Contents 1 USDA hardiness zones 1.1 Criticism 1.2 Alternatives 2 European hardiness zones 2.1 Ireland and UK 2.2 Northern Europe 2.3 Central Europe 2.4 Southern Europe 2.5 European cities 3 United States hardiness zones 3.1 Updates 3.2 U.S. cities 3.3 Climate change projections 4 Australian hardiness zones 5 Canadian hardiness zones 6 American Horticultural Society heat zones 6.1 European cities (AHS heat zones) 7 South Africa 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

USDA hardiness zones[edit] Zone From To 0 a < −53.9 °C (−65 °F) b −53.9 °C (−65 °F) −51.1 °C (−60 °F) 1 a −51.1 °C (−60 °F) −48.3 °C (−55 °F) b −48.3 °C (−55 °F) −45.6 °C (−50 °F) 2 a −45.6 °C (−50 °F) −42.8 °C (−45 °F) b −42.8 °C (−45 °F) −40 °C (−40 °F) 3 a −40 °C (−40 °F) −37.2 °C (−35 °F) b −37.2 °C (−35 °F) −34.4 °C (−30 °F) 4 a −34.4 °C (−30 °F) −31.7 °C (−25 °F) b −31.7 °C (−25 °F) −28.9 °C (−20 °F) 5 a −28.9 °C (−20 °F) −26.1 °C (−15 °F) b −26.1 °C (−15 °F) −23.3 °C (−10 °F) 6 a −23.3 °C (−10 °F) −20.6 °C (−5 °F) b −20.6 °C (−5 °F) −17.8 °C (0 °F) 7 a −17.8 °C (0 °F) −15 °C (5 °F) b −15 °C (5 °F) −12.2 °C (10 °F) 8 a −12.2 °C (10 °F) −9.4 °C (15 °F) b −9.4 °C (15 °F) −6.7 °C (20 °F) 9 a −6.7 °C (20 °F) −3.9 °C (25 °F) b −3.9 °C (25 °F) −1.1 °C (30 °F) 10 a −1.1 °C (30 °F) +1.7 °C (35 °F) b +1.7 °C (35 °F) +4.4 °C (40 °F) 11 a +4.4 °C (40 °F) +7.2 °C (45 °F) b +7.2 °C (45 °F) +10 °C (50 °F) 12 a +10 °C (50 °F) +12.8 °C (55 °F) b > +12.8 °C (55 °F) Criticism[edit] The hardiness zones are informative: the extremes of winter cold are a major determinant of whether a plant species can be cultivated outdoors at a particular location; however, the USDA hardiness zones have a number of drawbacks if used without supplementary information. The zones do not incorporate summer heat levels into the zone determination; thus sites which may have the same mean winter minima, but markedly different summer temperatures, will be accorded the same hardiness zone. Thus a zone 8 cool-summer climate like Seattle or London do not have the nearly as many growing degree days as a zone 8 or 9 hot-summer climate like Charleston, South Carolina, or Madrid, Spain.[citation needed] In the colder zones (zones 6 - 3), another issue is that the hardiness zones do not take into account the reliability of the snow cover. Snow acts as an insulator against extreme cold, protecting the root system of hibernating plants. If the snow cover is reliable, the actual temperature to which the roots are exposed will not be as low as the hardiness zone number would indicate. As an example, Quebec City in Canada is located in zone 4, but can rely on a significant snow cover every year, making it possible to cultivate plants normally rated for zones 5 or 6. But, in Montreal, located to the southwest in zone 5, it is sometimes difficult to cultivate plants adapted to the zone because of the unreliable snow cover.[citation needed] Other factors that affect plant survival, though not considered in hardiness zones, are soil moisture, humidity, the number of days of frost, and the risk of a rare catastrophic cold snap. Some risk evaluation – the probability of getting a particularly severe low temperature – often would be more useful than just the average conditions.[citation needed] Lastly, many plants may survive in a locality but will not flower if the day length is insufficient or if they require vernalization (a particular duration of low temperature). With annuals, the time of planting can often be adjusted to allow growth beyond their normal geographical range.[citation needed] Alternatives[edit] An alternative means of describing plant hardiness is to use "indicator plants". In this method, common plants with known limits to their range are used. Sunset publishes a series that breaks up climate zones more finely than the USDA zones, identifying 45 distinct zones in the US, incorporating ranges of temperatures in all seasons, precipitation, wind patterns, elevation, and length and structure of the growing season.[1]

