Contents 1 Evolution and taxonomy 1.1 Taxonomic history 1.1.1 Terminology 1.1.2 Extant and fossil relatives of humans 1.2 Phylogeny 1.2.1 Extant 1.2.2 Fossil 2 Physical description 3 Legal status 4 Conservation 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links


Evolution and taxonomy[edit] See also: Human evolution Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) In the early Miocene, about 22 million years ago, there were many species of arboreally adapted primitive catarrhines from East Africa; the variety suggests a long history of prior diversification. Fossils at 20 million years ago include fragments attributed to Victoriapithecus, the earliest Old World monkey. Among the genera thought to be in the ape lineage leading up to 13 million years ago are Proconsul, Rangwapithecus, Dendropithecus, Limnopithecus, Nacholapithecus, Equatorius, Nyanzapithecus, Afropithecus, Heliopithecus, and Kenyapithecus, all from East Africa. At sites far distant from East Africa, the presence of other generalized non-cercopithecids, that is, non-monkey primates, of middle Miocene age—Otavipithecus from cave deposits in Namibia, and Pierolapithecus and Dryopithecus from France, Spain and Austria—is further evidence of a wide diversity of ancestral ape forms across Africa and the Mediterranean basin during the relatively warm and equable climatic regimes of the early and middle Miocene. The most recent of these far-flung Miocene apes (hominoids) is Oreopithecus, from the fossil-rich coal beds in northern Italy and dated to 9 million years ago. Molecular evidence indicates that the lineage of gibbons (family Hylobatidae), the lesser apes, diverged from that of the great apes some 18–12 million years ago, and that of orangutans (subfamily Ponginae) diverged from the other great apes at about 12 million years. There are no fossils that clearly document the ancestry of gibbons, which may have originated in a still-unknown South East Asian hominoid population; but fossil proto-orangutans, dated to around 10 million years ago, may be represented by Sivapithecus from India and Griphopithecus from Turkey.[8] A reconstruction of a female Australopithecus afarensis (National Museum of Natural History) Species close to the last common ancestor of gorillas, chimpanzees and humans may be represented by Nakalipithecus fossils found in Kenya and Ouranopithecus found in Greece. Molecular evidence suggests that between 8 and 4 million years ago, first the gorillas (genus Gorilla), and then the chimpanzees (genus Pan) split off from the line leading to the humans. Human DNA is approximately 98.4% identical to that of chimpanzees when comparing single nucleotide polymorphisms (see human evolutionary genetics).[9] The fossil record, however, of gorillas and chimpanzees is limited; both poor preservation—rain forest soils tend to be acidic and dissolve bone—and sampling bias probably contribute most to this problem. Other hominins probably adapted to the drier environments outside the African equatorial belt; and there they encountered antelope, hyenas, elephants and other forms becoming adapted to surviving in the East African savannas, particularly the regions of the Sahel and the Serengeti. The wet equatorial belt contracted after about 8 million years ago, and there is very little fossil evidence for the divergence of the hominin lineage from that of gorillas and chimpanzees—which split was thought to have occurred around that time. The earliest fossils argued by some to belong to the human lineage are Sahelanthropus tchadensis (7 Ma) and Orrorin tugenensis (6 Ma), followed by Ardipithecus (5.5–4.4 Ma), with species Ar. kadabba and Ar. ramidus. Taxonomic history[edit] Further information: Human taxonomy Terminology[edit] Humans are one of the four extant hominid genera. The classification of the great apes has been revised several times in the last few decades; these revisions have led to a varied use of the word "hominid" over time. The original meaning of the term referred to only humans and their closest relatives—what is now the modern meaning of the term "hominin". And the meaning of the taxon Hominidae changed gradually, leading to a different (modern) usage of "hominid" that today includes all the great apes including humans. The term hominid is easily confused with a number of very similar words: A hominoid, commonly called an ape, is a member of the superfamily Hominoidea: extant members are the gibbons (lesser apes, family Hylobatidae) and the hominids. A hominid is a member of the family Hominidae, the great apes: orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. A hominine is a member of the subfamily Homininae: gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans (excludes orangutans). A hominin is a member of the tribe Hominini: chimpanzees and humans. A homininan, following a suggestion by Wood and Richmond (2000), would be a member of the subtribe Hominina of the tribe Hominini: that is, modern humans and their closest relatives, including Australopithecina, but excluding chimpanzees.