Contents 1 Methods of internal fertilization 2 Expulsion 3 See also 4 References


Methods of internal fertilization[edit] Fertilization which takes place inside the female body is called internal fertilization in animals is done through the following different ways:[3][4][5] Copulation, which involves the insertion of the penis or other intromittent organ into the vagina (in most mammals) or to the cloaca in monotremes, most reptiles, some birds, the amphibian tailed frog and some fish, the disappeared dinosaurs, as well as in other non-vertebrate animals.[1][6] Cloacal kiss, which consists in that the two animals touch their cloacae together in order to transfer the sperm of the male to the female. It is used in most birds and in the tuatara, that do not have an intromittent organ.[2] Via spermatophore, a sperm-containing cap placed by the male in the female's cloaca. Usually, the sperm is stored in spermathecae on the roof of the cloaca until it is needed at the time of oviposition. It is used by some salamander and newt species, by the arachnida, some insects and some mollusks.[7][8] In sponges, sperm cells are released into the water to fertilize ova that in some species are also released (external fertilization) and in others are retained by the "mother" (internal fertilization).[9]


Expulsion[edit] Main article: Modes of reproduction At some point, the growing egg or offspring must be expelled. There are several possible modes of reproduction. These are traditionally classified as follows: Oviparity, as in most insects and reptiles, monotremes, dinosaurs and all birds which lay eggs that continue to develop after being laid, and hatch later.[10] Viviparity, as in almost all mammals (such as whales, kangaroos and humans) which bear their young live. The developing young spend proportionately more time within the female's reproductive tract. The young are later released to survive on their own, with varying amounts of help from the parent (s) of the species.[11] Ovoviviparity, as in the garter snake, most vipers, and the Madagascar hissing cockroach, which have eggs (with shells) that hatch as they are laid, making it resemble live birth.[12]


See also[edit] Insemination


References[edit] ^ a b Austin, Colin R. "Evolution of the copulatory apparatus." Italian Journal of Zoology 51.1-2 (1984): 249-269. ^ a b Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 396–399. ISBN 0-03-910284-X.  ^ Reichard, U.H. (2002). "Monogamy—A variable relationship" (PDF). Max Planck Research. 3: 62–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2013.  ^ Lipton, Judith Eve; Barash, David P. (2001). The Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-4004-4.  ^ Research conducted by Patricia Adair Gowaty. Reported by Morell, V. (1998). "Evolution of sex: A new look at monogamy". Science. 281 (5385): 1982–1983. doi:10.1126/science.281.5385.1982. PMID 9767050.  ^ Diamond, Jared (1991). The Rise and Fall of the Third Chimpanzee. Radius. pp. 360 pages. ISBN 0091742684.  ^ Nina Wedell; Tom Tregenza; Leigh W. Simmons (2008), "Nuptial gifts fail to resolve a sexual conflict in an insect", BMC Evolutionary Biology, 8: 204, doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-204, PMC 2491630 , PMID 18627603  ^ Peter D. Sozou; Robert M. Seymour (2005), "Costly but worthless gifts facilitate courtship", Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272 (1575): 1877–1884, doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3152, PMC 1559891 , PMID 16191592  ^ Bergquist, Patricia R. (1978). Sponges. London: Hutchinson, [1]. ^ Thierry Lodé (2001). Les stratégies de reproduction des animaux (Reproduction Strategies in Animal Kingdom). Eds. Dunod Sciences. Paris. ^ Blackburn, D. G. (2000). Classification of the reproductive patterns of amniotes.:" Herpetological Monographs", 371-377. ^ Carrier, J.C.; Musick, J.A.; Heithaus, M.R., eds. (2012). Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives. CRC Press. pp. 296–301. ISBN 1439839247.  v t e Modes of reproduction Modes Oviparity Ovuliparity Viviparity (Histotrophic, Hemotrophic) Ovoviviparity Fertilization External fertilization Internal fertilization Parental care birds fish (mouthbrooding) humans mammals Related topics Adelphophagy Gastric-brooding frog Live-bearing aquarium fish Male pregnancy Matrotrophy Oophagy Pregnancy in fish Trophic egg Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Internal_fertilization&oldid=803759407" Categories: Reproduction in animals


