Contents 1 History of the Inter-American human rights system 2 Functions of the Inter-American Commission 3 Rapporteurships and Units 4 Petitions 5 Criticisms 5.1 Politization and position in debatable matters 5.2 Position on debatable matters 5.3 Location of its headquarters 6 Composition of the Inter-American Commission 6.1 Current Commissioners 6.2 Past Commissioners 7 Human rights violations investigated by the Inter-American Commission 8 References 9 External links

History of the Inter-American human rights system[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The inter-American system for the protection of human rights emerged with the adoption of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man in April 1948 – the first international human rights instrument of a general nature, predating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by more than six months. The IACHR was created in 1959. It held its first meeting in 1960, and it conducted its first on-site visit to inspect the human rights situation in the Dominican Republic in 1961. A major step in the development of the system was taken in 1965 when the Commission was expressly authorized to examine specific cases of human rights violations. Since that date the IACHR has received thousands of petitions and has processed in excess of 12,000 individual cases. In 1969, the guiding principles behind the American Declaration were taken, reshaped, and restated in the American Convention on Human Rights. The Convention defines the human rights that the states parties are required to respect and guarantee, and it also ordered the establishment of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. It is currently binding on 24 of the OAS's 35 member states.

Functions of the Inter-American Commission[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The main task of the IACHR is to promote the observance and defense of human rights in the Americas. In pursuit of this mandate it: Receives, analyzes, and investigates individual petitions alleging violations of specific human rights protected by the American Convention on Human Rights. Works to resolve petitions in a collaborative way that is amiable to both parties. Monitors the general human rights situation in the OAS's member states and, when necessary, prepares and publishes country-specific human rights reports. Conducts on-site visits to examine members' general human rights situation or to investigate specific cases. Encourages public awareness about human rights and related issues throughout the hemisphere. Holds conferences, seminars, and meetings with governments, NGOs, academic institutions, etc. to inform and raise awareness about issues relating to the inter-American human rights system. Issues member states with recommendations that, if adopted, would further the cause of human rights protection. Requests that states adopt precautionary measures to prevent serious and irreparable harm to human rights in urgent cases.[1] Refers cases to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, and litigates those same cases before the Court. Asks the Inter-American Court to provide advisory opinions on matters relating to the interpretation of the Convention or other related instruments.

Rapporteurships and Units[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The IACHR has created several Rapporteurships, a Special Rapporteurship and a Unit to monitor OAS states' compliance with inter-American human rights treaties in the following areas: Rapporteurship on Migrant Workers and their Families Rapporteurship on the Rights of Women - it was the first Rapporteurship created by the IACHR in 1994 Rapporteurship on the Rights of the Child Rapporteurship on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Rapporteurship on the Rights of Persons Deprived of Liberty Rapporteurship on the Rights of Afro-Descendants and against Racial Discrimination Rapporteurship on Human Rights Defenders Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression It is the only Special Rapporteurship of the IACHR, meaning that it has a Rapporteur dedicated full-time to the job. The other Rapporteurships are in the hands of the Commissioners, who have other functions at the IACHR and also their own jobs in their home-countries, since their work as Commissioners is unpaid. The Unit on the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Trans, Bisexual, and Intersex Persons was created in 2011. The IACHR also has a Press and Outreach Office.

Petitions[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The Commission processes petitions lodged with it pursuant to its Rules of Procedure. Petitions may be filed by states, NGOs or individuals. Unlike most court filings, petitions are confidential documents and are not made public. Petitions must meet three requirements; domestic remedies must have already been tried and failed (exhaustion), petitions must be filed within six months of the last action taken in a domestic system (timeliness), petitions can not be before another court (duplication of procedure). Once a petition has been filed, it follows the following procedure: Petition is forwarded to the Secretariat and reviewed for completeness; if complete, it is registered and is given a case number. This is where the state is notified of the petition. Petition reviewed for admissibility. The Commission tries to find a friendly settlement. If no settlement is found, then briefs are filed by each side on the merits of the case. The Commission then files a report on the merits, known as an Article 50 report from relevant article of the Convention. This is a basically a ruling by the Commission with recommendations on how to solve the conflict. The Article 50 report is sent to the state. This is a confidential report; the petitioner does not get a full copy of this report. The state is given two months to comply with the recommendations of the report. The petitioner then has one month to file a petition asking for the issue to be sent to the Inter-American Court (only applicable if the State in question has recognized the competence of the Inter-American Court). The Commission has three months, from the date the Article 50 report is given to the state, to either publish the Article 50 report or send the case to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. Alternatively, the Commission can also choose to monitor the situation. The American Convention establishes that if the report is not submitted to the Court within three months it may not be submitted in the future, but if the State asks for more time in order to comply with the recommendations of the Article 50 report, the Commission might grant it on the condition that the State signs a waiver on this requirement.