European hardiness zones[edit] Ireland and UK[edit] Britain and Ireland's hardiness zones Owing to the moderating effect of the North Atlantic Current on the Irish and British temperate maritime climate, Britain, and Ireland even more so, have milder winters than their northerly position would otherwise afford. This means that the hardiness zones relevant to Britain and Ireland are quite high, from 7 to 10, as shown below. 7. In Scotland the Grampians, Highlands and locally in the Southern Uplands, in England the Pennines and in Wales the highest part of Snowdonia. 8. Most of England, Wales and Scotland, parts of central Ireland, and Snaefell on the Isle of Man. 9. Most of western and southern England and Wales, western Scotland, also a very narrow coastal fringe on the east coast of Scotland and northeast England (within 5 km of the North Sea), London, the West Midlands Urban Area, most of Ireland, and most of the Isle of Man. 10. Very low-lying coastal areas of the southwest of Ireland and the Isles of Scilly. In 2012 the United Kingdom's Royal Horticultural Society introduced new hardiness ratings for plants, from H7, the hardiest (tolerant of temperatures below -20°C) to H1a (needing temperatures above 15°C).[2] Northern Europe[edit] Scandinavia lies at the same latitude as Alaska or Greenland, but the effect of the warm North Atlantic Current is even more pronounced here than it is in Britain and Ireland. Save for a very small spot near Karasjok, Norway, which is in zone 2, nowhere in the Arctic part of Scandinavia does it get below zone 3. The Faroe Islands, at 62–63°N are in zone 8, as are the outer Lofoten Islands at 68°N. Tromsø, a coastal city in Norway at 70°N, is in zone 7, and even Longyearbyen, the northernmost true city in the world at 78°N, is still in zone 5. All these coastal locations have one thing in common, though, which are cold, damp summers, with temperatures rarely exceeding 20 °C (68 °F), or 15 °C (59 °F) in Longyearbyen. This shows the importance of taking heat zones into account for better understanding of what may or may not grow. A garden in Simrishamn, southern Sweden. In Sweden and Finland generally, at sea level to 500 metres (1,600 ft), zone 3 is north of the Arctic Circle, including cities like Karesuando, Pajala and Rovaniemi. Kiruna is the major exception here, which being located on a hill above frost traps, is in zone 5. Zone 4 lies between the Arctic Circle and about 64–65°N, with cities such as Oulu and Jokkmokk, zone 5 (south to 61–62°N) contains cities such as Tampere, Umeå and Östersund. Zone 6 covers the south of mainland Finland, Sweden north of 60°N, and the high plateau of Småland further south. Here one will find cities such as Gävle, Örebro, Sundsvall and Helsinki. The Åland Islands, as well as coastal Southern Sweden, and the Stockholm area are in zone 7. The west coast of Sweden (Gothenburg and southwards) enjoys particularly mild winters and lies in zone 7, therefore being friendly to some hardy exotic species (found, for example, in the Gothenburg Botanical Garden), the southeast coast of Sweden has a colder winter due to the absence of the Gulf Stream. Denmark has zones 9a, 8b, and 8a.[3] Central Europe[edit] Central Europe is a good example of a transition from an oceanic climate to a continental climate, which can be noticed immediately when looking at the hardiness zones, which tend to decrease mainly eastwards instead of northwards. Also, the plateaux and low mountain ranges in this region have a significant impact on how cold it might get during winter. Generally speaking, the hardiness zones are high considering the latitude of the region, although not as high as in the Shetland Islands where zone 9 extends to over 60°N. In Central Europe, the relevant zones decrease from zone 8 on the Belgian, Dutch and German North Sea coast, with the exception of some of the Frisian Islands (notably Vlieland and Terschelling), the island of Heligoland and some of the