[10] A human is a member of the genus Homo, of which Homo sapiens is the only extant species, and within that Homo sapiens sapiens is the only surviving subspecies. A cladogram indicating common names (c.f. more detailed cladogram below): Hominoidea (hominoids, apes) Hylobatidae (gibbons) Hominidae (hominids, great apes) Ponginae Pongo (orangutans) Pongo abelii Pongo tapanuliensis Pongo pygmaeus Homininae (hominines) Gorillini Gorilla (gorillas) Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei Hominini (hominins) Panina Pan (chimpanzees) Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Hominina (homininans) Homo (humans) Extant and fossil relatives of humans[edit] A model of a modern human hominid skull (or hominin skull) A fossil hominid exhibit at The Museum of Osteology, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma As mentioned, Hominidae was originally the name given to the family of humans and their (extinct) close relatives, with the other great apes (that is, the orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees) all being placed in a separate family, the Pongidae. However, that definition eventually made Pongidae paraphyletic because at least one great ape species (the chimpanzees) proved to be more closely related to humans than to other great apes. Most taxonomists today encourage monophyletic groups—this would require, in this case, the use of Pongidae to be restricted to just one closely related grouping. Thus, many biologists now assign Pongo (as the subfamily Ponginae) to the family Hominidae. The taxonomy shown here follows the monophyletic groupings according to the modern understanding of human and great ape relationships. Humans and close relatives including the tribes Hominini and Gorillini form the subfamily Homininae (see classification graphic below). (A few researchers go so far as to refer the chimpanzees and the gorillas to the genus Homo along with humans.) [11][12][13] But, it is those fossil relatives more closely related to humans than the chimpanzees that represent the especially close members of the human family, and without necessarily assigning subfamily or tribal categories.[14] Many extinct hominids have been studied to help understand the relationship between modern humans and the other extant hominids. Some of the extinct members of this family include Gigantopithecus, Orrorin, Ardipithecus, Kenyanthropus, and the australopithecines Australopithecus and Paranthropus.[15] The exact criteria for membership in the tribe Hominini under the current understanding of human origins are not clear, but the taxon generally includes those species that share more than 97% of their DNA with the modern human genome, and exhibit a capacity for language or for simple cultures beyond their 'local family' or band. The theory of mind concept—including such faculties as empathy, attribution of mental state, and even empathetic deception—is a controversial criterion; it distinguishes the adult human alone among the hominids. Humans acquire this capacity after about four years of age, whereas it has not been proven (nor has it been disproven) that gorillas or chimpanzees ever develop a theory of mind.[16] This is also the case for some New World monkeys outside the family of great apes, as, for example, the capuchin monkeys. However, even without the ability to test whether early members of the Hominini (such as Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, or even the australopithecines) had a theory of mind, it is difficult to ignore similarities seen in their living cousins. Orangutans have shown the development of culture comparable to that of chimpanzees,[17] and some[who?] say the orangutan may also satisfy those criteria for the theory of mind concept. These scientific debates take on political significance for advocates of great ape personhood. Phylogeny[edit] Below is a cladogram with extinct species.[18] It is indicated approximately how many million years ago (Mya) the clades diverged into newer clades.