Contents 1 Name and taxonomy 2 Age and speciation process 3 References 4 External links


Name and taxonomy Main article: Human taxonomy Further information: Homo and Names for the human species The binomial name Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus (1758).[2] The Latin noun homō (genitive hominis) means "human being." Extant human populations have historically been divided into subspecies, but since c. the 1980s all extant groups tend to be subsumed into a single species, H. sapiens, avoiding division into subspecies altogether.[3] Some sources show Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) as a subspecies (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis).[4][5] Similarly, the discovered specimens of the Homo rhodesiensis species have been classified by some as a subspecies (Homo sapiens rhodesiensis), although it remains more common to treat these last two as separate species within the Homo genus rather than as subspecies within H. sapiens.[6]


Age and speciation process Further information: Anatomically modern humans Further information: Human evolution, Homo, Timeline of human evolution, and Early human migrations Schematic representation of the emergence of H. sapiens from earlier species of Homo. The horizontal axis represents geographic location; the vertical axis represents time in millions of years ago (blue areas denote the presence of a certain species of Homo at a given time and place; late survival of robust australopithecines alongside Homo is indicated in purple). Based on Springer (2012), Homo heidelbergensis[7] is shown as diverging into Neanderthals, Denisovans and H. sapiens. With the rapid expansion of H. sapiens after 60 kya, Neanderthals, Denisovans and unspecified archaic African hominins are shown as again subsumed into the H. sapiens lineage. The speciation of H. sapiens out of varieties of H. erectus is estimated as having taken place between 200,000 and 300,000 years ago. Dispersal of early H. sapiens begins soon after its emergence. Since the 1970s, the Omo remains, dated to some 195,000 years ago, have often been taken as the conventional cut-off point for the emergence of "anatomically modern humans". Since the 2000s, the discovery of older remains with comparable characteristics, and the discovery of ongoing hybridization between "modern" and "archaic" populations after the time of the Omo remains, have opened up a renewed debate on the "age of Homo sapiens", in journalistic publications cast into terms of "Homo sapiens may be older than previously thought".[8] A 2017 analysis suggested that the Khoi-San diverged from West African populations as early as 350,000 years ago, i.e. well before the commonly assumed age of H. sapiens.[9] The discovery of fossils attributed to H. sapiens, along with stone tools, dated to approximately 300,000 years ago, found at Jebel Irhoud, Morocco was announced in 2017.[10] Homo sapiens idaltu, found at site Middle Awash in Ethiopia, lived about 160,000 years ago;[11][12] Early H sapiens may have reached Asia in a first wave as early as 120,000 years ago.[13][14] Evidence presented in 2017 raises the possibility that a yet earlier migration, dated to around 270,000 years ago, may have left traces of admixture in Neanderthal genome.[15][16] The Recent "Out of Africa" migration of Homo sapiens took place in at least two waves, the first around 130,000 to 100,000 years ago, the second around 70,000 to 60,000 years ago. Eurasia had long been populated by archaic humans, due to the "Out of Africa I" migration more than a million years before. Since the 2010s, admixture events (introgression) of populations of H. sapiens with populations of archaic humans have been discovered as having taken place between roughly 40,000 and 30,000 years ago, both in Eurasia and in Sub-Saharan Africa. The hypothesis that humans have a single origin (monogenesis) was published in Charles Darwin's Descent of Man (1871). The recent dispersal of H. sapiens from East Africa has been called the (Recent) Out-of-Africa model in the popular press, and academically the recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), Replacement Hypothesis, and Recent African Origin (RAO) model. The concept had been speculative until the 1980s, and competed with the so-called multiregional origin model. Evidence for the overwhelming contribution of the "recent African origin" of modern populations outside of Africa, due to the wave of expansion beginning after 70,000 years ago, was established based on mitochondrial DNA, combined with evidence based on physical anthropology of archaic specimens, during the 1990s and 2000s. The assumption of complete replacement has been revised in the 2010s with the discovery of limited admixture (of the order of a few percent).