islands in the Rhine-Scheldt estuary, which are in zone 9, to zone 5 around Suwałki, Podlachia on the far eastern border between Poland and Lithuania. Some isolated, high elevation areas of the Alps and Carpathians may even go down to zone 3 or 4. An extreme example of a cold sink is Funtensee, Bavaria which is at least in zone 3 and maybe even in zone 1 or 2. Another notable example is Waksmund, a small village in the Polish Carpathians, which regularly reaches −35 °C (−31 °F) during winter on calm nights when cold and heavy airmasses from the surrounding Gorce and Tatra Mountains descend down the slopes to this low-lying valley, creating extremes which can be up to 10 °C (18 °F) colder than nearby Nowy Targ or Białka Tatrzańska, which are both higher up in elevation. Waksmund is in zone 3b while nearby Kraków, only 80 km (50 mi) to the north and 300 m (980 ft) lower is in zone 6a. These examples prove that local topography can have a pronounced effect on temperature and thus on what is possible to grow in a specific region. Southern Europe[edit] The southern European marker plant for climate as well as cultural indicator is the olive tree, which cannot withstand long periods below zero so its cultivation area matches the cool winter zone. The Mediterranean Sea acts as a temperature regulator, so this area is generally warmer than other parts of the continent; except in mountainous areas where the sea effect lowers, it belongs in zones 8–10; however, southern Balkans (mountainous- Western and Eastern Serbia, continental Croatia and Bulgaria) are colder in winter and are in zones 6–7. The Croatian (Dalmatian) coast, Albania and northern Greece are in zones 8–9, as are central-northern Italy (hills and some spots in Po Valley are however colder) and southern France; Central Iberia is 8–9 (some areas are slightly colder). The Spanish and Portuguese Atlantic coast, most of Andalusia and Murcia, almost all the Valencian Community, a part of Catalonia, Balearic Islands, southwestern Sardinia, most of Sicily, coastal southern Italy and southwestern Greece are in zone 10, the islands of Malta, Lampedusa and the southern zone of Spain (Málaga, Cádiz and Granada, where there is mango and avocado cultivation) belong to zone 11a.[4] Also, a few areas on the southernmost coast of Cyprus are inside zone 11a. European cities[edit] The table below provides hardiness zone data for some European cities (based on climatological data):[5][6][7] City Zone City Zone Alicante, Spain 10b Almería, Spain 11a Amsterdam, The Netherlands 8b Antwerp, Belgium 8 Barcelona, Spain 10a Belfast, Northern Ireland 9 Berlin, Germany 7b Bratislava, Slovakia 7b Birmingham, England 9a Bucharest, Romania 6b Cardiff, Wales 9 Catania, Italy 10 Belgrade, Serbia 8a Copenhagen, Denmark 8a Dublin, Ireland 9a Düsseldorf, Germany 8 Edinburgh, Scotland 8b Gdańsk, Poland 7 Glasgow, Scotland 8b Hamburg, Germany 8a Helsinki, Finland 6a Istanbul, Turkey 8b Kaliningrad, Russia 6 Kiev, Ukraine 6a Kraków, Poland 6 Lisbon, Portugal 10b Las Palmas, Spain 12b A Coruña, Spain 10b Ljubljana, Slovenia 7b London, England 9a Madrid, Spain 9a Málaga, Spain 11a Marseille, France 9a Milan, Italy 8b Minsk, Belarus 5b Moscow, Russia 5a Munich, Germany 7b Murmansk, Russia 5 Nicosia, Cyprus 10a Oslo, Norway 6a Simferopol, Ukraine 7a Palma, Spain 10a Paris, France 8b Poznań, Poland 7a Prague, Czech Republic 7a Reykjavík, Iceland 8a Riga, Latvia 6a Rome, Italy 9b Rovaniemi, Finland 4 Saint Petersburg, Russia 5b Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina 7b Santander, Spain 10a Simrishamn, Sweden 8a Sochi, Russia 9 Sofia, Bulgaria 7a Stockholm, Sweden 6b Strasbourg, France 7 Tallinn, Estonia 6b Tuapse, Russia 8 Tórshavn, Faroe Islands 7-8 Tromsø, Norway 7 Trondheim, Norway 6 Umeå, Sweden 5 Valencia, Spain 10b Valletta, Malta 10b Vienna, Austria 8a Vilnius, Lithuania 6 Vorkuta, Russia 2 Warsaw, Poland 6b Wroclaw, Poland 7a Zagreb, Croatia 8a Zürich, Switzerland 8a Zaragoza, Spain 8b

