2006). "Gender, socioeconomic status, age, and jealousy: Emotional responses to infidelity in a national sample". Emotion. 6 (2): 330–334. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.6.2.330.  Rauer, A. J.; Volling, B. L. (2007). "Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships". Personal Relationships. 14 (4): 495–511. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2007.00168.x.  Pistole, M.; Roberts, A.; Mosko, J. E. (2010). "Commitment Predictors: Long-Distance Versus Geographically Close Relationships". Journal of Counseling & Development. 88 (2): 146. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2010.tb00003.x.  Tagler, M. J. (2010). "Sex differences in jealousy: Comparing the influence of previous infidelity among college students and adults". Social Psychological and Personality Science. 1: 353–360. doi:10.1177/1948550610374367.  Tagler, M. J.; Gentry, R. H. (2011). "Gender, jealousy, and attachment: A (more) thorough examination across measures and samples". Journal of Research in Personality. 45: 697–701. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2011.08.006. 

External links[edit] Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jealousy Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jealousy. Look up jealousy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.  "Jealousy". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.  v t e Emotions (list) Emotions Adoration Affection Agitation Agony Amusement Anger Anguish Annoyance Anxiety Apathy Arousal Attraction Awe Boredom Calmness Compassion Contempt Contentment Defeat Depression Desire Disappointment Disgust Ecstasy Embarrassment Vicarious Empathy Enthrallment Enthusiasm Envy Euphoria Excitement Fear Frustration Gratitude Grief Guilt Happiness Hatred Homesickness Hope Horror Hostility Humiliation Hysteria Infatuation Insecurity Insult Interest Irritation Isolation Jealousy Joy Loneliness Longing Love Lust Melancholy Mono no aware Neglect Nostalgia Panic Passion Pity Pleasure Pride hubris Rage Regret Rejection Remorse Resentment Sadness Saudade Schadenfreude Sehnsucht Sentimentality Shame Shock Shyness Sorrow Spite Stress Suffering Surprise Sympathy Tenseness Wonder Worry World views Cynicism Defeatism Nihilism Optimism Pessimism Reclusion Weltschmerz v t e Narcissism Types Collective Egomania Flying monkeys Healthy Malignant Megalomania Narcissistic personality disorder Spiritual Workplace Characteristics Betrayal Boasting Egocentrism Egotism Empathy (lack of) Envy Entitlement (exaggerated sense of) Fantasy Grandiosity Hubris Magical thinking Manipulative Narcissistic abuse Narcissistic elation Narcissistic rage and narcissistic injury Narcissistic mortification Narcissistic supply Narcissistic withdrawal Perfectionism Self-esteem Self-righteousness Shamelessness Superficial charm Superiority complex True self and false self Vanity Defences Denial Idealization and devaluation Distortion Projection Splitting Cultural phenomena Control freak Don Juanism Dorian Gray syndrome Metrosexual My way or the highway Selfie Related articles Codependency Counterdependency Dark triad Ego ideal Egomania (film) Empire-building God complex History of narcissism Messiah complex Micromanagement Narcissism of small differences Narcissistic leadership Narcissistic parent Narcissistic Personality Inventory Narcissus (mythology) On Narcissism (Freud essay) Sam Vaknin Self-love Self-serving bias Spoiled child The Culture of Narcissism (Lasch book) Workplace bullying Retrieved from "" Categories: JealousyEmotionsNarcissismPhilosophy of lovePersonal lifeHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listUse dmy dates from January 2018All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from December 2017Articles with unsourced statements from September 2016All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrasesArticles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2013Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013Articles containing Ancient Greek-language textPages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersPages using Columns-list with deprecated parametersWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference

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Green-Eyed Monster (disambiguation)Jealousy (disambiguation)Category:EmotionsEmotionAffectionAngerAngstAnguishAnnoyanceAnticipationAnxietyApathyArousalAweBoredomConfidenceContemptContentmentCourageCuriosityDepression (mood)DesireDepression (mood)DisappointmentDisgustDistrustEcstasy (emotion)EmbarrassmentEmpathyEnthusiasmEnvyEuphoriaFearFrustrationGratitudeGriefGuilt (emotion)HappinessHatredHopeHorror And TerrorHostilityHumiliationInterest (emotion)JoyLonelinessLoveLustOutrage (emotion)PanicPassion (emotion)PityPleasurePrideRage (emotion)RegretRemorseResentmentSadnessSaudadeSchadenfreudeSelf-confidenceShameAcute Stress ReactionShynessSorrow (emotion)SufferingSurprise (emotion)Trust (emotion)Wonder (emotion)WorryTemplate:EmotionTemplate Talk:EmotionWikipedia:Citation NeededAngerResentmentEnvyInterpersonal RelationshipPsychologistSociologistBiologistTheologianSexual JealousyInfidelityParental InvestmentWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Avoid Weasel WordsWikipedia:Citation NeededVulgar 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