Criticisms[edit] Politization and position in debatable matters[edit] The Commission's performance has not been always welcomed. Among others, Venezuela has criticized its politization. Many others criticize the Commission's stress in some rights instead of some others. These criticisms have given rise to what was called the "Strengthening process of the Commission". This process began in 2011, led by the States belonging to the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas.[2] Position on debatable matters[edit] Some scholars have criticized the Commission's position in relation to debatable themes, such as its support of some kinds of abortion and same-sex marriage.[3] Location of its headquarters[edit] Officers of Ecuador, Argentina, Bolivia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Venezuela, supported the motion for moving the Commission's headquarters, which are currently in Washington D.C. These countries suggested moving the IACHR's headquarters to a Member State to the American Convention of Human Rights. Among the suggested countries were Argentina, Costa Rica and Peru.

Composition of the Inter-American Commission[edit] The IACHR's ranking officers are its seven commissioners. The commissioners are elected by the OAS General Assembly, for four-year terms, with the possibility of re-election on one occasion, for a maximum period in office of eight years. They serve in a personal capacity and are not considered to represent their countries of origin but rather "all the member countries of the Organization" (Art. 35 of the Convention). The Convention (Art. 34) says that they must "be persons of high moral character and recognized competence in the field of human rights". No two nationals of the same member state may be commissioners simultaneously (Art. 37), and commissioners are required to refrain from participating in the discussion of cases involving their home countries. Current Commissioners[edit] Name State Position Elected Term Paulo Vannuchi  Brazil Commissioner 2013 2014–2017 James Cavallaro  USA President 2013 2014–2017 José de Jesús Orozco  Mexico Second Vice-President 2009 2014–2017 Enrique Gil Botero  Colombia Commissioner 2015 2016–2019 Esmeralda Arosemena de Troitiño  Panama Commissioner 2015 2016–2019 Margarette May Macaulay  Jamaica Commissioner 2015 2016–2019 Francisco José Eguiguren Praeli  Peru Commissioner 2015 2016–2019 Source: OAS General Assembly Elects Commissioners (7 June 2013). See also: IACHR assigns rapporteurships (29 January 2016). Past Commissioners[edit] José Zalaquett, President 2004 Year State Commissioners President (post-2001) Chairman (pre-2001) 1960–1963  Venezuela Rómulo Gallegos 1960 1960–1964  El Salvador Reynaldo Galindo Pohl 1960–1968  Ecuador Gonzalo Escudero 1960–1972  Costa Rica Ángela Acuña de Chacón 1960–1972  USA Durwood V. Sandifer 1960–1972  Chile Manuel Bianchi Gundián 1960–1979  Mexico Gabino Fraga 1964–1968  Uruguay Daniel Hugo Martins 1964–1983  Brazil Carlos A. Dunshee de Abranches 1968–1972  Peru Mario Alzamora Valdez 1968–1972  Uruguay Justino Jiménez de Arechega 1972–1976  Argentina Genaro R. Carrió 1972–1976  USA Robert F. Woodward 1972–1985  Venezuela Andrés Aguilar 1976–1979  Guatemala Carlos García Bauer 1976–1979  Costa Rica Fernando Volio Jiménez 1976–1983  USA Tom J. Farer 1976–1978  Colombia José Joaquín Gori 1978–1987  Colombia Marco Gerardo Monroy Cabra 1980–1987  El Salvador Franciso Bertrand Galindo 1980–1985  Mexico César Sepúlveda 1980–1985  Costa Rica Luis Demetrio Tinoco Castro 1984–1988  USA R. Bruce McColm 1984–1987  Bolivia Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas 1984–1991  Brazil Gilda Maciel Correa Russomano 1986–1989  Argentina Elsa Kelly 1986–1993  Venezuela Marco Tulio Bruni-Celli 1986–1993  Barbados Oliver H. Jackman 1988–1991  USA John Reese Stevenson 1988–1995  Honduras Leo Valladares Lanza 1988–1995  Jamaica Patrick Lipton Robinson 1990–1997  Argentina Óscar Luján Fappiano 1992–1995  USA Michael Reisman 1994–1997  Trinidad and Tobago John S. Donaldson 1997 1998–1999  Barbados Sir Henry de Boulay Forde 1992–1999  Colombia Álvaro Tirado Mejía 1995 1996–1999  Venezuela Carlos Ayala Corao 1998 1996–1999  Haiti Jean-Joseph Exumé 1994–2001  Chile Claudio Grossman 1996 2001 1998–2001  Brazil Hélio Bicudo 2000 1999–2001  Barbados Peter Laurie 2002–2002  Peru Diego García Sayán 1996–2003  USA Robert K. Goldman 1999 2000–2003  Guatemala Marta Altolaguirre Larraondo 2003 2000–2003  Argentina Juan E. Méndez 2002 2000–2003  Ecuador Julio Prado Vallejo 2002–2005  Peru Susana Villarán 2001–2005  Chile José Zalaquett 2004 2004–2007  Paraguay Evelio Fernández Arévalos 2006 2004–2007  Venezuela Freddy Gutiérrez 2002–2009  Antigua and Barbuda Sir Clare Kamau Roberts 2004–2009  El Salvador Florentín Meléndez 2006–2009  Argentina Víctor Abramovich 2006–2009  USA Paolo Carozza 2008 2004–2011  Brazil Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro 2008–2011  Venezuela Luz Patricia Mejía 2009 2009–2011  El Salvador María Silvia Guillén 2010–2013  Colombia Rodrigo Escobar Gil 2010–2013  USA Dinah Shelton 2008–2015  Chile Felipe González 2010 2012–2015  Saint Lucia  Trinidad and Tobago Rose-Marie Belle Antoine 2015 2012–2015  Jamaica Tracy Robinson 2014 2012–2015  Paraguay Rosa María Ortiz