[19] Hominidae (18) Ponginae (14) Kenyapithecus (†13 Mya) Sivapithecus (†9) Crown Ponginae Ankarapithecus (†9) Giganthopithecus (†0.1) Khoratpithecus (†7) (13) (12) Pierolapithecus (†11) Hispanopithecus (†10) Lufengpithecus (†7) Homininae Ouranopithecus (†8) Crown Homininae (10) Hominini (7) Homo Pan Gorilla Crown Gorilla Chororapithecus (†) Nakalipithecus (†10) Samburupithecus (†9) Taxonomy of Hominoidea (emphasis on family Hominidae): after an initial separation from the main line by the Hylobatidae (gibbons) some 18 million years ago, the line of Ponginae broke away, leading to the orangutan; later, the Homininae split into the tribes Hominini (led to humans and chimpanzees) and Gorillini (led to gorillas). Model of the phylogeny of Hominidae, with adjacent branches of Hominoidea, over the past 20 million years. Extant[edit] All extant species There are eight living species of great ape which are classified in four genera. The following classification is commonly accepted:[1] Family Hominidae: humans and other great apes; extinct genera and species excluded[1] Subfamily Ponginae Tribe Pongini Genus Pongo Bornean orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus Pongo pygmaeus morio Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii Sumatran orangutan, Pongo abelii Tapanuli orangutan, Pongo tapanuliensis[20] Subfamily Homininae Tribe Gorillini Genus Gorilla Western gorilla, Gorilla gorilla Western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli Eastern gorilla, Gorilla beringei Mountain gorilla, Gorilla beringei beringei Eastern lowland gorilla, Gorilla beringei graueri Tribe Hominini Subtribe Panina Genus Pan Chimpanzee (common chimpanzee), Pan troglodytes Central chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes troglodytes Western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti Eastern chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii Bonobo (pygmy chimpanzee), Pan paniscus Subtribe Hominina Genus Homo Human, Homo sapiens Anatomically modern human, Homo sapiens sapiens Fossil[edit] A reconstruction of Pierolapithecus catalaunicus Replica of the skull sometimes known as "Nutcracker Man", found by Mary Leakey. In addition to the extant species and subspecies, archaeologists, paleontologists, and anthropologists have discovered and classified numerous extinct great ape species as below, based on the taxonomy shown.[21] Family Hominidae Ouranopithecus)† Ouranopithecus macedoniensis Otavipithecus† Otavipithecus namibiensis Morotopithecus† Morotopithecus bishopi Subfamily Ponginae[22] Tribe Lufengpithecini † Lufengpithecus Lufengpithecus lufengensis Lufengpithecus keiyuanensis Lufengpithecus hudienensis Tribe Sivapithecini† Ankarapithecus Ankarapithecus meteai Sivapithecus Sivapithecus brevirostris Sivapithecus punjabicus Sivapithecus parvada Sivapithecus sivalensis Sivapithecus indicus Gigantopithecus Gigantopithecus bilaspurensis Gigantopithecus blacki Gigantopithecus giganteus Tribe Pongini Khoratpithecus† Khoratpithecus ayeyarwadyensis Khoratpithecus piriyai Khoratpithecus chiangmuanensis Pongo (orangutans) Pongo hooijeri† Subfamily Homininae[23][24] Pierolapithecus† Pierolapithecus catalaunicus Udabnopithecus† Udabnopithecus garedziensis Tribe Dryopithecini † Oreopithecus (placement disputed) Oreopithecus bambolii Nakalipithecus Nakalipithecus nakayamai Anoiapithecus Anoiapithecus brevirostris Hispanopithecus Hispanopithecus laietanus Hispanopithecus crusafonti Dryopithecus Dryopithecus wuduensis Dryopithecus fontani Dryopithecus brancoi Dryopithecus laietanus Dryopithecus crusafonti Rudapithecus† Rudapithecus hungaricus Samburupithecus† Samburupithecus kiptalami Tribe Gorillini Chororapithecus † (placement debated) Chororapithecus abyssinicus Tribe Hominini Graecopithecus †[25] Graecopithecus freybergi Sahelanthropus† Sahelanthropus tchadensis Orrorin† Orrorin tugenensis Subtribe Hominina Ardipithecus† Ardipithecus ramidus Ardipithecus kadabba Kenyanthropus† Kenyanthropus platyops Praeanthropus†[26] Praeanthropus bahrelghazali Praeanthropus anamensis Praeanthropus afarensis Australopithecus† Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus garhi Australopithecus sediba Australopithecus deyiremeda Paranthropus† Paranthropus aethiopicus Paranthropus robustus Paranthropus boisei Homo – close relatives of modern humans Homo gautengensis† Homo rudolfensis† Homo naledi† Homo habilis† Homo georgicus† (thought by some to be an early subspecies of Homo erectus) Homo floresiensis† Homo erectus† Homo ergaster† (considered by some to be an early subspecies of Homo erectus) Homo antecessor† Homo heidelbergensis† (sometimes called Archaic Homo sapiens) Homo cepranensis† Homo helmei† Homo palaeojavanicus† Homo tsaichangensis† Denisovans (scientific name not yet assigned)† Homo neanderthalensis† (sometimes called Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) Homo rhodesiensis† Homo sapiens Homo sapiens idaltu† Archaic Homo sapiens† Red Deer Cave people † (scientific name has not yet been assigned; perhaps a race of modern humans or a hybrid[27] of modern humans and Denisovans[28])


