Contents 1 Description 1.1 Flowers and flower-heads 1.2 Bracts, stems and leaves 2 Ecology 3 Distribution 4 Species 4.1 Europe 4.2 North America 5 Plant pest 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links


Description[edit] Flowers and flower-heads[edit] Hieracium or hawkweeds, like others in the Asteraceae family, have mostly yellow,[11] tightly packed flower-heads of numerous small flowers[8] but, unlike daisies and sunflowers in the same family, they have not two kinds of florets but only strap-shaped (spatulate) florets, each one of which is a complete flower in itself, not lacking stamens,[11] and joined to the stem by leafy bracts. As in other members of the tribe Cichorieae, each ray corolla is tipped by 3 to 5 teeth.[8] Bracts, stems and leaves[edit] Erect single, glabrous or hairy stems, sometimes branched away from the point of attachment, sometimes branched throughout. The hairiness of hawkweeds can be very complex: from surfaces with scattered to crowded, tapered, whiplike, straight or curly, smooth to setae; "stellate-pubescent" or surfaces with scattered to crowded, dendritically branched (often called, but seldom truly, "stellate") hairs; and "stipitate-glandular" or surfaces with scattered to crowded gland-tipped hairs mostly. Surfaces of stems, leaves, peduncles, and phyllaries may be glabrous or may bear one, two, or all three of the types of hairs mentioned above.[12] Like the other members of the Chicory tribe, hawkweeds contain a milky latex.[11]


Ecology[edit] The Large Yellow Underwing (Noctua pronuba) feeds on Hieracium species.


Distribution[edit] Hieracium species are native to Africa,[12]Asia, Europe, North America,[13] Central America and South America.


Species[edit] Main article: List of Hieracium species The classification of Hieracium into species is notoriously difficult. One reason is the apomictic reproduction (in which plants asexually produce seeds), which tends to produce a lot of minor geographical variation. Over 9000 species names have been published in Hieracium but some botanists regard many of those as synonyms of larger species.[12] Europe[edit] Hieracium attenboroughianum – Attenborough’s hawkweed Hieracium lucidum Guss. – Sicilian Sparviere Hieracium insolitum (Zahn) Üksip Hieracium villosum Jacq. North America[edit] The list below is a selection of species that have been accepted by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service[1] and Canada.[14] A more complete list is given in the list of Hieracium species. Hieracium albertinum – houndstongue hawkweed Hieracium albiflorum Hook. – white hawkweed Hieracium × alleghaniense Britt. (pro sp.) Hieracium argutum Nutt. – southern hawkweed Hieracium × atramentarium (Naegeli & Peter) Zahn ex Engl. (pro sp.) Hieracium atratum Fries – polar hawkweed Hieracium aurantiacum L. – orange hawkweed Hieracium bolanderi Gray – Bolander's hawkweed Hieracium × brachiatum Berth. ex DC. Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. – meadow hawkweed Hieracium canadense Michx. – Canada hawkweed Hieracium carneum Greene – Huachuca hawkweed Hieracium × fassettii Lepage Hieracium fendleri Schultz-Bip. – yellow hawkweed Hieracium × fernaldii Lepage Hieracium flagellare Willd. – whiplash hawkweed Hieracium floribundum Wimmer & Grab. – kingdevil hawkweed Hieracium × fuscatrum Naegeli & Peter (pro sp.) Hieracium glomeratum Froel. – queen-devil hawkweed Hieracium gracile Hook. – slender hawkweed Hieracium greenei Gray – Greene's hawkweed Hieracium greenii Porter & Britt. – Maryland hawkweed Hieracium × grohii Lepage Hieracium gronovii L. – queendevil Hieracium horridum Fries – prickly hawkweed Hieracium kalmii L. – Kalm's hawkweed Hieracium lachenalii K.C. Gmel. – common hawkweed Hieracium lactucella Wallr. – European hawkweed Hieracium laevigatum Willd. – smooth hawkweed Hieracium lemmonii Gray – Lemmon's hawkweed Hieracium longiberbe T.J. Howell – longbeard hawkweed Hieracium longipilum Torr. – hairy hawkweed Hieracium maculatum Sm. – spotted hawkweed Hieracium marianum Willd. – Maryland hawkweed Hieracium megacephalum Nash – coastal plain hawkweed Hieracium murorum L. – wall hawkweed Hieracium paniculatum L. – Allegheny hawkweed Hieracium parryi Zahn in H.G.A. Engler – Parry hawkweed Hieracium pilosella L. – mouse-ear hawkweed Hieracium piloselloides Vill. – tall hawkweed Hieracium praealtum Vill. ex Gochnat – kingdevil Hieracium pringlei Gray – Pringle's hawkweed Hieracium robinsonii (Zahn) Fern. – Robinson's hawkweed Hieracium rusbyi Greene – Rusby's hawkweed Hieracium sabaudum L. – New England hawkweed Hieracium scabrum Michx. – rough hawkweed Hieracium schultzii Fries – roughstem hawkweed Hieracium scouleri Hook. – Scouler's woollyweed Hieracium scribneri Small – Scribner's hawkweed Hieracium traillii – Maryland hawkweed Hieracium triste Willd. ex Spreng. – woolly hawkweed Hieracium umbellatum L. – narrowleaf hawkweed Hieracium venosum L. – rattlesnakeweed