[17] The recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa was the near-consensus position held within the scientific community prior to 2010.[18] The multiregional origin model, proposed by Milford H. Wolpoff[19] in 1988[20] provides another explanation for the pattern of human evolution. Multiregional origin holds that the evolution of humanity from the beginning of the Pleistocene 2.5 million years BP to the present day has been within a single, continuous human species. Homo sapiens idaltu, the other known subspecies, is now extinct.[21] Homo neanderthalensis, which became extinct 30,000 years ago, has sometimes been classified as a subspecies, "Homo sapiens neanderthalensis"; genetic studies now suggest that the functional DNA of modern humans and Neanderthals diverged 500,000 years ago.[22] The San people of Southern Africa have been found to be the human population with the deepest temporal division from all other contemporary populations, estimated at close to 130,000 years ago. A 2011 study has classified them as one of "ancestral population clusters". The same study also located the origin of the first wave of expansion of H. sapiens, beginning roughly 130,000 years ago, in southwestern Africa, near the coastal border of Namibia and Angola.[23] Following the second Out-of-Africa expansion, some 70,000 to 50,000 years ago, some subpopulations of H. sapiens have been essentially isolated for tens of thousands of years prior to the early modern Age of Discovery. Combined with archaic admixture this has resulted in significant genetic variation, which in some instances has been shown to be the result of directional selection taking place over the past 15,000 years, i.e. significantly later than possible archaic admixture events.[24]


References ^ Global Mammal Assessment Team (2008). "Homo sapiens". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T136584A4313662. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T136584A4313662.en. Retrieved 12 January 2018.  ^ Linné, Carl von (1758). Systema naturæ. Regnum animale (10th ed.). pp. 18, 20. Retrieved 19 November 2012. . ^ The history of claimed or proposed subspecies of H. sapiens is complicated and fraught with controversy. The only widely recognized archaic subspecies is H. sapiens idaltu (2003). The name H. s. sapiens is due to Linnaeus (1758), and refers by definition the subspecies of which Linnaeus himself is the type specimen. However, Linnaeus postulated four other extant subspecies, viz. H. s. afer, H. s. americanus, H. s. asiaticus and H. s. ferus for Africans, Americans, Asians and Malay. This classification remained in common usage until the mid 20th century, sometimes alongide H. s. tasmanianus for Australians. See e.g. John Wendell Bailey, The Mammals of Virginia (1946), p. 356.; Journal of Mammalogy 26-27 (1945), p. 359.; The Mankind Quarterly 1-2 (1960), 113ff ("Zoological Subspecies of Man"). The division of extant human populations into taxonomic subspecies was gradually given up in the 1970s (e.g. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 11, p. 55). ^ Hublin, J. J. (2009). "The origin of Neandertals". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (38): 16022–7. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10616022H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0904119106. JSTOR 40485013. PMC 2752594 . PMID 19805257.  ^ Harvati, K.; Frost, S.R.; McNulty, K.P. (2004). "Neanderthal taxonomy reconsidered: implications of 3D primate models of intra- and interspecific differences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (5): 1147–52. Bibcode:2004PNAS..101.1147H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0308085100. PMC 337021 . PMID 14745010.  ^ "Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864". Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. 2013. pp. 328–331.  ^ Stringer, C. (2012). "What makes a modern human". Nature. 485 (7396): 33–35. doi:10.1038/485033a. PMID 22552077.  ^ "New Clues Add 40,000 Years to Age of Human Species – NSF – National Science Foundation". www.nsf.gov.  "Age of ancient humans reassessed". BBC News. February 16, 2005. Retrieved April 10, 2010.  The Oldest Homo Sapiens: – URL retrieved May 15, 2009 Alemseged, Z.; Coppens, Y.; Geraads, D. (2002). "Hominid cranium from Homo: Description and taxonomy of Homo-323-1976-896". Am J Phys Anthropol. 117 (2): 103–12. doi:10.1002/ajpa.10032. PMID 11815945.  Stoneking, Mark; Soodyall, Himla (1996). "Human evolution and the mitochondrial genome". Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. 6 (6): 731–6. doi:10.1016/S0959-437X(96)80028-1.  ^ Schlebusch et al., "Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago", Science Vol. 358, Issue 6363, (Nov 2017), pp. 652-655, DOI: 10.1126/science.aao6266. ^ Callaway, Ewan (7 June 2017). "Oldest Homo sapiens fossil claim rewrites our species' history". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2017.22114. Retrieved 11 June 2017.  ^ White, Tim D.; Asfaw, Berhane; Degusta, David; Gilbert, Henry; Richards, Gary D.; Suwa, Gen; Howell, Clark F. (June 2003). "Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia". Nature. 423 (6941): 742–7. Bibcode:2003Natur.423..742W. doi:10.1038/nature01669. PMID 12802332.  ^ Mayell, Hillary (16 February 2005). "Oldest Human Fossils Identified". National Geographic. Retrieved 1 October 2017.  ^ Bae, Christopher J.; Douka, Katerina; Petraglia, Michael D. (8 December 2017). "On the origin of modern humans: Asian perspectives". Science. 358 (6368): eaai9067. doi:10.1126/science.aai9067. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ Kuo, Lily (10 December 2017). "Early humans migrated out of Africa much earlier than we thought". Quartz. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ Zimmer, Carl (4 July 2017). "In Neanderthal DNA, Signs of a Mysterious Human Migration". New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2017.  ^ Posth, Cosimo; et al. (4 July 2017). "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals". Nature Communications. doi:10.1038/ncomms16046. Retrieved 4 July 2017. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Green et al. (2010) suggest that their findings are consistent with Neanderthal admixture of up to 4% in some populations. But the study also suggests that there may be other reasons why humans and Neanderthals share ancient genetic lineages. Green, RE; Krause, J; Briggs, AW; Maricic, T; Stenzel, U; Kircher, M; Patterson, N; Li, H; Zhai, W; Fritz, M. H. Y.; Hansen, N. F.; Durand, E. Y.; Malaspinas, A. S.; Jensen, J. D.; Marques-Bonet, T.; Alkan, C.; Prufer, K.; Meyer, M.; Burbano, H. A.; Good, J. M.; Schultz, R.; Aximu-Petri, A.; Butthof, A.; Hober, B.; Hoffner, B.; Siegemund, M.; Weihmann, A.; Nusbaum, C.; Lander, E. S.; Russ, C.; et al. (2010). "A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome". Science. 328 (5979): 710–22. Bibcode:2010Sci...328..710G. doi:10.1126/science.1188021. PMC 5100745 . PMID 20448178. . Eriksson and Manica (2012) proposed that the DNA overlap is a remnant of a common ancestor of both Neanderthals and modern humans. Anders Eriksson and Andrea Manica Effect of ancient population structure on the degree of polymorphism shared between modern human populations and ancient hominins PNAS 2012 : 1200567109v1-201200567. July 20, 2012 ^ Liu, Hua; et al. (2006). "A Geographically Explicit Genetic Model of Worldwide Human-Settlement History". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 79 (2): 230–237. doi:10.1086/505436. PMC 1559480 . PMID 16826514. Currently available genetic and archaeological evidence is generally interpreted as supportive of a recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa. However, this is where the near consensus on human settlement history ends, and considerable uncertainty clouds any more detailed aspect of human colonization history.  "Out of Africa Revisited". Science. 308 (5724): 921g. 2005-05-13. doi:10.1126/science.308.5724.921g. Retrieved 2009-11-23.  Nature (2003-06-12). "Human evolution: Out of Ethiopia". Nature. 423 (6941): 692–695. Bibcode:2003Natur.423..692S. doi:10.1038/423692a. PMID 12802315. Retrieved 2009-11-23.  "Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa?". ActionBioscience. Retrieved 2009-11-23.  "Modern Humans – Single Origin (Out of Africa) vs Multiregional". Asa3.org. Retrieved 2009-11-23.  ^ Wolpoff, MH; Hawks, J; Caspari, R (2000). "Multiregional, not multiple origins". Am J Phys Anthropol. 112 (1): 129–36. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(200005)112:1<129::AID-AJPA11>3.0.CO;2-K. PMID 10766948.  ^ Wolpoff, MH; JN Spuhler; FH Smith; J Radovcic; G Pope; DW Frayer; R Eckhardt; G Clark (1988). "Modern human origins". Science. 241 (4867): 772–4. Bibcode:1988Sci...241..772W. doi:10.1126/science.3136545. PMID 3136545.  ^ Human evolution: the fossil evidence in 3D, by Philip L. Walker and Edward H. Hagen, Dept. of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved April 5, 2005. ^ Green, R. E.; Krause, J; Ptak, S. E.; Briggs, A. W.; Ronan, M. T.; Simons, J. F.; et al. (2006). Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA. Nature. pp. 16, 330–336.  ^ Henn, Brenna; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Jobin, Matthew (2011). "Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. National Academy of Sciences. 108 (13): 5154–62. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.5154H. doi:10.1073/pnas.1017511108. PMC 3069156 . PMID 21383195.  ^ Wade, N (2006-03-07). "Still Evolving, Human Genes Tell New Story". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 


External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Homo sapiens. Human Timeline (Interactive) – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History (August 2016). v t e Human evolution Taxonomy (Hominins) Orrorin Sahelanthropus Last common ancestors Chimpanzee–human Gorilla–human Orangutan–human Gibbon–human Australopithecines Ardipithecus Kenyanthropus Australopithecus A. afarensis A. africanus A. anamensis A. bahrelghazali A. deyiremeda A. garhi A. sediba Paranthropus P. aethiopicus P. boisei P. robustus Humans and proto-humans (Homo) Proto-humans H. ergaster H. floresiensis H. gautengensis H. habilis H. rudolfensis H. tsaichangensis Homo erectus H. e. erectus H. e. georgicus H. e. lantianensis H. e. nankinensis H. e. palaeojavanicus H. e. pekinensis H. e. soloensis H. e. tautavelensis H. e. yuanmouensis Archaic humans Callao Man ? Denisovan H. antecessor H. cepranensis H. heidelbergensis H. helmei H. naledi H. neanderthalensis H. rhodesiensis Modern humans Homo sapiens Cro-Magnon H. s. idaltu H. s. sapiens (anatomically modern human) Manot people Red Deer Cave people ? Models General models Hunting Gathering Endurance running Aquatic ape Sexual selection Self-domestication Specific models Diet Cooking Expensive tissue Shore-based Drunken monkey Behavior Killer ape Cooperative eye Life history Grandmother Patriarch Topics Bipedalism Skeleton Muscles Skin color Hair Thermoregulation Color vision Speech Language Intelligence Gender roles Origin of modern humans Recent African origin Multiregional origin Archaic admixture Behavioral modernity Early migrations Timelines Human evolution Human prehistory Others Theorists Books Fossils Evolutionary anthropology Evolutionary biology portal v t e Big History Themes and subjects Chronology of the universe Cosmic evolution Deep time Time scales Goldilocks principle Modernity Eight thresholds 1: Creation - Big Bang and cosmogony 2: Stars - creation of stars 3: Elements - creation of chemical elements inside dying stars 4: Planets - formation of planets 5: Life - abiogenesis and evolution of life 6: Humans - development of Homo sapiens Paleolithic era 7: Agriculture - Agricultural Revolution 8: Modernity - modern era Web-based education Big History Project Crash Course Big History ChronoZoom Notable people Walter Alvarez Eric Chaisson David Christian Bill Gates Carl Sagan Graeme Snooks Cynthia Stokes Brown Anthropology portal Evolutionary biology portal Science portal Taxon identifiers Wd: Q15978631 ADW: Homo_sapiens EoL: 327955 Fossilworks: 83088 GBIF: 2436436 iNaturalist: 43584 ITIS: 180092 IUCN: 136584 MSW: 12100795 NCBI: 9606 Authority control GND: 4038639-9 BNF: cb13338423d (data) Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homo_sapiens&oldid=820364229" Categories: IUCN Red List least concern speciesHumansExtant Gelasian first appearancesPrimates described in the 18th centuryMammals described in 1758Pleistocene primatesHidden categories: CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al.Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalismArticles with 'species' microformatsWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiers


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