Physical description[edit] The great apes are large, tailless primates, with the smallest living species being the bonobo at 30–40 kilograms in weight, and the largest being the eastern gorillas, with males weighing 140–180 kilograms. In all great apes, the males are, on average, larger and stronger than the females, although the degree of sexual dimorphism varies greatly among species. Although most living species are predominantly quadrupedal, they are all able to use their hands for gathering food or nesting materials, and, in some cases, for tool use.[29] Most species are omnivorous,[citation needed] but fruit is the preferred food among all but some human groups. Chimpanzees and orangutans primarily eat fruit. When gorillas run short of fruit at certain times of the year or in certain regions, they resort to eating shoots and leaves, often of bamboo, a type of grass. Gorillas have extreme adaptations for chewing and digesting such low-quality forage, but they still prefer fruit when it is available, often going miles out of their way to find especially preferred fruits. Humans, since the neolithic revolution, consume mostly cereals and other starchy foods, including increasingly highly processed foods, as well as many other domesticated plants (including fruits) and meat. Hominid teeth are similar to those of the Old World monkeys and gibbons, although they are especially large in gorillas. The dental formula is 2.1.2.32.1.2.3. Human teeth and jaws are markedly smaller for their size than those of other apes, which may be an adaptation to eating cooked food since the end of the Pleistocene.[30][31] Gorilla Gestation in great apes lasts 8–9 months, and results in the birth of a single offspring, or, rarely, twins. The young are born helpless, and require care for long periods of time. Compared with most other mammals, great apes have a remarkably long adolescence, not being weaned for several years, and not becoming fully mature for eight to thirteen years in most species (longer in humans). As a result, females typically give birth only once every few years. There is no distinct breeding season.[29] The gorillas and the common chimpanzee live in family groups of around five to ten individuals, although much larger groups are sometimes noted. Chimpanzees live in larger groups that break up into smaller groups when fruit becomes less available. When small groups of female chimpanzees go off in separate directions to forage for fruit, the dominant males can no longer control them and the females often mate with other subordinate males. In contrast, groups of gorillas stay together regardless of the availability of fruit. When fruit is hard to find, they resort to eating leaves and shoots. Because gorilla groups stay together, the male is able to monopolize the females in his group. This fact is related to gorillas' greater sexual dimorphism than chimpanzees'. In both chimpanzees and gorillas, the groups include at least one dominant male, and females leave the group at maturity.


Legal status[edit] Due to the close genetic relationship between humans and other great apes, certain animal rights organizations, such as the Great Ape Project, argue that nonhuman great apes are persons and should be given basic human rights. Some countries have instituted a research ban to protect great apes from any kind of scientific testing. On June 25, 2008, the Spanish parliament supported a new law that would make "keeping apes for circuses, television commercials or filming" illegal.[32] On September 8, 2010, the European Union banned the testing of great apes.[33]


Conservation[edit] The following table lists the estimated number of great ape individuals living outside zoos. Species Estimated number Refs Sumatran orangutan 6,667 [34] Bornean orangutan 61,234 [34] Tapanuli orangutan 800 [35] Western gorilla 200,000 [36] Eastern gorilla 6,000 [36] Common chimpanzee 100,000 [37] Bonobo 10,000 [37] Human 7,405,745,000 [38]


See also[edit] Bili ape Dawn of Humanity (2015 PBS film) Great ape language Great ape research ban Great Apes Survival Partnership Kinshasa Declaration on Great Apes List of human evolution fossils List of individual apes Oldest apes Prehistoric Autopsy (2012 BBC documentary) Primate cognition The Mind of an Ape Timeline of human evolution


Notes[edit] ^ "Great ape" is a common name rather than a taxonomic label, and there are differences in usage, even by the same author. The term may or may not include humans, as when Dawkins writes "Long before people thought in terms of evolution ... great apes were often confused with humans"[2] and "gibbons are faithfully monogamous, unlike the great apes which are our closer relatives."[3]