United States hardiness zones[edit] In the United States, most of the warmer zones (zones 8, 9, 10, and 11) are located in the southern half of the country and on the Pacific coast. The low latitude and often stable weather in the far southwestern states, California, and Florida are responsible for the few episodes of severe cold relative to normal in those areas. The more northerly and central portions of the USA have the cooler zones (zones 7, 6, 5, and 4). The central and northerly portions of the mainland often have much less consistent range of temperatures in winter due to being more continental, and thus the zone map has its limitations in these areas. Updates[edit] 2012 update of the Hardiness Zone Map The USDA first issued its standardized hardiness zone map in 1960, and issued revisions in 1965, 1990, and 2012. In 2003, the American Horticultural Society (AHS) produced a draft revised map, using temperature data collected from July 1986 to March 2002. The 2003 map placed many areas approximately a half-zone higher (warmer) than the USDA's 1990 map. Reviewers noted the map zones appeared to be closer to the original USDA 1960 map in its overall zone delineations. Their map purported to show finer detail, for example, reflecting urban heat islands by showing the downtown areas of several cities (e.g., Baltimore, Maryland; Washington, D.C. and Atlantic City, New Jersey) as a full zone warmer than outlying areas. The map excluded the detailed a/b half-zones introduced in the USDA's 1990 map, an omission widely criticized by horticulturists and gardeners due to the coarseness of the resulting map. The USDA rejected the AHS 2003 draft map and created its own map in an interactive computer format, that the American Horticultural Society now uses.[8] In 2006, the Arbor Day Foundation released an update of U.S. hardiness zones, using mostly the same data as the AHS. It revised hardiness zones, reflecting generally warmer recent temperatures in many parts of the country, and appeared similar to the AHS 2003 draft. The Foundation also did away with the more detailed a/b half-zone delineations.[9] In 2012 the USDA updated their plant hardiness map based on 1976–2005 weather data, using a longer period of data to smooth out year-to-year weather fluctuations.[10] Two new zones were added to better define and improve information sharing on tropical and semitropical plants, they also appear on the maps of Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The map has a higher resolution than previous ones, and is able to show local variations due to things such as elevation or large bodies of water. Many zone boundaries were changed as a result of the more recent data, as well as new mapping methods and additional information gathered. Many areas are a half zone warmer, but since the zones are determined by a region's extreme weather events instead of overall temperature averages and it only reflects the past 30 years, it is not reliable evidence of whether there has been global warming.[11] The 2012 map was created digitally for the internet, and includes a ZIP Code zone finder and an interactive map. U.S. cities[edit] The USDA plant hardiness zones for U.S. cities as based on the 2012 map are the following: City Zone City Zone Albuquerque, New Mexico 7b Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 7a Anchorage, Alaska 4b/5a Omaha, Nebraska 5b Atlanta, Georgia 7b/8a Orlando, Florida 9b Baltimore, Maryland 7b/8a Owensboro, Kentucky 6b Boston, Massachusetts 6b/7a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 7a/7b Buffalo, New York 6a Phoenix, Arizona 9b/10a Burlington, Vermont 5a Pierre, South Dakota 4b/5a Charleston, West Virginia 6b Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 6b Chicago, Illinois 6a Portland, Maine 5b Charlotte, North Carolina 7b/8a Portland, Oregon 8b/9a Columbus, Ohio 6a Quad Cities, Iowa/Illinois 5b Dallas, Texas 8a/8b Raleigh, North Carolina 7b Denver, Colorado 5b/6a Reno, Nevada 6b/7a Detroit, Michigan 6b Roanoke, Virginia 7a/7b Fairbanks, Alaska 2a Kansas City, Missouri 6a/6b Hartford, Connecticut 6b Salt Lake City, Utah 7a/7b Honolulu, Hawaii 12b San Antonio, Texas 8b/9a Houston, Texas 9a San Diego, California 10a/10b Indianapolis, Indiana 5b/6a San Francisco, California 10a/10b Las Vegas, Nevada 9a San Jose, California 9b/10a Los Angeles, California 10a/10b San Juan, Puerto Rico 12b/13a Memphis, Tennessee 7b/8a Savannah, Georgia 8b Miami, Florida 11a/11b Seattle, Washington 8b Minneapolis, Minnesota 4b/5a Tampa, Florida 9b/10a Nashville, Tennessee 7a Tucson, Arizona 9b New Orleans, Louisiana 9b Tuscaloosa, Alabama 8a New York, New York 7a/7b Washington, D.C. 7b/8a Norfolk, Virginia 8a Wichita, Kansas 6b Climate change projections[edit] Recent research suggests that USDA plant hardiness zones will shift northward under climate change.[12]

