Contents 1 Description 2 Systematics 2.1 Species 3 Distribution 4 Cultivation 5 Toxicity 6 Culture 7 Color 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links


Description[edit] Hyacinthus grows from bulbs, each producing around four to six linear leaves and one to three spikes or racemes of flowers. In the wild species, the flowers are widely spaced with as few as two per raceme in H. litwinovii and typically six to eight in H. orientalis, which grows to a height of 15–20 cm (6–8 in). Cultivars of H. orientalis have much denser flower spikes and are generally more robust.[3]


Systematics[edit] The genus name Hyacinthus was attributed to Joseph Pitton de Tournefort when used by Carl Linnaeus in 1753[2] It is derived from a Greek name used for a plant by Homer, ὑάκινθος (hyakinthos), the flowers supposedly having grown up from the blood of a youth of this name accidentally killed by the god Apollo.[4] (The original wild plant known as hyakinthos to Homer has been identified with Scilla bifolia,[5] among other possibilities.) Linnaeus defined the genus Hyacinthus widely to include species now placed in other genera of the subfamily Scilloideae, such as Muscari (e.g. his Hyacinthus botryoides)[6] and Hyacinthoides (e.g. his Hyacinthus non-scriptus).[7] Hyacinthus was formerly the type genus of the separate family Hyacinthaceae; prior to that the genus was placed in the lily family Liliaceae.[8] Species[edit] Three species are placed within the genus Hyacinthus:[9] Hyacinthus litwinovii Hyacinthus orientalis - Common, Dutch or Garden Hyacinth Hyacinthus transcaspicus Some authorities place H. litwonovii and H. transcaspicus in the related genus Hyacinthella,[10] which would make Hyacinthus a monotypic genus.


Distribution[edit] The genus Hyacinthus is considered native to the eastern Mediterranean, including Turkey, Turkmenistan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and the Palestine region. It is widely naturalized elsewhere, including Europe (the Netherlands, France, Sardinia, Italy, Sicily, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, Greece and Cyprus), Korea, North America (United States and Canada) and central Mexico, Cuba and Haiti.[2]


Cultivation[edit] The Dutch, or common hyacinth of house and garden culture (H. orientalis, native to southwest Asia) was so popular in the 18th century that over 2,000 cultivars were grown in the Netherlands, its chief commercial producer. This hyacinth has a single dense spike of fragrant flowers in shades of red, blue, white, orange, pink, violet or yellow. A form of the common hyacinth is the less hardy and smaller blue- or white-petalled Roman hyacinth of florists. These flowers need indirect sunlight and should be watered moderately.[citation needed]


Toxicity[edit] Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.[11] Some members of the Scilloideae sub-family of plants are commonly called hyacinths but are not members of the Hyacinthus genus and are edible; one example is the tassel hyacinth, which forms part of the cuisine of some Mediterranean countries.[citation needed]


Culture[edit] Nowruz Sonbol (Hyacinth) Hyacinths are often associated with spring and rebirth. The hyacinth flower is used in the Haft-Seen table setting for the Persian New Year celebration, Nowruz, held at the Spring Equinox. The Persian word for hyacinth is سنبل (sonbol). Wild-type Hyacinthus orientalis in cultivation Hyacinth cultivars in Floriade, Canberra Hyacinth cultivars in Floriade, Canberra White and purple hyacinth cultivars in Detroit, Michigan Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hyacinthus orientalis.


Color[edit] The color of the blue flower hyacinth plant varies between 'mid-blue'[12] = violet blue and bluish purple. Within this range can be found Persenche, which is an American color name (probably from French), for a hyacinth hue.[13] The color analysis of Persenche is 73% ultramarine, 9% red and 18% white.[14]


See also[edit] List of early spring flowers Tekhelet - meaning "turquoise" or "blue" in Hebrew was translated as hyakinthos (Greek: ὑακίνθος, "hyacinth").


References[edit] ^ Stevens, P.F. "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website: Asparagales: Scilloideae". Mobot.org. Retrieved 7 November 2017.  ^ a b c "Hyacinthus". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2016-10-28.  ^ Beckett, K., ed. (1993), Encyclopaedia of Alpines : Volume 1 (A–K), Pershore, UK: AGS Publications, ISBN 978-0-900048-61-6  pp. 656–657. ^ Hyam, R. & Pankhurst, R.J. (1995), Plants and their names : a concise dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-866189-4  ^ Lindsell, Alice, Was Theocritus a botanist?  in Raven, John E. (2000), Plants and Plant Lore in Ancient Greece, Oxford: Leopard's Head Press, ISBN 978-0-904920-40-6 , p. 68 ^ "Hyacinthus botryoides", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2013-03-20  ^ "Hyacinthus non-scriptus", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2013-03-20  ^ Hyacinthaceae, Tolweb.org, retrieved 2011-03-20  ^ World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2011-10-07 , search for "Hyacinthus" and its species ^ Czerepanov, S.K. (1995), Vascular Plants of Russia and Adjacent States (the Former USSR), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-45006-5 , cited in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2011-10-07 , under Hyacinthella litwinovii and Hyacinthella transcaspica ^ "Home Forcing of Hyacinths", North Carolina State University Horticulture Information, retrieved 2013-03-20  ^ name=Mathew, Brian (1987), The Smaller Bulbs, London: B.T. Batsford, ISBN 978-0-7134-4922-8 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-17. Retrieved 2015-09-24.  ^ Funk & Wagnell's New Standard Dictionary (1942), under spectrum color list.


Further reading[edit] Coccoris, Patricia (2012) The Curious History of the Bulb Vase. Published by Cortex Design.


External links[edit] Hyacinth perennialization Research Newsletter Number 4. (October 2004) Flower Bulb Research Program Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University Grow up and blossoming of Hyacinth Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hyacinth_(plant)&oldid=819840489" Categories: ScilloideaeAsparagaceae generaFlora of Central AsiaGarden plants of AsiaFlowersPoisonous plantsHidden categories: Articles with 'species' microformatsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from March 2013Articles with unsourced statements from December 2017


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