Contents 1 Mechanism of action of biologically relevant ionophores 2 Synthetic ionophores 3 List of representative biological ionophores 4 See also 5 References 6 External links


Mechanism of action of biologically relevant ionophores[edit] The structure of the complex of sodium (Na+) and the antibiotic monensin A Transmembrane ion concentration gradients (membrane potential) are required for living organisms. Ionophores can disrupt the membrane potential by conducting ions through a lipid membrane in the absence of a protein pore, and thus could exhibit cytotoxic properties. They are produced naturally by a variety of microbes and act as a defense against competing microbes. Many synthetic membrane-spanning ionophores have also been investigated.[5] Many antibiotics, particularly the macrolide antibiotics, are ionophores. Some exhibit high affinities for Na+, others high affinities for K+.[6] The structure of the sodium and potassium complexes of antibiotics have been verified by X-ray crystallography.[7] Ionophores have been used to modify the permeability of biological membranes toward certain ions. Additionally, some ionophores are used as antibiotics and/or as growth-enhancing feed additives for certain animals, such as cattle (see monensin) and chickens.[8]


Synthetic ionophores[edit] Structure of a potassium complex of a crown ether, a synthetic ionophore-ion complex Many synthetic ionophores are based on crown ethers, cryptands, and calixarenes. These synthetic species are often macrocyclic.[6] Some synthetic agents are not macrocyclic, e.g., carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Even simple organic compounds, such as phenols, exhibit ionophoric properties. The majority of synthetic receptors used in the carrier-based anion-selective electrodes employ transition elements or metalloids as anion carriers, although simple organic urea- and thiourea based receptors are known.


List of representative biological ionophores[edit] With the ion(s) they act upon: Beauvericin (Ca2+, Ba2+) Calcimycine or A23187 (Mn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+) Cezomycin Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) (H+) Enniatin (ammonium) Gramicidin A (H+, Na+, K+) Ionomycin (Ca2+) Lasalocid (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+)[9] Monensin (Na+, H+) Nigericin (K+, H+, Pb2+) Nonactin (ammonium ionophore I) Salinomycin (K+) Tetronasin Valinomycin (potassium ionophore I) Narasin Crystal structures have been determined for many of the alkali metal complexes formed by these compounds.[10]


See also[edit] Siderophore - Fe3+ binding compounds, found in microbes and grasses


References[edit] ^ a b Bakker E1, Bühlmann P, Pretsch E. (1997). "Carrier-Based Ion-Selective Electrodes and Bulk Optodes. 1. General Characteristics". Chem. Rev. 97 (8): 3083–3132. doi:10.1021/cr940394a. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Bühlmann P1, Pretsch E, Bakker E. (1998). "Carrier-Based Ion-Selective Electrodes and Bulk Optodes. 2. Ionophores for Potentiometric and Optical Sensors". Chem. Rev. 98 (4): 1593–1688. doi:10.1021/cr970113+. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "Ionophore". ^ "Ionophores - MeSH Result".  ^ Rodríguez-Vázquez, Nuria; Fuertes, Alberto; Amorín, Manuel; Granja, Juan R. (2016). "Chapter 14. Bioinspired Artificial Sodium and Potassium Ion Channels". In Astrid, Sigel; Helmut, Sigel; Roland K.O., Sigel. The Alkali Metal Ions: Their Role in Life. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 16. Springer. pp. 485–556. doi:10.1007/978-4-319-21756-7_14.  ^ a b Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-08-037941-9.  ^ Steinrauf, L. K.; Hamilton, J. A.; Sabesan, M. N. (1982). "Crystal structure of valinomycin-sodium picrate. Anion effects on valinomycin-cation complexes". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 104 (15): 4085–4091. doi:10.1021/ja00379a008.  ^ Kabel, Marcus; Christine Simmons (2007-11-20). "USDA Revokes OK for Tyson Chicken Labels". Archived from the original on November 24, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-20.  ^ Antonenko, YN; Yaguzhinsky, LS (18 February 1988). "The ion selectivity of nonelectrogenic ionophores measured on a bilayer lipid membrane: nigericin, monensin, A23187 and lasalocid A". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 938 (2): 125–30. doi:10.1016/0005-2736(88)90151-4. PMID 19927398.  ^ Katsuyuki, Aoki; Kazutaka, Murayama; Hu, Ning-Hai (2016). "Chapter 3, section 5. Naturally Occurring Antibiotic IOnophore Complexes". In Astrid, Sigel; Helmut, Sigel; Roland K.O., Sigel. The Alkali Metal Ions: Their Role in Life. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 16. Springer. pp. 74–92. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-21756-7_3. 


External links[edit] Fluka ionophores for ion-selective electrodes Medical Information database Reference.MD Structures and Properties of Naturally Occurring Polyether Antibiotics, J. Rutkowski, B. Brzezinski; open access review article Polyether ionophores—promising bioactive molecules for cancer therapy, A. Huczyński; open access review article Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ionophore&oldid=808184758" Categories: IonophoresHidden categories: CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter


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