Australian hardiness zones[edit] The USDA hardiness zones are in use in Australia, but in addition the Australian National Botanic Gardens have devised another system more in keeping with Australian conditions.[13] They are numerically about 6 lower than the USDA system. For example, Australian zone 3 is roughly equivalent to USDA zone 9. The higher Australian zone numbers have no US equivalents. There are problems with classifications of this type: the spread of weather stations is insufficient to give clear zones and too many places with different climates are lumped together. Only 738 Australian stations have records of more than ten years (one station per 98,491 hectares or 243,380 acres), though more populated areas have relatively fewer hectares per station. Local factors such as aspect, altitude, proximity to the sea also complicate the matter. For example, Mount Isa has three climatic stations with more than a ten-year record. One is in zone 4a, one in zone 4b and the other is in zone 5a. Likewise, Sydney residents are split between zones 3a and 4b. Most other cities have similar problems. Different locations in the same city are suitable for different plants, making it hard to draw a meaningful map without publishing a list of weather stations and their zone classification to allow best use of local conditions.

Canadian hardiness zones[edit] Climate variables that reflect the capacity and detriments to plant growth are used to develop an index that is mapped to Canada's Plant Hardiness Zones.[14] This index comes from a formula originally developed by Ouellet and Sherk.[15] [16] [17] Their formula is: Y = -67.62 + 1.734X₁ + 0.1868X₂ + 69.77X₃ + 1.256X₄ + 0.006119X₅ + 22.37X₆ - 0.01832X₇ where: Y = estimated index of suitability X₁ = monthly mean of the daily minimum temperatures (°C) of the coldest month X₂ = mean frost free period above 0 °C in days X₃ = amount of rainfall (R) from June to November, inclusive, in terms of R/(R+a) where a=25.4 if R is in millimeters and a=1 if R is in inches X₄ = monthly mean of the daily maximum temperatures (°C) of the warmest month X₅ = winter factor expressed in terms of (0 °C - X₁)Rjan where Rjan represents the rainfall in January expressed in mm X₆ = mean maximum snow depth in terms of S/(S+a) where a=25.4 if S is in millimeters and a=1 if S is in inches X₇ = maximum wind gust in (km/hr) in 30 years For practical purposes, Canada has adopted the American hardiness zone classification system. The 1990 version of the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map included Canada and Mexico, but they were removed with the 2012 update to focus on the quality of the map for the United States and Puerto Rico.[11]