Human rights violations investigated by the Inter-American Commission[edit] Massacre of Trujillo (Colombia) Barrios Altos massacre (Peru) Lori Berenson (Peru) La Cantuta massacre (Peru) El Caracazo (Venezuela) Japanese embassy hostage crisis (Peru)[4] Deaths in Ciudad Juárez (Mexico) Antoine Izméry (Haiti) Plan de Sánchez massacre (Guatemala) Freedom of expression in Venezuela (Venezuela) District of Columbia voting rights (United States of America) [5] Domestic violence protection in the case of Jessica Gonzales[6] Extrajudicial detention in Guantanamo of Djamel Ameziane.[7] 2014 Iguala mass kidnapping (Mexico)[8]

References[edit] ^ "Precautionary Measures". Organization of American States. June 2012. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.  ^, and ^ CIDH, Press release 89, ^ "Peru; New Defense Minister takes office". Defense Market Intelligence. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2013.  ^ Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (Organization of American States) REPORT Nº 98/03* Archived 1 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Malone, Patrick (16 August 2011). "Human rights group questions court ruling". The Pueblo Chieftain.  ^ Michael Haggerson (31 March 2012). "Human rights court agrees to hear Guantanamo detainee case". The Jurist. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012. The IACHR will investigate whether the US's failure to transfer Ameziane is in compliance with international human rights law. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Mexico: Expert report on Ayotzinapa disappearances highlights government's incompetence". Amnesty International. 6 September 2015. Retrieved 7 September 2015. A new report by a group of experts from the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights on the investigation of the disappearance of 43 students in Guerrero, Mexico, uncovers the authorities’ utter incompetence and lack of will to find the students and bring those responsible to justice, said Amnesty International. 

External links[edit] Official website IACHR case law OAS Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression v t e Organization of American States (OAS) Members Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Barbados Brazil Belize Bahamas Bolivia Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines St. Kitts and Nevis Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay Renounced Venezuela Organization Secretariat for Political Affairs Secretariat for Multidimensional Security General Assembly Inter-American Commission of Women Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Inter-American Court of Human Rights Pan American Union Building Politics Charter Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man American Convention on Human Rights Pan-American Conference Summits of the Americas Americas Pan American Sports Organization v t e International human rights organisations and institutions Types Human rights group Human rights commission Human rights institutions Truth and reconciliation commission International institutions Committee on the Rights of the Child Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities International Criminal Court Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights UN Human Rights Committee UN Human Rights Council UN Security Council Regional bodies African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights African Court of Justice European Court of Human Rights European Committee for the Prevention of Torture Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Inter-American Court of Human Rights Multi-lateral bodies European Union Council of Europe Organisation of American States (OAS) UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) International Labour Organization (ILO) World Health Organization (WHO) UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) UN Population Fund (UNFPA) UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) UN Development Programme (UNDP) Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) Major NGOs Amnesty International FIDH Human Rights Watch International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Emergency NGO Human Rights First Retrieved from "" Categories: Intergovernmental human rights organizationsOrganization of American StatesQuasi-judicial bodiesHuman rights in Latin AmericaHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknownUse dmy dates from July 2013Articles needing additional references from September 2013All articles needing additional references

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