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages العربيةCatalàDanskفارسیLatinaBahasa Melayu日本語NorskPolskiPortuguêsTürkçe Edit links This page was last edited on 4 October 2017, at 13:01. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.140","walltime":"0.185","ppvisitednodes":{"value":693,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":35473,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":143,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":7,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":0,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 141.084 1 -total"," 60.91% 85.931 1 Template:Reflist"," 29.02% 40.949 4 Template:Cite_book"," 23.40% 33.013 1 Template:Sex_(biology)_sidebar"," 21.63% 30.511 1 Template:Sidebar"," 8.82% 12.450 2 Template:Citation"," 7.14% 10.079 2 Template:Cite_journal"," 6.61% 9.323 2 Template:Portal-inline"," 5.19% 7.318 1 Template:Animalbirth"," 4.97% 7.018 1 Template:Main"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.060","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":2993728,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1246","timestamp":"20180115130628","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":74,"wgHostname":"mw1257"});});


Internal_fertilization - Photos and All Basic Informations

Internal_fertilization More Links

Category:SexSexSexual DimorphismMaleFemaleSexual DifferentiationFeminization (biology)VirilizationSex-determination SystemXY Sex-determination SystemX0 Sex-determination SystemZW Sex-determination SystemZ0 Sex-determination SystemTemperature-dependent Sex DeterminationHaplodiploidyHeterogametic SexHeterogametic SexAllosomeX ChromosomeY ChromosomeTestis-determining FactorHermaphroditeSequential HermaphroditismIntersexSexual ReproductionEvolution Of Sexual ReproductionAnisogamyIsogamyGerm CellMeiosisGametogenesisSpermatogenesisOogenesisGameteSpermatozoonEgg CellFertilisationExternal FertilizationSexual SelectionPlant ReproductionSexual Reproduction In AnimalsSexual IntercourseHuman ReproductionMating In FungiHuman SexualityPlant Reproductive MorphologyAnimal Sexual BehaviourHuman SexualityMechanics Of Human SexualitySexual Differentiation In HumansHuman Sexual ActivityPortal:SexualityPortal:BiologyTemplate:Sex SidebarTemplate Talk:Sex SidebarEgg CellSpermSexual ReproductionMammalReptileBirdFishCopulationPenisIntromittent OrganVaginaCloacaCloacal KissSalamanderSpiderInsectMolluscSpermatophoreOviparityViviparyFertilizationAnimalsCopulationPenisIntromittent OrganVaginaMammalCloacaMonotremeReptileBirdAmphibianTailed FrogFishDinosaurInvertebrateCloacal KissSpermTuataraSpermatophoreSalamanderArachnidaMollusksSpongesModes Of ReproductionEgg (biology)OffspringModes Of ReproductionOviparityInsectMonotremeViviparityWhaleKangarooHumanParentSpeciesOvoviviparityGarter SnakeViperidaeMadagascar Hissing CockroachEggshellInseminationInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-03-910284-XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7167-4004-4Patricia Adair GowatyDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierJared DiamondInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0091742684BMC Evolutionary BiologyDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierProceedings Of The Royal Society BDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierThierry LodéInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1439839247Template:AnimalbirthTemplate Talk:AnimalbirthModes Of ReproductionModes Of ReproductionOviparityOvuliparityViviparityOvoviviparityFrogspawnFertilizationExternal FertilizationParental CareParental Care In BirdsMouthbrooderParentingMammalian ReproductionAdelphophagyGastric-brooding FrogLive-bearing Aquarium FishMale PregnancyMatrotrophyOophagyPregnancy In FishTrophic EggHelp:CategoryCategory:Reproduction In AnimalsDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link