American Horticultural Society heat zones[edit] In addition to the USDA Hardiness zones there are American Horticultural Society (AHS) heat zones. The criterion is the average number of days per year when the temperature exceeds 30 °C (86 °F). The AHS Heat Zone Map for the US is available on the American Horticultural Society website.[18] Zone From To 1 < 1 2 1 7 3 8 14 4 15 30 5 31 45 6 46 60 7 61 90 8 91 120 9 121 150 10 151 180 11 181 210 12 >210 European cities (AHS heat zones)[edit] City Zone City Zone Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2 Antwerp, Belgium 2 Belfast, Northern Ireland 1 Berlin, Germany 3 Birmingham, England 2 Bratislava, Slovakia 4 Bucharest, Romania 6 Cardiff, Wales 1 Copenhagen, Denmark 2 Cork, Ireland 1 Derry, Northern Ireland 1 Dublin, Ireland 1 Düsseldorf, Germany 3 Edinburgh, Scotland 1 Gdańsk, Poland 2 Galway, Ireland 1 Glasgow, Scotland 1 Hamburg, Germany 2 Helsinki, Finland 2 Istanbul, Turkey 6 Kaliningrad, Russia 2 Kiev, Ukraine 4 Kraków, Poland 4 Lisbon, Portugal 7 Ljubljana, Slovenia 6 London, England 2 Madrid, Spain 7 Málaga, Spain 7 Marseille, France 7 Milan, Italy 6 Minsk, Belarus 3 Moscow, Russia 2 Munich, Germany 3 Murmansk, Russia 1 Nicosia, Cyprus 9 Oslo, Norway 2 Oulu, Finland 1 Palma, Spain 8 Paris, France 3 Perm, Russia 3 Prague, Czech Republic 3 Reykjavík, Iceland 1 Riga, Latvia 2 Rome, Italy 7 Rovaniemi, Finland 1 Saint Petersburg, Russia 2 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina 5 Santander, Spain 3 Simrishamn, Sweden 1 Sochi, Russia 6 Sofia, Bulgaria 6 Stockholm, Sweden 2 Strasbourg, France 4 Tallinn, Estonia 2 Tuapse, Russia 7 Tórshavn, Faroe Islands 1 Tromsø, Norway 1 Trondheim, Norway 1 Umeå, Sweden 1 Vienna, Austria 4 Vilnius, Lithuania 2 Vorkuta, Russia 1 Warsaw, Poland 3 Zürich, Switzerland 4

South Africa[edit] South Africa has five horticultural or climatic zones.[19]

See also[edit] Agriculture Tropics Subtropics Gardening Hardiness (plants) Geographical zone

References[edit] ^ Sunset National Garden Book. Sunset Books Inc. Menlo Park, California (1997) ^ "RHS hardiness rating". RHS hardiness rating. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 24 September 2016.  ^ ^ ^ "Hardiness zone - - Plant Encyclopedia and Gardening wiki". Retrieved 2012-10-13.  ^ "Europa Hardiness zone map". Retrieved 2012-10-13.  ^ "Hardiness Zones". Retrieved 2012-10-13.  ^ "USDA Hardiness Zone Map". American Horticultural Society. Retrieved 8 December 2017.  ^ "New Hardiness Zone Map reflects warmer climate : Latest hardiness zones, based on most current temperature data available, suggest up-to-date choices for best trees to plant". Retrieved 2007-12-27.  ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map, 2012". Agricultural Research Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 7 December 2017.  ^ a b "What's New | USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Agricultural Research Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 7 December 2017.  ^ Parker, Lauren E.; Abatzoglou, John T. (2016). "Projected changes in cold hardiness zones and suitable overwinter ranges of perennial crops over the United States". Environmental Research Letters. 11 (3): 034001. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/3/034001. ISSN 1748-9326.  ^ "Plant Hardiness Zones for Australia". Retrieved 2010-11-11.  ^ "Canada's Plant Hardiness Site". Retrieved 2015-10-01.  ^ Ouellet, C.E., Sherk, L.C. 1967a. Woody ornamental plant zonation I. Indices of winter hardiness. Can J. Plant Sci. 47:231-238. ^ Ouellet, C.E., Sherk, L.C. 1967b. Woody ornamental plant zonation. II. Suitability indices of localities. Can J. Plant Sci. 47: 339-349. ^ Ouellet, C.E., Sherk, L.C. 1967c. Woody ornamental plant zonation III. Suitability map for the probable winter survival of ornamental trees and shrubs. Can J. Plant Sci. 47: 351-358. ^ "AHS Plant Heat Zone Map". American Horticultural Society. Retrieved 2017-05-26.  ^ PlantZAfrica 2016, Horticultural Zones

Bibliography[edit] "PlantZAfrica". SANBI. Retrieved 14 November 2016. 

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