Plant pest[edit] All species of the genus Hieracium are classed as invasive species throughout New Zealand. They are banned from sale, propagation and distribution under the National Pest Plant Accord. Hieracium is a pasture weed that reduces available feed for livestock and displaces the indigenous plants.[15] It is a particular threat in alpine ecosystems previously dominated by native tussocks, though it will colonise habitats from bare ground, to exotic pine forest, to native Southern Beech forest.[16] In the United States, many species of Hieracium have been introduced and all species present are considered noxious weeds in one or more states.[17] In Australia, hawkweeds are invasive pests in alpine regions, all species of Hieracium are listed or declared under various State Acts.[18]


References[edit] ^ a b c Natural Resources Conservation Service (2007). "Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Genus Hieracium L". The PLANTS Database. USDA, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. Retrieved 2007-12-18.  ^ International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI). "Vascular Plants of Russia and Adjacent Countries as of 26.10.96". Provisional Global Plant Checklist. International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI). Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2007-12-17.  ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network. "Genus: Hieracium L". (GRIN) Online Database. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved 2007-12-23.  ^ "Guide to the Pronunciation of Specific, Generic and Family Names". Southern California Wildflowers. Retrieved 2007-12-22.  ^ Charters, Michael L. "HI-HY". California Plant Names: Latin and Greek Meanings and Derivations A Dictionary of Botanical Etymology. Retrieved 2007-12-26.  ^ Cooperative extension service, Matthew J. Rinella and Roger L. Sheley (December 2002). "Orange and Meadow Hawkweed, 199816". MontGuide fact sheet (Reprint ed.). Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University - Bozeman. Archived from the original on 2007-08-14. Retrieved 2007-12-22.  ^ International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI). "Plant Name Search Results". International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 2007-12-17.  ^ a b c Peterson Field Guide, Theodore F. Niehaus (1976). Pacific States Wildflowers. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Illustrations by Charles L. Ripper. New York, New York 100003: Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 102, 220. ISBN 0-395-91095-1.  ^ International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI). "Details for: Hieracium". Provisional Global Plant Checklist. Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2007-12-17.  ^ Edsall, Marion (2007-12-15) [1985]. Roadside Plants and Flowers A Traveler's Guide to the Midwest and Great Lakes Area. Cover design: Bruce Gore. 114 North Murray Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53715: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-299-09704-8. Dewey 582.0977. A dry roadside dotted with small, 3/4 inch red orange flowers, interspersed with very similar yellow ones, and often the white of daisies, is a good sign that you are in Hawkweed country.  ^ a b c Mrs M. Grieve (1933). "Hawkweed, Wood". A Modern Herbal. botanical.com. Retrieved 2007-12-16.  ^ a b c John L. Strother. "Hieracium in Flora of North America". FNA Vol. 19, 20 and 21. efloras.org. pp. Page 219, 278, 279. Retrieved 2007-12-16.  ^ Natural Resources Conservation Service (2007). "PLANTS Profile for Hieracium L". The PLANTS Database. USDA, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. Retrieved 2007-12-18.  ^ Key to Identification of Invasive and Native Hawkweeks (Hieracium spp.) in the Pacific Northwest, BC Ministry of Forests ^ "Hieracium species Detailed information sheet". The Weedbusters Management Committee (www.weedbusters.co.nz). Archived from the original on 2010-05-15. Retrieved 2010-05-02.  ^ "Genetic diversity in tussock hawkweed (Hieracium lepidulum) and use of allele frequencies for identifying patterns of spread" (PDF).  ^ "Hieracium L._hawkweed_USDA NRCS".  ^ http://invasives.org.au/blog/hawkweeds-a-recent-discovery-in-victorias-alps-and-a-taxonomic-name-change/


Further reading[edit] Espie, Peter (2001). Hieracium in New Zealand: ecology and management. Mosgiel: AgResearch. ISBN 0-478-20900-2.  McCosh, D. and Rich, T.C.G. 209. Hieracium proximum (Caithness Hawkweed) in Ireland. Ir. Nat J. 30: 54. Rich, T.C.G., Cotton, D.C.F., Hood, R.L.I.B., Houston, L., McCosh, J. and Jackson, M.B.W. 2009. Conservation of Ireland's biodiversity: status of the Irish endemic Hieracium basalticola Pugsley (Basalt Hawkweed) (Asteraceae). Ir. Nat J. 30: 79–89.


External links[edit] Data related to Hieracium at Wikispecies Media related to Hieracium at Wikimedia Commons Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). "Standard Report Hieracium". Retrieved 2007-12-18.  Nicklas Strömberg. "Hieracium on GlobalTwitcher.com". Images on Hieracium found in Sweden. GlobalTwitcher.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2008-06-15.  Jan Suda; Anna Krahulcová; Pavel Trávnícek; Radka Rosenbaumová; Tomás Peckert; Frantisek Krahulec (7 October 2007). "Genome Size Variation and Species Relationships in Hieracium Sub-genus Pilosella (Asteraceae) as Inferred by Flow Cytometry". Annals of Botany. Oxford Journals. Retrieved 2007-12-16.  College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID. "Hawkweeds". Hawkweed Identification, Management and Research. Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences. Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2007-12-16. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands. "Orange Hawkweed (Hieracium aurantiacum)". Field Guide to Noxious and Other Selected Weeds of British Columbia. Retrieved 2007-12-16.  "Hieracium Management Gateway". Tussock Grassland Management Information System. Archived from the original on 2008-10-14. Retrieved 2009-01-12.  Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hieracium&oldid=818033193" Categories: HieraciumAsteraceae generaHidden categories: Articles with 'species' microformatsArticles with attributed pull quotesCS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list


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