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Retrieved 6 November 2011.  ^ Chen, Feng-Chi; Li, Wen-Hsiung (2001-01-15). "Genomic Divergences between Humans and Other Hominoids and the Effective Population Size of the Common Ancestor of Humans and Chimpanzees". American Journal of Human Genetics. 68 (2): 444–456. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1235277 . PMID 11170892.  ^ Wood and Richmond; Richmond, BG (2000). "Human evolution: taxonomy and paleobiology". Journal of Anatomy. 197 (Pt 1): 19–60. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2000.19710019.x. PMC 1468107 . PMID 10999270. . In this suggestion, the new subtribe of Hominina was to be designated as including the genus Homo exclusively, so that Hominini would have two subtribes, Australopithecina and Hominina, with the only known genus in Hominina being Homo. Orrorin (2001) has been proposed as a possible ancestor of Hominina but not Australopithecina.Reynolds, Sally C; Gallagher, Andrew (2012-03-29). African Genesis: Perspectives on Hominin Evolution. ISBN 9781107019959. . 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"Chimpanzees". Current Biology. 14 (10): R369–R371. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.05.006. PMID 15186757.  ^ "U.S. and World Population Clock". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hominidae. Wikispecies has information related to Hominidae The Wikibook Dichotomous Key has a page on the topic of: Hominidae The Animal Legal and Historical Center at Michigan State University College of Law, Great Apes and the Law Renderings of Hominid Exemplars at the Smithsonian Additional information on great apes NPR News: Toumaï the Human Ancestor Hominid Species at TalkOrigins Archive For more details on Hominid species, including excellent photos of fossil hominids New Scientist 19 May 2003 – Chimps are human, gene study implies Scientific American magazine (April 2006 Issue) Why Are Some Animals So Smart? A new mediterranean hominoid-hominid link discovered, Anoiapithecus brevirostris, "Lluc": A unique Middle Miocene European hominoid and the origins of the great ape and human clade Link to graphical reconstruction Human Timeline (Interactive) – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History (August 2016). v t e Extant primate families Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Infraclass Eutheria Superorder Euarchontoglires Strepsirrhini Lorisoidea Lorisidae Galagidae Lemuroidea Daubentoniidae Cheirogaleidae Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indriidae Haplorhini Tarsiidae Simian Platyrrhini Cebidae Callitrichidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Catharrhini Cercopithecidae Hominoidea Hylobatidae Hominidae v t e Extant species of family Hominidae (great apes) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Suborder: Haplorhini Hominidae Ponginae Pongo (Orangutans) Bornean orangutan (P. pygmaeus) Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii) Tapanuli orangutan (P. tapanuliensis) Homininae Gorilla (Gorillas) Western gorilla (G. gorilla) Eastern gorilla (G. beringei) Hominini Pan (Chimpanzees) Common chimpanzee (P. troglodytes) Bonobo (P. paniscus) Homo (Humans) Human H. s. sapiens Category v t e Ape-related articles Extant ape species Human (Homo sapiens) Chimpanzee (Pan spp.) Bonobo (Pan paniscus) Common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Gorilla (Gorilla spp.) Western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) Eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei) Orangutan (Pongo spp.) Bornean orangutan (Pongo abelii) Sumatran orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) Tapanuli orangutan (Pongo tapanuliensis) Gibbon (family: Hylobatidae) Study of apes Ape language Dian Fossey Birutė Galdikas Jane Goodall Chimpanzee genome project Human genome project Neanderthal genome project Willie Smits Lone Drøscher Nielsen Ian Redmond Elgin Center Iowa Primate Learning Sanctuary Borneo Orangutan Survival Legal and social status Personhood Research ban Kinshasa Declaration Great Ape Project Survival Project International Primate Day See also List of individual apes (non-human) Apes in space (non-human) Bigfoot Bushmeat Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor List of fictional primates (non-human) Great apes Human evolution Monkey Day Mythic humanoids Yeren Yeti Authority control GND: 4169430-2 Anthropology portal Evolutionary biology portal Science portal Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hominidae&oldid=820172350" Categories: ApesHuman evolutionPrimate familiesMessinian first appearancesExtant Miocene first appearancesTaxa named by John Edward GrayHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listCS1 Indonesian-language sources (id)Use dmy dates from February 2015Articles with 'species' microformatsAll articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrasesArticles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2012All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from July 2014Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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Hominid - Photos and All Basic Informations

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